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Tree mode of death and mortality risk factors across Amazon forests
Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Chao, Kuo Jung ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Higuchi, Niro ; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanne ; Lloyd, Jon ; Liu, Haiyan ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Poorter, Lourens ; Silveira, Marcos ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Dávila, Esteban Alvarez ; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon del; Almeida, Everton ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Baisie, Michel ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Blanc, Lilian ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Boot, René ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerome ; Comiskey, James ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Costa, Antonio Lola da; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Erwin, Terry ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Herrera, Rafael ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Killeen, Timothy ; Laurance, Susan ; Laurance, William ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Ladvocat, Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaço ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Meir, Patrick ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Morandi, Paulo ; Neill, David ; Nogueira Lima, Adriano José ; Vargas, Percy Nuñez ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Pardo, Guido ; Peacock, Julie ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Prieto, Adriana ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Quesada, Carlos ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Rejou-Machain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Rudas, Agustín ; Salomão, Rafael ; Serrano, Julio ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Silva, Natalino ; Singh, James ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Swamy, Varun ; Talbot, Joey ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Toledo, Marisol ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Meer, Peter van der; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Vos, Vincent ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zuidema, Pieter ; Galbraith, David - \ 2020
Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723
The carbon sink capacity of tropical forests is substantially affected by tree mortality. However, the main drivers of tropical tree death remain largely unknown. Here we present a pan-Amazonian assessment of how and why trees die, analysing over 120,000 trees representing > 3800 species from 189 long-term RAINFOR forest plots. While tree mortality rates vary greatly Amazon-wide, on average trees are as likely to die standing as they are broken or uprooted—modes of death with different ecological consequences. Species-level growth rate is the single most important predictor of tree death in Amazonia, with faster-growing species being at higher risk. Within species, however, the slowest-growing trees are at greatest risk while the effect of tree size varies across the basin. In the driest Amazonian region species-level bioclimatic distributional patterns also predict the risk of death, suggesting that these forests are experiencing climatic conditions beyond their adaptative limits. These results provide not only a holistic pan-Amazonian picture of tree death but large-scale evidence for the overarching importance of the growth–survival trade-off in driving tropical tree mortality.
Parasite infestation influences life history but not boldness behavior in placental live-bearing fish
Hagmayer, Andres ; Furness, Andrew I. ; Pollux, Bart J.A. - \ 2020
Oecologia (2020). - ISSN 0029-8549
Matrotrophy - Parasites - Placenta - Poeciliidae - Poeciliopsis retropinna
Parasites can negatively affect the reproductive success of hosts. Placental species may be particularly susceptible, because parasite-induced stress during pregnancy could potentially influence embryo development. Here, we examine the consequences of a trematode infestation (black spot disease, BSD) for fetal development and adult behavior in 19 natural populations of the placental live-bearing fish species Poeciliopsis retropinna (Poeciliidae) in Costa Rica. First, we observed substantial variation in parasite infestation among populations which correlated with a number of local environmental conditions (elevation, river width, depth, and flow velocity). Furthermore, we observed substantial variation in parasite infestation among females within populations associated with maternal age and size. We found that the infestation rate significantly influenced embryonic development, with more heavily parasitized females producing smaller and worse-conditioned offspring at birth, possibly, because a costly immune response during pregnancy limits, either directly or indirectly, nourishment to developing embryos. Finally, a behavioral experiment in the field showed that the infestation rate did not affect an individual’s boldness. Our study indicates that in placental live-bearing fish parasite infestation leads to reduced embryo provisioning during pregnancy, resulting in a smaller offspring size and quality at birth potentially with negative implications for offspring fitness.
Risk management framework for nano-biomaterials used in medical devices and advanced therapy medicinal products
Giubilato, Elisa ; Cazzagon, Virginia ; Amorim, Mónica J.B. ; Blosi, Magda ; Bouillard, Jacques ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Costa, Anna Luisa ; Fadeel, Bengt ; Fernandes, Teresa F. ; Fito, Carlos ; Hauser, Marina ; Marcomini, Antonio ; Nowack, Bernd ; Pizzol, Lisa ; Powell, Leagh ; Prina-Mello, Adriele ; Sarimveis, Haralambos ; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James ; Semenzin, Elena ; Stahlmecke, Burkhard ; Stone, Vicki ; Vignes, Alexis ; Wilkins, Terry ; Zabeo, Alex ; Tran, Lang ; Hristozov, Danail - \ 2020
BMC Materials 13 (2020)20. - ISSN 2524-8138 - p. 1 - 29.
