Influence of educational actions on transitioning of food safety culture in a food service context: Part 1 – Triangulation and data interpretation of food safety culture elements
Mariano Zanin, Lais ; Luning, P.A. ; Cunha, Diogo Thimoteo da; Stedefeldt, Elke - \ 2021
Elsevier 119 (2021). - 12 p.
Foodborne diseases still occur globally, and alongside food safety systems, food safety culture has been established as a factor in ensuring food safety. This study describes the development of a mixed-methods approach to collecting quantitative and qualitative data and interpreting the triangulated data to assess the prevailing food safety culture. The mixed-methods approach was designed based on the literature and was tested in a food service establishment at an army headquarters in Brazil. Both managers (3) and food handlers (39) participated. The quantitative (questionnaires and checklists) and qualitative (participant observations) data were triangulated using a scoring system on an interpretation grid. The scoring system typified the prevailing food safety culture (FS-culture) and its elements as reactive (score 1), reactive to active (score 1–2), active (score 2), active to proactive (score 2–3), or proactive (score 3) FS-culture. The overall prevailing FS-culture in the case study, scored 1–2. This FS-culture score was mainly attributed to the score 1 for the elements of leadership, risk perception, and management systems, styles and processes, and the score 1–2 for communication, knowledge, and work environment. The mixed-methods approach revealed an overestimation of FS-culture elements in the quantitative analysis and underestimation in the qualitative analysis. This discrepancy in results emphasises the usefulness of the concurrent analysis and highlights the need to employ triangulation to enable a comprehensive assessment of the prevailing FS-culture. The assessment provides concrete input for the development of educational actions aiming for changes in the prevailing FS-culture.
Influence of educational actions on transitioning of food safety culture in a food service context: Part 2 - Effectiveness of educational actions in a longitudinal study
Mariano Zanin, Lais ; Stedefeldt, Elke ; Silva, Sueli Maria da; Cunha, Diogo Thimoteo da; Luning, P.A. - \ 2021
Food Control 120 (2021). - ISSN 0956-7135 - 11 p.
Recently, the food safety culture (FS-culture) gained attention as a critical factor for reducing foodborne diseases. This study investigated the effectiveness of educational actions in the transition of FS-culture in a longitudinal study using action research in an army food service, which was selected as a case. We hypothesised that the FS-culture assessment might be a good starting point to develop educational actions. First, we identified the educational needs of food handlers and managers based on a FS-culture assessment, followed by the implementation of educational actions using three formats (tutored, planned, and with the managers). A previously developed mixed-method approach was used for the collection of qualitative and quantitative data, data triangulation, and an interpretation grid that was used for categorisation into reactive, active, or proactive FS-culture. The triangulated data showed that the prevailing FS-culture changed from reactive to more proactive during the longitudinal study. The educational actions changed attitudes, practices, personal relationships, and the work environment. The educational actions were effective in influencing the prevailing FS-culture and confirmed the research hypothesis. Furthermore, the mixed-method approach with the interpretation grid was useful in assessing the transition in the prevailing FS-culture. Further research may test the usefulness of other types of food services in other countries. We also recommend converting the scientific methods for FS-culture assessment into methods suitable for the use by food safety managers in food services.
Social paper wasp (Agelaia pallipes) predates songbird nestling
Frankhuizen, Sjoerd ; Esteves Lopes, Leonardo ; Cunha, Filipe C.R. - \ 2020
Ethology 126 (2020)10. - ISSN 0179-1613 - p. 1004 - 1006.
