Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.
High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
Bixby, Honor ; Bentham, James ; Zhou, Bin ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Bennett, James E. ; Taddei, Cristina ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Rodriguez-Martinez, Andrea ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Khang, Young Ho ; Sorić, Maroje ; Gregg, Edward W. ; Miranda, J.J. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Savin, Stefan ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Iurilli, Maria L.C. ; Solomon, Bethlehem D. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Bovet, Pascal ; Chirita-Emandi, Adela ; Hambleton, Ian R. ; Hayes, Alison J. ; Ikeda, Nayu ; Kengne, Andre P. ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Li, Yanping ; McGarvey, Stephen T. ; Mostafa, Aya ; Neovius, Martin ; Starc, Gregor ; Zainuddin, Ahmad A. ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Abdrakhmanova, Shynar ; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila ; Abdul Hamid, Zargar ; Abubakar Garba, Jamila ; Ferrieres, Jean ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Visser, Marjolein ; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2019
Nature 569 (2019)7755. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 260 - 264.
Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities 1,2 . This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity 3–6 . Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017—and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions—was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing—and in some countries reversal—of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
Bottom trawl fishing footprints on the world’s continental shelves
Amoroso, Ricardo O. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Eigaard, Ole R. ; Bastardie, Francois ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Althaus, Franziska ; Baird, Susan Jane ; Black, Jenny ; Buhl-Mortensen, Lene ; Campbell, Alexander B. ; Catarino, Rui ; Collie, Jeremy ; Cowan, James H. ; Durholtz, Deon ; Engstrom, Nadia ; Fairweather, Tracey P. ; Fock, Heino O. ; Ford, Richard ; Gálvez, Patricio A. ; Gerritsen, Hans ; Góngora, María Eva ; González, Jessica A. ; Hiddink, Jan G. ; Hughes, Kathryn M. ; Intelmann, Steven S. ; Jenkins, Chris ; Jonsson, Patrik ; Kainge, Paulus ; Kangas, Mervi ; Kathena, Johannes N. ; Kavadas, Stefanos ; Leslie, Rob W. ; Lewis, Steve G. ; Lundy, Mathieu ; Makin, David ; Martin, Julie ; Mazor, Tessa ; Gonzalez-Mirelis, Genoveva ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Papadopoulou, Nadia ; Posen, Paulette E. ; Rochester, Wayne ; Russo, Tommaso ; Sala, Antonello ; Semmens, Jayson M. ; Silva, Cristina - \ 2018
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)43. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E10275 - E10282.
Bottom trawlers land around 19 million tons of fish and invertebrates annually, almost one-quarter of wild marine landings. The extent of bottom trawling footprint (seabed area trawled at least once in a specified region and time period) is often contested but poorly described. We quantify footprints using high-resolution satellite vessel monitoring system (VMS) and logbook data on 24 continental shelves and slopes to 1,000-m depth over at least 2 years. Trawling footprint varied markedly among regions: from <10% of seabed area in Australian and New Zealand waters, the Aleutian Islands, East Bering Sea, South Overall, 14% of the 7.8 million-km2 study area was trawled, and 86% was not trawled. Trawling activity was aggregated; the most intensively trawled areas accounting for 90% of activity comprised 77% of footprint on average. Regional swept area ratio (SAR; ratio of total swept area trawled annually to total area of region, a metric of trawling intensity) and footprint area were related, providing an approach to estimate regional trawling footprints when highresolution spatial data are unavailable. If SAR was ≤0.1, as in 8 of 24 regions, therewas >95% probability that >90%of seabed was not trawled. If SAR was 7.9, equal to the highest SAR recorded, there was >95% probability that >70% of seabed was trawled. Footprints were smaller and SAR was ≤0.25 in regions where fishing rates consistently met international sustainability benchmarks for fish stocks, implying collateral environmental benefits from sustainable fishing.
Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure : A pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants
Ezzati, Majid ; Zhou, Bin ; Bentham, James ; Cesare, Mariachiara di; Bixby, Honor ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Hajifathalian, Kaveh ; Taddei, Cristina ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Djalalinia, Shirin ; Khatibzadeh, Shahab ; Lugero, Charles ; Peykari, Niloofar ; Zhang, Wan Zhu ; Bennett, James ; Bilano, Ver ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Chen, Zhengming ; Hambleton, Ian R. ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Liu, Jing ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Neuhauser, Hannelore K. ; Sorić, Maroje ; Starc, Gregor ; Sundström, Johan ; Woodward, Mark ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Afsana, Kaosar ; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2018
International Journal of Epidemiology 47 (2018)3. - ISSN 0300-5771 - p. 872 - 883i.