Life cycle - Medical device - Nano-biomaterials - Nanomedicine - Risk management - Safe-by-design
The convergence of nanotechnology and biotechnology has led to substantial advancements in nano-biomaterials (NBMs) used in medical devices (MD) and advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). However, there are concerns that applications of NBMs for medical diagnostics, therapeutics and regenerative medicine could also pose health and/or environmental risks since the current understanding of their safety is incomplete. A scientific strategy is therefore needed to assess all risks emerging along the life cycles of these products. To address this need, an overarching risk management framework (RMF) for NBMs used in MD and ATMP is presented in this paper, as a result of a collaborative effort of a team of experts within the EU Project BIORIMA and with relevant inputs from external stakeholders. The framework, in line with current regulatory requirements, is designed according to state-of-the-art approaches to risk assessment and management of both nanomaterials and biomaterials. The collection/generation of data for NBMs safety assessment is based on innovative integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATA). The framework can support stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, regulators, consultants) in systematically assessing not only patient safety but also occupational (including healthcare workers) and environmental risks along the life cycle of MD and ATMP. The outputs of the framework enable the user to identify suitable safe(r)-by-design alternatives and/or risk management measures and to compare the risks of NBMs to their (clinical) benefits, based on efficacy, quality and cost criteria, in order to inform robust risk management decision-making.
Changes in milk lactose content as indicators for longevity and udder health in Holstein cows
Costa, A.I.A. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Penasa, M. - \ 2020
Journal of Dairy Science (2020). - ISSN 0022-0302 - 11 p.
breeding - indicator - lactose - trend - udder health
Changes in milk production traits over time might be informative of the health status of cows and may contain useful information for selective breeding purposes. In particular, early indicators are useful for traits such as longevity, which become available late in the cow's life. Lactose percentage (LP) tends to decrease in the presence of udder infection and with parity. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that cows exhibiting limited changes in LP across lactations have experienced fewer udder infections in their productive life and have a higher chance to stay longer in the herd than cows with more pronounced reduction of LP across lactations. In this study, 9 descriptors of change in LP during a cow's lifetime were defined and evaluated as potential indicators for selective breeding. For the purpose of this study, test-day records of the first 44 days in milk (DIM) of each lactation were discarded, and cows were required to have at least 5 test-days/cow per lactation (≥45 DIM) over the first 3 lactations. In this study, descriptors of LP were available for 69,586 Italian Holstein cows. Changes in LP in each lactation were quantified by regressing LP on DIM; thus, β1, β2, and β3 represented the changes in LP within lactations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Changes in LP across multiple lactations were also quantified by regressing LP on DIM (with exclusion of the first 44 DIM of each lactation); briefly, β12 was the change of LP over lactation 1 and 2, β23 was the change of LP over lactation 2 and 3, and β123 was the change of LP over lactation 1, 2, and 3. Alternatively, changes in the LP lactation means (Δ) were quantified between lactations 1 and 2 (Δ12), 2 and 3 (Δ23), and 1 and 3 (Δ13). For comparison, β and Δ were also derived for milk yield (kg/d), somatic cell score, and log-transformed total somatic cells excreted daily in milk (units). Variance components and estimated breeding values (EBV) for all β's and Δ's were estimated. In addition, EBV for bulls with at least 25 daughters were used to assess Calo's genetic correlations between descriptors of change in LP with official published EBV for functional traits. Heritabilities for β and Δ of LP ranged from 0.06 (Δ23) to 0.20 (Δ13), and differed significantly from 0. Furthermore, LP EBV for β and Δ were correlated with official EBV for functional longevity index, udder health index, udder score (mammary gland morphology) index, and milk persistency; Calo's genetic correlations of LP β123 with functional longevity and udder health index were 0.52 and 0.33, respectively. Cows with a stronger reduction of LP across lactations (i.e., stronger and negative β, and greater and positive Δ) were characterized by lower milk persistency, impaired longevity, and worse udder health and morphology than cows with smaller reduction in LP across lactations. Results highlighted that changes in milk LP have the potential to be exploited as indicators for functional traits in Italian Holstein cattle. Further research on the biological relationship between changes in LP and mastitis is recommended.