Agelaia pallipes - insect predator - nest predation - Sporophila lineola
The social paper wasp Agelaia pallipes is known to eat carrion and scavenge on vertebrates. There are few records of wasps predating vertebrates, including an attack on an adult hummingbird and the predation of bird nestlings. During a project monitoring reproductive behaviour of a neotropical songbird, the Lined Seedeater Sporophila lineola in south-eastern Brazil, we recorded the predation of a four-day-old nestling by a social paper wasp. In the video, the adult female bird attempted to visit the nest prior to the predation. The male could be seen with its crest feathers erect after a wasp left the nest, when the nestling was presumably already dead. When we arrived at the nest to remove the camera, we found the nestling dead, and did not observe the parents in the vicinity. We also registered two other dead nestlings in a different nest with similar wounds. However, the conclusive cause of death of those nestlings is unknown. Nest predation is a major selective pressure in birds, and insects are rarely assumed to play a notable role in this process. Further research is needed to better understand the nature of the relationship between wasps and birds.
Calcium phosphate granules recovered from black water treatment : A sustainable substitute for mined phosphorus in soil fertilization
Cunha, Jorge Ricardo ; Schott, Chris ; Weijden, Renata D. van der; Leal, Lucía Hernández ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Buisman, Cees - \ 2020
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 158 (2020). - ISSN 0921-3449
Agriculture - Anaerobic treatment - Hydroxyapatite - Mineral fertilizer - Resource recovery
Phosphate is essential for food production. However, phosphate rock, which is the main natural source, is becoming worse in quality due to the depletion of the reserves and contamination with heavy metals and radioactive elements. Marketable phosphate contains more than 13 wt% of phosphorus (P), but run-of-the-mine phosphate rock is of lower grade (8 to 11 wt% of P). In this study, calcium phosphate granules (CaP granules) produced during anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water (feces and urine, BW) were assessed for their potential as a substitute for phosphate rock. The quality assessment was based on elemental composition (macro nutrients and heavy metals), crystallography and morphology analyses, dissolution tests, and quantification of micropollutants. CaP granules contained 10 wt% of P, from which 35% was dissolved within 5 min in citric acid and 85% in H2SO4. The incineration of the CaP granules increased the P content to 15 wt%, by eliminating the remaining organics (29%), pathogens, and organic micropollutants. Heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd, As, and Pb) and organic micropollutants in CaP granules were below the Dutch and European regulatory limits for direct fertilizer application. Moreover, incinerated CaP granules complied with the requirements for use in the fertilizer industry. At the current process conditions, CaP granules produced from BW can potentially replace 12% of the phosphate rock used in agriculture as fertilizer.
A global database of soil nematode abundance and functional group composition
Hoogen, Johan van den; Geisen, Stefan ; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Traunspurger, Walter ; Goede, Ron G.M. de; Adams, Byron J. ; Ahmad, Wasim ; Ferris, Howard ; Bardgett, Richard D. ; Bonkowski, Michael ; Campos-Herrera, Raquel ; Cares, Juvenil E. ; Caruso, Tancredi ; Brito Caixeta, Larissa de; Chen, Xiaoyun ; Costa, Sofia R. ; Creamer, Rachel ; Cunha e Castro, José Mauro da; Dam, Marie ; Djigal, Djibril ; Escuer, Miguel ; Griffiths, Bryan S. ; Gutiérrez, Carmen ; Hohberg, Karin ; Kalinkina, Daria ; Kardol, Paul ; Kergunteuil, Alan ; Korthals, Gerard ; Krashevska, Valentyna ; Kudrin, Alexey A. ; Li, Qi ; Liang, Wenju ; Magilton, Matthew ; Marais, Mariette ; Martín, José Antonio Rodríguez ; Matveeva, Elizaveta ; Mayad, El Hassan ; Mzough, E. ; Mulder, Christian ; Mullin, Peter ; Neilson, Roy ; Nguyen, Duong T.A. ; Nielsen, Uffe N. ; Okada, Hiroaki ; Rius, Juan Emilio Palomares ; Pan, Kaiwen ; Peneva, Vlada ; Pellissier, Loïc ; Silva, Julio Carlos Pereira da; Pitteloud, Camille ; Powers, Thomas O. ; Powers, Kirsten ; Quist, Casper W. ; Rasmann, Sergio ; Moreno, Sara Sánchez ; Scheu, Stefan ; Setälä, Heikki ; Sushchuk, Anna ; Tiunov, Alexei V. ; Trap, Jean ; Vestergård, Mette ; Villenave, Cecile ; Waeyenberge, Lieven ; Wilschut, Rutger A. ; Wright, Daniel G. ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Yang, Jiuein ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Bouharroud, R. ; Ferji, Z. ; Putten, Wim H. van der; Routh, Devin ; Crowther, Thomas W. - \ 2020
Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463
As the most abundant animals on earth, nematodes are a dominant component of the soil community. They play critical roles in regulating biogeochemical cycles and vegetation dynamics within and across landscapes and are an indicator of soil biological activity. Here, we present a comprehensive global dataset of soil nematode abundance and functional group composition. This dataset includes 6,825 georeferenced soil samples from all continents and biomes. For geospatial mapping purposes these samples are aggregated into 1,933 unique 1-km pixels, each of which is linked to 73 global environmental covariate data layers. Altogether, this dataset can help to gain insight into the spatial distribution patterns of soil nematode abundance and community composition, and the environmental drivers shaping these patterns.