Blood pressure - Global health - Hypertension - Non-communicable disease - Population health
Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probittransformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the highincome Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.
The Essential Elements of a Risk Governance Framework for Current and Future Nanotechnologies
Stone, Vicki ; Führ, Martin ; Feindt, Peter H. ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Linkov, Igor ; Sabella, Stefania ; Murphy, Finbarr ; Bizer, Kilian ; Tran, Lang ; Ågerstrand, Marlene ; Fito, Carlos ; Andersen, Torben ; Anderson, Diana ; Bergamaschi, Enrico ; Cherrie, John W. ; Cowan, Sue ; Dalemcourt, Jean Francois ; Faure, Michael ; Gabbert, Silke ; Gajewicz, Agnieszka ; Fernandes, Teresa F. ; Hristozov, Danail ; Johnston, Helinor J. ; Lansdown, Terry C. ; Linder, Stefan ; Marvin, Hans J.P. ; Mullins, Martin ; Purnhagen, Kai ; Puzyn, Tomasz ; Sanchez Jimenez, Araceli ; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J. ; Streftaris, George ; Tongeren, Martie van; Voelcker, Nicolas H. ; Voyiatzis, George ; Yannopoulos, Spyros N. ; Poortvliet, P.M. - \ 2018
Risk Analysis 38 (2018)7. - ISSN 0272-4332 - p. 1321 - 1331.
Decision making - Nano-regulation - Risk communication - Risk governance - Risk management
Societies worldwide are investing considerable resources into the safe development and use of nanomaterials. Although each of these protective efforts is crucial for governing the risks of nanomaterials, they are insufficient in isolation. What is missing is a more integrative governance approach that goes beyond legislation. Development of this approach must be evidence based and involve key stakeholders to ensure acceptance by end users. The challenge is to develop a framework that coordinates the variety of actors involved in nanotechnology and civil society to facilitate consideration of the complex issues that occur in this rapidly evolving research and development area. Here, we propose three sets of essential elements required to generate an effective risk governance framework for nanomaterials. (1) Advanced tools to facilitate risk-based decision making, including an assessment of the needs of users regarding risk assessment, mitigation, and transfer. (2) An integrated model of predicted human behavior and decision making concerning nanomaterial risks. (3) Legal and other (nano-specific and general) regulatory requirements to ensure compliance and to stimulate proactive approaches to safety. The implementation of such an approach should facilitate and motivate good practice for the various stakeholders to allow the safe and sustainable future development of nanotechnology.
Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
Bentham, James ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Bilano, Ver ; Bixby, Honor ; Zhou, Bin ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Taddei, Cristina ; Hajifathalian, Kaveh ; Lu, Yuan ; Savin, Stefan ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Chirita-Emandi, Adela ; Hayes, Alison J. ; Katz, Joanne ; Kelishadi, Roya ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Li, Yanping ; Ma, Jun ; Miranda, J.J. ; Mostafa, Aya ; Neovius, Martin ; Padez, Cristina ; Rampal, Lekhraj ; Zhu, Aubrianna ; Bennett, James E. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Ezzati, Majid ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Hamid, Zargar Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Acuin, Cecilia ; Adams, Robert J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Afsana, Kaosar ; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Peeters, Petra H. ; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
The Lancet 390 (2017)10113. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 2627 - 2642.
Background Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Findings Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese. Interpretation The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults. Funding Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme.
Financial value-chain analysis : tuna, shrimp, soy and beef
Duijn, A.P. van; Beukers, R. ; Cowan, Roberta B. ; Judge, L.O. ; Pijl, Willem van der; Römgens, Indra ; Scheele, Fleur ; Steinweg, Tim - \ 2016
LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-028) - 80
supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - retail marketing - commodities - finance - tuna - shrimps - glycine (fabaceae) - beef - world - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - marketing voor de detailhandel - basisproducten - financiën - tonijn - garnalen - glycine (fabaceae) - rundvlees - wereld
This study is a detailed analysis of which parts of the tuna, shrimp, soy and beef supply chains are most open to constructive engagement through financial vehicles and mechanisms. The study indentifies the largest market shares in the various supply chains. For the retail sector, the objective was to analyse the openness of the retail sector to financial influence taking into account the latest sector trends.