High Degree of Multiple Paternity and Reproductive Skew in the Highly Fecund Live-Bearing Fish Poecilia gillii (Family Poeciliidae)
Dekker, Myrthe L. ; Hagmayer, Andres ; Leon-Kloosterziel, Karen M. ; Furness, Andrew I. ; Pollux, Bart J.A. - \ 2020
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 8 (2020). - ISSN 2296-701X
brood size - COLONY - female size - GERUD - microsatellites - polyandry - viviparity
Multiple paternity is a common phenomenon within the live-bearing fish family Poeciliidae. There is a great variety in brood sizes of at least two orders-of-magnitude across the family. However, little is known about the ramifications of this remarkable variation for the incidence and degree of multiple paternity and reproductive skew. Mollies (subgenus Mollienesia, genus Poecilia) produce some of the largest broods in the family Poeciliidae, making them an excellent model to study the effects of intra-specific variation in brood size on patterns of multiple paternity. We collected samples of the live-bearing fish Poecilia gillii from 9 locations in Costa Rica. We measured body size of 159 adult females, of which 72 were pregnant. These samples had a mean brood size of 47.2 ± 3.0 embryos, ranging from 4 to 130 embryos. We genotyped 196 field-collected specimens with 5 microsatellite markers to obtain location-specific allele frequencies. In addition, we randomly selected 31 pregnant females, genotyped all their embryos (N = 1346) and calculated two different parameters of multiple paternity: i.e., the minimum number of sires per litter using an exclusion-based method (GERUD) and the estimated number of sires per litter using a maximum likelihood approach (COLONY). Based on these two approaches, multiple paternity was detected in 22 and 27 (out of the 31) females, respectively, with the minimum number of sires ranging from 1 to 4 (mean ± SE: 2.1 ± 0.16 sires per female) and the estimated number of fathers ranging from 1 to 9 (mean ± SE: 4.2 ± 0.35 sires per female). The number of fathers per brood was positively correlated with brood size, but not with female size. Next, we calculated the reproductive skew per brood using the estimated number of sires, and found that in 21 out of the 27 multiply sired broods sires did not contribute equally to the offspring. Skew was not correlated with either female size, brood size or the number of sires per brood. Finally, we discuss several biological mechanisms that may influence multiple paternity and reproductive skew in P. gillii as well as in the Poeciliidae in general.
Intercultural science education as a trading zone between traditional and academic knowledge
Robles-Piñeros, Jairo ; Ludwig, David ; Santos Baptista, Geilsa Costa ; Andrade, Adela Molina - \ 2020
Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences (2020). - ISSN 1369-8486
Intercultural science education requires negotiations between knowledge systems and of tensions between them. Building on ethnographic fieldwork and educational interventions in two farming communities in the Northeast of Brazil, we explore the potential of science education to mediate between traditional and academic knowledge. While traditional knowledge shapes agricultural practices and interactions with the environment in the villages of Coração de Maria and Retiro, academic knowledge is emphasized in biology education. On the basis of philosophical debates about “partial overlaps” between epistemologies, ontologies and value systems, we analyze relations between traditional and academic ecological knowledge in these communities and argue that they can inform reflective practices in intercultural dialogue. By investigating biology education as a “trading zone” between knowledge systems, we analyze how partial overlaps become negotiated in educational practices in rural Brazil and provide the basis for educational interventions that foster intercultural dialogue.
Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi B Variant Java in Poultry from Europe and Latin America
Castellanos, L.R. ; Graaf-Van Bloois, Linda Van Der; Donado-Godoy, Pilar ; Veldman, K.T. ; Duarte, Francisco ; Acuna, María T. ; Jarquín, Claudia ; Weill, Francois Xavier ; Mevius, D.J. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Hordijk, Joost ; Zomer, Aldert L. - \ 2020
Emerging Infectious Diseases 26 (2020)6. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 1164 - 1173.
Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B variant Java sequence type 28 is prevalent in poultry and poultry meat. We investigated the evolutionary relatedness between sequence type 28 strains from Europe and Latin America using time-resolved phylogeny and principal component analysis. We sequenced isolates from Colombia, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and the Netherlands and complemented them with publicly available genomes from Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. Phylogenetic time trees and effective population sizes (Ne) showed separate clustering of strains from Latin America and Europe. The separation is estimated to have occurred during the 1980s. Ne of strains increased sharply in Europe around 1995 and in Latin America around 2005. Principal component analysis on noncore genes showed a clear distinction between strains from Europe and Latin America, whereas the plasmid gene content was similar. Regardless of the evolutionary separation, similar features of resistance to β-lactams and quinolones/fluoroquinolones indicated parallel evolution of antimicrobial resistance in both regions
Asexual and sexual reproduction are two separate developmental pathways in a Termitomyces species
Vreeburg, Sabine M.E. ; Ruijter, Norbert C.A. de; Zwaan, Bas J. ; Costa, Rafael R. da; Poulsen, Michael ; Aanen, Duur K. - \ 2020
Biology Letters 16 (2020)8. - ISSN 1744-9561 - 1 p.
fungus-growing termites - mushroom formation - mutualism - nodules - symbiosis - Termitomyces
Although mutualistic symbioses per definition are beneficial for interacting species, conflict may arise if partners reproduce independently. We address how this reproductive conflict is regulated in the obligate mutualistic symbiosis between fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces fungi. Even though the termites and their fungal symbiont disperse independently to establish new colonies, dispersal is correlated in time. The fungal symbiont typically forms mushrooms a few weeks after the colony has produced dispersing alates. It is thought that this timing is due to a trade-off between alate and worker production; alate production reduces resources available for worker production. As workers consume the fungus, reduced numbers of workers will allow mushrooms to 'escape' from the host colony. Here, we test a specific version of this hypothesis: the typical asexual structures found in all species of Termitomyces-nodules-are immature stages of mushrooms that are normally harvested by the termites at a primordial stage. We refute this hypothesis by showing that nodules and mushroom primordia are macro- and microscopically different structures and by showing that in the absence of workers, primordia do, and nodules do not grow out into mushrooms. It remains to be tested whether termite control of primordia formation or of primordia outgrowth mitigates the reproductive conflict.
Pesticide risk perceptions among bystanders of aerial spraying on bananas in Costa Rica
Barraza, Douglas ; Jansen, Kees ; Wesseling, Catharina ; Wendel de Joode, Berna van - \ 2020
Environmental Research 189 (2020). - ISSN 0013-9351
Gender - Latin America - Risk knowledge - Risk reduction - School workers - Teachers
Little is known about how bystanders perceive risks from pesticide use in areas with frequent aerial spraying of pesticides. This research aims to better understand how bystanders (school workers) from three counties of the Limón province in Costa Rica, who did not have a contractual relationship with agricultural production, perceive risks of pesticides in the areas where they work and live. A face-to-face survey was carried out among 475 school workers, of whom 455 completed all 33 questions on pesticide risk perception. An exploratory factor analysis characterized underlying perceptions of pesticide exposure. Nine factors explained 40% of total variance and concerned severity and magnitude of perceived risk, manageability, benefits and support of pesticide use, amongst others. We subsequently analyzed what variables explained the five factors with satisfactory internal consistency, using separate multivariable linear regression models. Older school workers, (male) elementary teachers, and women school workers (particularly from schools situated near agricultural fields with aerial spraying of pesticides), felt greater severity and/or magnitude of risk from pesticide use. This study shows that bystanders are concerned about health risks from pesticide use. Their risk perceptions are not only shaped by gender and age like previously reported in the literature, but also by job title and geographical context. Understanding of what hazards people care about and how they deal with them is essential for successful risk management, bystanders should therefore be considered as a relevant actor in debates around pesticide issues and for informing the development of regulations and risk reduction strategies.