NEOTROPICAL XENARTHRANS: a data set of occurrence of xenarthran species in the Neotropics
Santos, Paloma Marques ; Bocchiglieri, Adriana ; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia ; Paglia, Adriano Pereira ; Moreira, Adryelle ; Souza, Agnis Cristiane de; Abba, Agustin Manuel ; Paviolo, Agustin ; Gatica, Ailin ; Medeiro, Akyllan Zoppi ; Costa, Alan Nilo ; Gallina, Alberto Gonzalez ; Yanosky, Alberto A. ; Jesus, Alejandro ; Bertassoni, Alessandra ; Rocha, Alessandro ; Bovo, Alex Augusto Abreu ; Bager, Alex ; Mol, Alexandra Cravino ; Martensen, Alexandre Camargo ; Faustino, Alexandre Casagrande ; Lopes, Alexandre Martins Costa ; Percequillo, Alexandre Reis ; Vogliotti, Alexandre ; Keuroghlian, Alexine ; Colina, María Alicia de la; Devlin, Allison L. ; García-Olaechea, Alvaro ; Sánchez, Amadeo ; Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina ; Ochoa, Ana Cecilia ; Oliveira, Ana Cristina Mendes ; Lacerda, Ana Cristyna Reis ; Campelo, Ana Kellen Nogueira ; Oliveira Paschoal, Ana Maria de; Costa, Ana Raíssa Cunha ; Meiga, Ana Yoko Ykeuti ; Jesus, Anamélia Souza ; Feijó, Anderson ; Hirsch, André ; Silva, André Luiz Ferreira da; Botelho, André Luis Moura ; Regolin, André Luis ; Lanna, André Monnerat ; Nunes, André Valle ; Kindel, Andreas ; Moraes, Andreia Magro ; Gatti, Andressa ; Noss, Andrew J. ; Nobre, Andrezza Bellotto ; Montanarin, Anelise ; Deffaci, Ângela Camila ; Albuquerque, Anna Carolina Figueiredo de; Oliveira, Anne Karoline de; Mangione, Antonio Marcelo ; Pontes, Antonio Rossano Mendes ; Bertoldi, Ariane Teixeira ; Calouro, Armando Muniz ; Desbiez, Arnaud L.J. ; Fernandes, Arthur ; Ferreguetti, Atilla Colombo ; Silva, Maria Augusta Andrade da; Zimbres, Barbara ; Luciano, Beatriz Fernandes Lima ; Thoisy, Benoit de; Niebuhr, Bernardo Brandão S. ; Papi, Bernardo ; Gómez-Valencia, Bibiana ; Santos, Bráulio A. ; Lima, Breno Campelo ; Oliveira, Bruna Gomes ; Santos, Bruna Silva ; Campos, Bruno Augusto Torres Parahyba ; Leles, Bruno ; Albuquerque França, Bruno Rodrigo de; Lim, Burton ; Oliveira, Caetano Troncoso ; Cantagallo, Camila ; Lara, Camila Clozato ; Lima, Camila Silveira ; Gestich, Carla Cristina ; Melo-Soares, Carla Danielle de; Peres, Carlos A. ; Kasper, Carlos Benhur ; Candia-Gallardo, Carlos ; Angelo, Carlos De; Fragoso, Carlos Eduardo ; Freitas, Carlos Henrique de; Salvador, Carlos Henrique ; Brocardo, Carlos R. ; Melo, Carolina