Challenges to the Future - Conservation of the Antarctic
Chown, S.L. ; Lee, J.E. ; Hughes, K.A. ; Barnes, J. ; Bergstrom, D.M. ; Convey, P. ; Cowan, D.A. ; Crosbie, K. ; Dyer, G. ; Frenot, Y. ; Grant, S.M. ; Herr, D. ; Kennicutt, M.C. ; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Murray, A. ; Possingham, H.P. ; Reid, K. ; Riddle, M.J. ; Ryan, P.G. ; Sanson, L. ; Shaw, J.D. ; Sparrow, M.D. ; Summerhayes, C. ; Terauds, A. ; Wall, D.H. - \ 2012
Science 337 (2012)6091. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 158 - 159.
The Antarctic Treaty System, acknowledged as a successful model of cooperative regulation of one of the globe's largest commons (1), is under substantial pressure. Concerns have been raised about increased stress on Antarctic systems from global environmental change and growing interest in the region's resources (2, 3). Although policy-makers may recognize these challenges, failure to respond in a timely way can have substantial negative consequences. We provide a horizon scan, a systematic means for identifying emerging trends and assisting decision-makers in identifying policies that address future challenges (2, 3). Previous analyses of conservation threats in the Antarctic have been restricted to matters for which available evidence is compelling (4). We reconsider these concerns because they might escalate quickly, judging from recent rapid environmental change in parts of Antarctica and increasing human interest in the region (see the map). We then focus on a more distant time horizon.
How to Open the Treasure Chest? Optimising DNA Extraction from Herbarium Specimens
Särkinen, T. ; Staats, M. ; Richardson, J.E. ; Cowan, R.S. ; Bakker, F.T. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)8. - ISSN 1932-6203
ancient dna - land plants - amplification - barcode - bones - pcr - preservation - limitations
Herbarium collections are potentially an enormous resource for DNA studies, but the use of herbarium specimens in molecular studies has thus far been slowed down by difficulty in obtaining amplifiable DNA. Here we compare a set of commercially available DNA extraction protocols and their performance in terms of DNA purity and yield, and PCR amplification success as measured by using three differentially sized markers, the rbcL barcoding marker (cpDNA), the LEAFY exon 3 (nrDNA), and the trnL(UAA) P6 loop (cpDNA). Results reveal large differences between extraction methods, where DNA purity rather than yield is shown to be strongly correlated with PCR success. Amplicon size shows similarly strong correlation with PCR success, with the shortest fragment showing the highest success rate (78%, P6 loop, 10–143 base pairs (bp)) and the largest fragment the lowest success (10%, rbcL, 670 bp). The effect of specimen preparation method on PCR success was also tested. Results show that drying method strongly affects PCR success, especially the availability of fragments longer than 250 bp, where longer fragments are more available for PCR amplification in air dried material compared to alcohol dried specimens. Results from our study indicate that projects relying on poor-quality starting material such as herbarium or scat samples should focus on extracting pure DNA and aim to amplify short target regions (
Europe adapts to climate change: comparing national adaptation strategies
Biesbroek, G.R. ; Swart, R.J. ; Carter, T.R. ; Cowan, C. ; Henrichs, T. ; Mela, H. ; Morcecroft, M.D. ; Rey, D. - \ 2010
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 20 (2010)3. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 440 - 450.