Honey bee colony winter loss rates for 35 countries participating in the COLOSS survey for winter 2018–2019, and the effects of a new queen on the risk of colony winter loss
Gray, Alison ; Adjlane, Noureddine ; Arab, Alieza ; Ballis, Alexis ; Brusbardis, Valters ; Charrière, Jean Daniel ; Chlebo, Robert ; F. Coffey, Mary ; Cornelissen, A.C.M. ; Amaro da Costa, Cristina ; Brodschneider, Robert - \ 2020
Journal of Apicultural Research 59 (2020)5. - ISSN 0021-8839 - p. 744 - 751.
apis mellifera - Mortality - colony winter losses - queens - queen replacement - monitoring - surveys - beekeeping - citizen science
This article presents managed honey bee colony loss rates over winter 2018/19 resulting from using the standardised COLOSS questionnaire in 35 countries (31 in Europe). In total, 28,629 beekeepers supplying valid loss data wintered 738,233 colonies, and reported 29,912 (4.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0–4.1%) colonies with unsolvable queen problems, 79,146 (10.7%, 95% CI 10.5–10.9%) dead colonies after winter and 13,895 colonies (1.9%, 95% CI 1.8–2.0%) lost through natural disaster. This gave an overall colony winter loss rate of 16.7% (95% CI 16.4–16.9%), varying greatly between countries, from 5.8% to 32.0%. We modelled the risk of loss as a dead/empty colony or from unresolvable queen problems, and found that, overall, larger beekeeping operations with more than 150 colonies experienced significantly lower losses (p < 0.001), consistent with earlier studies. Additionally, beekeepers included in this survey who did not migrate their colonies at least once in 2018 had significantly lower losses than those migrating (p < 0.001). The percentage of new queens from 2018 in wintered colonies was also examined as a potential risk factor. The percentage of colonies going into winter with a new queen was estimated as 55.0% over all countries. Higher percentages of young queens corresponded to lower overall losses (excluding losses from natural disaster), but also lower losses from unresolvable queen problems, and lower losses from winter mortality (p < 0.001). Detailed results for each country and overall are given in a table, and a map shows relative risks of winter loss at regional level.
The global abundance of tree palms
Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1495 - 1514.
above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density
Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.
Biased-corrected richness estimates for the Amazonian tree flora
Steege, Hans ter; Prado, Paulo I. ; Lima, Renato A.F. de; Pos, Edwin ; Souza Coelho, Luiz de; Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes de; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Amaral, Iêda Leão ; Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia de; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Guevara, Juan Ernesto ; Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo de; Cárdenas López, Dairon ; Magnusson, William E. ; Wittmann, Florian ; Martins, Maria Pires ; Sabatier, Daniel ; Irume, Mariana Victória ; Silva Guimarães, José Renan da; Molino, Jean François ; Bánki, Olaf S. ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Ramos, José Ferreira ; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel ; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins ; Luize, Bruno Garcia ; Núñez Vargas, Percy ; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire ; Leão Novo, Evlyn Márcia Moraes de; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa ; Terborgh, John ; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto ; Casula, Katia Regina ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Duque, Alvaro ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Castaño Arboleda, Nicolás ; Schöngart, Jochen ; Zartman, Charles Eugene ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Demarchi, Layon O. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Engel, Julien ; Petronelli, Pascal ; Baraloto, Chris ; Assis, Rafael L. ; Castellanos, Hernán ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Quaresma, Adriano ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Rincón, Lorena M. ; Andrade, Ana ; Sousa, Thaiane R. ; Camargo, José Luís ; Schietti, Juliana ; Laurance, William F. ; Queiroz, Helder Lima de; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça ; Lopes, Maria Aparecida ; Sousa Farias, Emanuelle de; Magalhães, José Leonardo Lima ; Brienen, Roel ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Stevenson, Pablo R. ; Feitosa, Yuri Oliveira ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Mogollón, Hugo F. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Lozada, José Rafael ; Comiskey, James A. ; Toledo, José Julio de; Damasco, Gabriel ; Dávila, Nállarett ; Lopes, Aline ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Draper, Freddie ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando ; Lloyd, Jon ; Gomes, Vitor H.F. ; Neill, David ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Maas, Paul ; Baker, Tim R. ; Andel, Tinde R. van; Noronha, Janaína Costa ; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Tirado, Milton ; Wang, Ophelia ; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade ; Flores, Bernardo Monteiro - \ 2020
Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, but the estimated species richness is very much debated. Here, we apply an ensemble of parametric estimators and a novel technique that includes conspecific spatial aggregation to an extended database of forest plots with up-to-date taxonomy. We show that the species abundance distribution of Amazonia is best approximated by a logseries with aggregated individuals, where aggregation increases with rarity. By averaging several methods to estimate total richness, we confirm that over 15,000 tree species are expected to occur in Amazonia. We also show that using ten times the number of plots would result in an increase to just ~50% of those 15,000 estimated species. To get a more complete sample of all tree species, rigorous field campaigns may be needed but the number of trees in Amazonia will remain an estimate for years to come.
Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests
Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
Science 368 (2020)6493. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 869 - 874.
The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.
Enabling reusability of plant phenomic datasets with MIAPPE 1.1
Papoutsoglou, Evangelia A. ; Faria, Daniel ; Arend, Daniel ; Arnaud, Elizabeth ; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N. ; Chaves, Inês ; Coppens, Frederik ; Cornut, Guillaume ; Costa, Bruno V. ; Ćwiek-Kupczyńska, Hanna ; Droesbeke, Bert ; Finkers, Richard ; Gruden, Kristina ; Junker, Astrid ; King, Graham J. ; Krajewski, Paweł ; Lange, Matthias ; Laporte, Marie Angélique ; Michotey, Célia ; Oppermann, Markus ; Ostler, Richard ; Poorter, Hendrik ; Ramı́rez-Gonzalez, Ricardo ; Ramšak, Živa ; Reif, Jochen C. ; Rocca-Serra, Philippe ; Sansone, Susanna Assunta ; Scholz, Uwe ; Tardieu, François ; Uauy, Cristobal ; Usadel, Björn ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Weise, Stephan ; Kersey, Paul J. ; Miguel, Célia M. ; Adam-Blondon, Anne Françoise ; Pommier, Cyril - \ 2020
New Phytologist 227 (2020)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 260 - 273.
findability - interoperability - metadata - phenomics - plant phenotyping - reusability - standards
Enabling data reuse and knowledge discovery is increasingly critical in modern science, and requires an effort towards standardising data publication practices. This is particularly challenging in the plant phenotyping domain, due to its complexity and heterogeneity. We have produced the MIAPPE 1.1 release, which enhances the existing MIAPPE standard in coverage, to support perennial plants, in structure, through an explicit data model, and in clarity, through definitions and examples. We evaluated MIAPPE 1.1 by using it to express several heterogeneous phenotyping experiments in a range of different formats, to demonstrate its applicability and the interoperability between the various implementations. Furthermore, the extended coverage is demonstrated by the fact that one of the datasets could not have been described under MIAPPE 1.0. MIAPPE 1.1 marks a major step towards enabling plant phenotyping data reusability, thanks to its extended coverage, and especially the formalisation of its data model, which facilitates its implementation in different formats. Community feedback has been critical to this development, and will be a key part of ensuring adoption of the standard.
Task 2: Analysis of the MS replies to the EEA request for inventorying existing LU information in the countries : D2 - Report containing an assessment of the LU inventory by MS, including an assessment on the impact of existing / missing LU parameters for the creation of CLC+ LULUCF and Legacy instances
Hazeu, G.W. ; Vittek, Marian ; Kosztra, B. ; Bock, M. ; Kleeschulte, S. ; Costa, H. ; Caetano, M. ; Marcelino, F. ; Smith, G.M. - \ 2020
EEA - 78 p.
Implementation of CLC+ based on the EAGLE concept –
additional support for further development of CLC+ databases (CLC+ and CLC+ instances, namely CLC+ LULUCF instance and CLC+ Legacy instance)
Pre-Columbian soil fertilization and current management maintain food resource availability in old-growth Amazonian forests
Levis, Carolina ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Clement, Charles R. ; Costa, Flavia R.C. ; Alves, Rubana Palhares ; Ferreira, Maria Julia ; Figueiredo, Camila Guarim ; Bongers, Frans - \ 2020
Plant and Soil 450 (2020). - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 29 - 48.