social-ecological systems - boundary organizations - policy - governance - science - vulnerability - capacity - scales - uk
For the last two decades, European climate policy has focused almost exclusively on mitigation of climate change. It was only well after the turn of the century, with impacts of climate change increasingly being observed, that adaptation was added to the policy agenda and EU Member States started to develop National Adaptation Strategies (NASs). This paper reviews seven National Adaptation Strategies that were either formally adopted or under development by Member States at the end of 2008. The strategies are analysed under the following six themes. Firstly, the factors motivating and facilitating the development of a national adaptation strategy. Secondly, the scientific and technical support needed for the development and implementation of such a strategy. Thirdly, the role of the strategy in information, communication and awareness-raising of the adaptation issue. Fourthly, new or existing forms of multi-level governance to implement the proposed actions. Fifthly, how the strategy addresses integration and coordination with other policy domains. Finally, how the strategy suggests the implementation and how the strategy is evaluated. The paper notes that the role of National Adaptation Strategies in the wider governance of adaptation differs between countries but clearly benchmarks a new political commitment to adaptation at national policy levels. However, we also find that in most cases approaches for implementing and evaluating the strategies are yet to be defined. The paper concludes that even though the strategies show great resemblance in terms of topics, methods and approaches, there are many institutional challenges, including multi-level governance and policy integration issues, which can act as considerable barriers in future policy implementation
|Farm animal welfare in Hungary: A study of Hungarian producers, its food retail market and of Hungarian consumers
Roe, E. ; Kjaernes, U. ; Bock, B.B. ; Higgin, M. ; Huik, M.M. van; Cowan, C. - \ 2009
In: Farm Animal Welfare within the Supply Chain: Regulation, Agriculture, and Geography / Kjærnes, U., Bock, B.B., Higgin, M., Roex, J,, Cardiff : Cardiff University Press (Welfare Quality Report 8) - ISBN 9781902647845 - p. 147 - 214.
Europe adapts to climate change. Comparing National Adaptation Strategies in Europe
Swart, R.J. ; Biesbroek, G.R. ; Binnerup, S. ; Carter, T. ; Cowan, C. ; Henrichs, T. ; Loquen, S. ; Mela, H. ; Morecroft, M. ; Reese, M. ; Rey, D. - \ 2009
Helsinki : PEER (PEER Report / Partnership of European Environmental Research no. 1) - ISBN 9789521134517 - 283
klimaatverandering - milieubeleid - adaptatie - europa - governance - risicobeheersing - climatic change - environmental policy - adaptation - europe - governance - risk management
Climate Change is happening. Even if global emission reductions and mitigation efforts over the next decades prove to be successful, a signifi cant amount of human-induced climate change has become inevitable. In addition to efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, many EU countries are therefore developing and putting in place adaptation strategies to help them cope with the expected impacts of climate change. This report presents a comparative analysis of national adaptation strategies in a sample of European countries. The primary objectives of this study are to identify policy-relevant fi ndings and formulate recommendations for further research. Through these objectives, this report aims at providing both policy makers and research managers with enhanced insights into the variety of approaches taken by countries and knowledge gaps, and to thus facilitate the exchange of information on how to tackle adaptation across Europe and develop relevant research agendas. Our focus is on national level strategies, examining top-down approaches to and coordination of adaptation measures in each country. There is clearly also an important role for bottom-up action, action which is often already taking place at the local scale, where climate impacts are expected to be experienced. This is covered in a parallel PEER report (Mickwitz et al., 2009). The report is structured around six key themes that were identifi ed by the research team on the basis of an initial inventory as distinctive elements of all the National Adaptation Strategies (NASs) that have been analysed. We examine how the countries have approached each of these themes, analyse how much progress has been made and identify policy needs and research gaps that we believe will help improve understanding and enhance the implementation of adaptation policy at the national level. The six themes are:
1. Motivating and facilitating factors for strategy development
2. Science-policy interactions and the place of research
3. The role of communicating adaptation
4. Multi-level governance in shaping and delivering National Adaptation Strategies
5. The integration of adaptation into sectoral policies
6. The role of policy monitoring, review and enforcement
|Europe adapts to climate change. Status of developing National Adaptation Strategies in Europe
Swart, R.J. ; Biesbroek, G.R. ; Binnerup, S. ; Carter, T. ; Cowan, C. ; Henrichs, T. ; Loquen, S. ; Mela, H. ; Morecroft, M. ; Reese, M. ; Rey, D. - \ 2008
Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of glucuronide-conjugated anabolic steroid metabolites: method validation and interlaboratory comparison
Hintikka, L. ; Kuuranne, T. ; Leinonen, A. ; Thevis, M. ; Schanzer, W. ; Halket, J. ; Cowan, D. ; Grosse, J. ; Hemmersbach, P. ; Nielen, M.W.F. ; Kostiainen, R. - \ 2008
Journal of Mass Spectrometry 43 (2008)7. - ISSN 1076-5174 - p. 965 - 973.
electron-impact fragmentation - pressure chemical-ionization - enzyme-assisted synthesis - androgenic steroids - urine samples
Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous and direct detection of 12 glucuronide-conjugated anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) metabolites in human urine is described. The compounds selected were the main metabolites detected in human urine after dosing of the most widely abused AAS in sports, e.g. methandienone, methenolone, methyltestosterone, nandrolone and testosterone, and certain deuterium-labeled analogs of these metabolites. Sample preparation and the LC-ESI-MS/MS method were optimized, validated, and the overall process was implemented and the results between seven laboratories were compared. All the metabolites were extracted simultaneously by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS with positive ionization mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Recovery of the SPE for the AAS glucuronides was 89-100% and ten out of twelve compounds had detection limits in the range of 1-10 ng/ml in urine. The results for inter/intraday repeatability were satisfactory and the interlaboratory comparison with authentic urine samples demonstrated the ease of method transfer from one instrument setup to another. When equivalent triple quadrupole analyzers were employed the overall performance was independent from instrument manufacturer, electrospray ionisation (ESI) or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and liquid chromatohraphic (LC) column, whereas major differences were encountered when changing from one analyzer type to another, especially in the analysis of those AAS glucuronides ionized mainly as adducts
Révision du genre Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae)
Obiang-Mbomio, D. ; Breteler, F.J. - \ 2007
Adansonia 29 (2007)3. - ISSN 1280-8571 - p. 67 - 76.
Revision of the genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae). Th e African genus Eurypetalum Harms (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae) of Lower Guinea is revised. Two species, E. tessmannii and E. unijugum, are recognized. Th ey are illustrated and their distributions are mapped. Eurypetalum batesii is placed in the synonymy of E. tessmannii. Th e distinction between the two species of Eurypetalum is easy: leaves with two pairs of leafl ets in E. tessmannii, with one pair in E. unijugum. Th e distinctive characters between Eurypetalum and the sister-genus Eperua Aubl. of South America are not very obvious. Th ey are seen partly in the wood anatomy, partly in the presence or absence of nectaries in the hypanthium. Th e distinction between the two genera is confi rmed by molecular evidence (DNA). Th eir place in the system of Cowan & Polhill (1981) is discussed
|Boekbespreking. J. Cameron, R. Cowan and others. International handbook of educational systems, Vol. III
Bor, W. van den - \ 1985
Pedagogisch tijdschrift 10 (1985). - ISSN 0169-2127 - p. 221 - 221.
|Boekbespreking: J. Cameron, R. Cowan, B. Holmes, P. Hurst & M. McLean, International Handbook of Educational Systems, Vols. I and II
Bor, W. van den - \ 1984
Pedagogisch tijdschrift 9 (1984). - ISSN 0169-2127 - p. 214 - 214.
An ecophysiological approach to crop losses exemplified in the system wheat, leaf rust, and glume blotch
Wal, A.F. van der - \ 1975
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): J.C. Zadoks. - Wageningen : Landbouwhogeschool - 57
plantkunde - hexaploïdie - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - triticum aestivum - tarwe - botany - hexaploidy - plant pathogenic fungi - triticum aestivum - wheat
The motive of the author to embark upon the research reported here was the need to develop new concepts to approach the problem of crop losses, and eventually the problem of their prevention by means of disease control and plant breeding. The introduction of ecophysiology as an approach, explained above, was the first result. An ecophysiological treatment of processes like growth and development of plants in health and disease necessitates adjustments of current thoughts on experimental techniques and on organization in research (Van der Wal and Cowan, 1974).In order to measure plant or aegricorpus responses concurrently with environmental factors in climate chamber and field experiments during periods Of months, a great variety of instruments had to be bought, modified, or devised. The climate chamber had to be adjusted to allow for high light intensities with a view to growing wheat under conditions approximating those of early summer in the Netherlands; the yield of the spring wheat 'Kolibri' was c. 0.5 kg.m -2, which is nearly equivalent to the average field production of the country. Regulations for the prevention and control of contamination by aphids and mildew without any use of chemicals were issued after detailed experimentation (Van der Wal, unpubl.). Several instruments have been developed, usually with the help of others; this has led to two publications (Schurer and Van der Wal, 1972; Tegelaar and Van der Wal, 1974). These efforts resulted in the experimental designs described in the appendix. Field experiments, conducted in the same period as the climate chamber experiments reported here, will be published later. It is felt that the techniques to record growth of pathogens are still inadequate.The results reported in the appendix show that the 'state' of the plant at the time of infection is a major determinant of the plant's future behaviour, which plant breeders and pathologists can express in terms of resistance and tolerance. The conceptual framework presented above may contribute to a future revision of crop husbandry and crop protection practices.