Anthropogenic soils - Domesticated plants - Forest resources - Historical ecology - Landscape domestication - Protected areas
Aims: The extent and persistence of pre-Columbian human legacies in old-growth Amazonian forests are still controversial, partly because modern societies re-occupied old settlements, challenging the distinction between pre- and post-Columbian legacies. Here, we compared the effects of pre-Columbian vs. recent landscape domestication processes on soils and vegetation in two Amazonian regions. Methods: We studied forest landscapes at varying distances from pre-Columbian and current settlements inside protected areas occupied by traditional and indigenous peoples in the lower Tapajós and the upper-middle Madeira river basins. By conducting 69 free-listing interviews, participatory mappings, guided-tours, 27 forest inventories, and soil analysis, we assessed the influences of pre-Columbian and current activities in soils and plant resources surrounding the settlements. Results: In both regions, we found that pre-Columbian villages were more densely distributed across the landscape than current villages. Soil nutrients (mainly Ca and P) were higher closer to pre-Columbian villages but were generally not related to current villages, suggesting past soil fertilization. Soil charcoal was frequent in all forests, suggesting frequent fire events. The density of domesticated plants used for food increased in phosphorus enriched soils. In contrast, the density of plants used for construction decreased near current villages. Conclusions: We detected a significant effect of past soil fertilization on food resources over extensive areas, supporting the hypothesis that pre-Columbian landscape domestication left persistent marks on Amazonian landscapes. Our results suggest that a combination of pre-Columbian phosphorus fertilization with past and current management drives plant resource availability in old-growth forests.
A global database of soil nematode abundance and functional group composition
Hoogen, Johan van den; Geisen, Stefan ; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Traunspurger, Walter ; Goede, Ron G.M. de; Adams, Byron J. ; Ahmad, Wasim ; Ferris, Howard ; Bardgett, Richard D. ; Bonkowski, Michael ; Campos-Herrera, Raquel ; Cares, Juvenil E. ; Caruso, Tancredi ; Brito Caixeta, Larissa de; Chen, Xiaoyun ; Costa, Sofia R. ; Creamer, Rachel ; Cunha e Castro, José Mauro da; Dam, Marie ; Djigal, Djibril ; Escuer, Miguel ; Griffiths, Bryan S. ; Gutiérrez, Carmen ; Hohberg, Karin ; Kalinkina, Daria ; Kardol, Paul ; Kergunteuil, Alan ; Korthals, Gerard ; Krashevska, Valentyna ; Kudrin, Alexey A. ; Li, Qi ; Liang, Wenju ; Magilton, Matthew ; Marais, Mariette ; Martín, José Antonio Rodríguez ; Matveeva, Elizaveta ; Mayad, El Hassan ; Mzough, E. ; Mulder, Christian ; Mullin, Peter ; Neilson, Roy ; Nguyen, Duong T.A. ; Nielsen, Uffe N. ; Okada, Hiroaki ; Rius, Juan Emilio Palomares ; Pan, Kaiwen ; Peneva, Vlada ; Pellissier, Loïc ; Silva, Julio Carlos Pereira da; Pitteloud, Camille ; Powers, Thomas O. ; Powers, Kirsten ; Quist, Casper W. ; Rasmann, Sergio ; Moreno, Sara Sánchez ; Scheu, Stefan ; Setälä, Heikki ; Sushchuk, Anna ; Tiunov, Alexei V. ; Trap, Jean ; Vestergård, Mette ; Villenave, Cecile ; Waeyenberge, Lieven ; Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Wright, Daniel G. ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Yang, Jiuein ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Bouharroud, R. ; Ferji, Z. ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Routh, Devin ; Crowther, Thomas W. - \ 2020
Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463
As the most abundant animals on earth, nematodes are a dominant component of the soil community. They play critical roles in regulating biogeochemical cycles and vegetation dynamics within and across landscapes and are an indicator of soil biological activity. Here, we present a comprehensive global dataset of soil nematode abundance and functional group composition. This dataset includes 6,825 georeferenced soil samples from all continents and biomes. For geospatial mapping purposes these samples are aggregated into 1,933 unique 1-km pixels, each of which is linked to 73 global environmental covariate data layers. Altogether, this dataset can help to gain insight into the spatial distribution patterns of soil nematode abundance and community composition, and the environmental drivers shaping these patterns.
Predation risk shapes the degree of placentation in natural populations of live-bearing fish
Hagmayer, Andres ; Furness, Andrew I. ; Reznick, David N. ; Dekker, Myrthe L. ; Pollux, Bart J.A. - \ 2020
Ecology Letters 23 (2020)5. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 831 - 840.
Life-history - live-bearing - matrotrophy - placenta - placentotrophy - Poeciliidae - predation - superfetation - Trexler–DeAngelis - viviparity
The placenta is a complex life-history trait that is ubiquitous across the tree of life. Theory proposes that the placenta evolves in response to high performance-demanding conditions by shifting maternal investment from pre- to post-fertilisation, thereby reducing a female’s reproductive burden during pregnancy. We test this hypothesis by studying populations of the fish species Poeciliopsis retropinna in Costa Rica. We found substantial variation in the degree of placentation among natural populations associated with predation risk: females from high predation populations had significantly higher degrees of placentation compared to low predation females, while number, size and quality of offspring at birth remained unaffected. Moreover, a higher degree of placentation correlated with a lower reproductive burden and hence likely an improved swimming performance during pregnancy. Our study advances an adaptive explanation for why the placenta evolves by arguing that an increased degree of placentation offers a selective advantage in high predation environments.
Going Bananas: A Food Systems Approach
Brazao Vieira Alho, C.F. ; Hendriks, C.M.J. ; Stoorvogel, J.J. ; Vellema, S. ; Smaling, Eric - \ 2020
- 33 p.
The holistic concept of Food Systems (FS) has emerged as an attempt to tackle the multiple challenges regarding provision of sustainable and healthy diets for a growing population as described in e.g., the sustainable development goals. In this report, we focus on one commodity (bananas) in two contrasting cases: one focused on the banana export system in Costa Rica (CR) (including its exports to the Netherlands (NL)) and another on domestic supply and consumption in Uganda (UG). Here, we followed three conceptual frameworks of FS currently used in the literature. Furthermore, power relations between civil society, private sector and governmental agencies are also taken into consideration. We hypothesized that analysing the functioning of a particular commodity in a FS context adds value, compared to the more linear value chain approach, and will lead to better-informed policy, socio-economic and investment decisions. Our approach sheds light on some parts of the FS concepts that still need a more profound analysis. If we look at the differences in the presented FS frameworks, we think it is wise to look at building blocks as was done in this report, rather than trying to tackle the entire, complex system as a whole.
Linking growing conditions to stable isotope ratios and elemental compositions of Costa Rican bananas (Musa spp.)
Wang, Zhijun ; Erasmus, Sara W. ; Dekker, Pieter ; Guo, Boli ; Stoorvogel, Jetse J. ; Ruth, Saskia M. van - \ 2020
Food Research International 129 (2020). - ISSN 0963-9969
Banana - Elemental profiling - Geographical attribute - Stable isotopic fingerprinting
Traceability of agricultural produce is getting increasingly important for numerous reasons including marketing, certification, and food safety. Globally, banana (Musa spp.) with its high nutritional value and easy accessibility, is a popular fruit among consumers. Bananas are produced throughout the (sub-)tropics under a wide range of environmental conditions. Environmental conditions could influence the composition of bananas. Understanding the effect of these conditions on fruit composition provides a way of increasing the fruit's traceability and linking it to its origin – a crucial aspect for the increasing global supply chain. In this study, we examined the influence of growing conditions on the isotopic and elemental composition of bananas produced in 15 Costa Rican farms. A total of 88 bananas (peel and pulp) were collected from the farms and analysed for isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O) and elemental compositions. The growing conditions were characterized in terms of climate, topography and soil conditions. The isotopic ratios differed significantly between groups of farms. The δ13C and δ15N values were mainly influenced by soil types, while rainfall and temperatures related more to the δ18O values. The elemental compositions of the bananas were primarily influenced by the local rainfall and soil types, while the geographical origin could be distinguished using principal component analysis. The overall results link the growing conditions to the isotopic and elemental compositions of bananas, thereby also providing a way to trace its origin.