Depolito ; Leuchtenberger, Caroline ; Braga, Caryne ; Sánchez-Lalinde, Catalina ; Bueno, Cecília ; Luna, Cecília Licarião ; Rojano, Cesar ; Hurtado, Cindy Meliza ; Santos, Cinthya Chiva dos; Tellaeche, Cintia ; Rosa, Clarissa ; Campos, Claudia Bueno de; Silva, Cláudia Regina ; Kanda, Claudia Zukeran ; Jenkins, Clinton N. ; McDonough, Colleen ; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé ; Cunha, Cristina Jaques da; Widmer, Cynthia Elisa ; Santos, Cyntia ; Buscariol, Daiane ; Carreira, Daiane Cristina ; Carvalho, Danianderson Rodrigues ; Silva Ferraz, Daniel da; Casali, Daniel ; Thornton, Daniel ; Vasconcellos, Daniela Rodrigues ; Barcelos, Daniele ; Brown, Danielle ; Ramos, Daniella Leal ; Moreira, Danielle Oliveira ; Yogui, Débora Regina ; Faria, Deborah ; Sana, Denis Alessio ; Mattia, Denise Lidoro de; Henz, Denison José ; Friedeberg, Diana B. ; Carvalho, Diana Letícia Kruger Pacheco ; Astúa, Diego ; Queirolo, Diego ; Varela, Diego M. ; Eaton, Donald P. ; Dias, Douglas Matos ; Rivadeneira, Edgar Federico ; Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido ; Abreu-Júnior, Edson Fiedler de; Carrano, Eduardo ; Santos, Eduardo Marques ; Setz, Eleonore Zulnara Freire ; Carvalho, Elildo Alves Ribeiro ; Almeida Chiquito, Elisandra de; Matos Cardoso, Elizandra de; Mendonça, Eloisa Neves ; Bastiani, Elvira D'; Vieira, Emerson M. ; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci ; Guijosa-Guadarrama, Emiliano ; González, Enrique ; Maggiorini, Erica Vanessa ; Fischer, Erich ; Aguiar, Erick Francisco ; Castro, Érika Paula ; Peña-Cuéllar, Erika de la; Viveiros de Castro, Ernesto B. ; Brítez, Evelyn Beatriz ; Vanderhoeven, Ezequiel Andres ; Pedó, Ezequiel ; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes ; Girardi, Fabiane ; Oliveira Roque, Fabio de; Mazim, Fábio Dias ; Barros, Fabio Monteiro de; Martello, Felipe ; Fantacini, Felipe Moreli ; Pedrosa, Felipe ; Peters, Felipe Bortolotto ; Abra, Fernanda Delborgo ; Azevedo, Fernanda Cavalcanti de; Silva Santos, Fernanda da; Silva, Fernanda Guedes da; Teixeira, Fernanda Zimmermann ; Perini, Fernando Araujo ; Passos, Fernando C. ; Carvalho, Fernando ; Azevedo, Fernando Cesar Cascelli de; Pinho, Fernando Ferreira de; Gonçalves, Fernando ; Lima, Fernando ; Contreras-Moreno, Fernando M. ; Pedroni, Fernando ; Tortato, Fernando Rodrigo ; Santos, Filipe Pereira Rego ; Caruso, Flavia ; Tirelli, Flávia Pereira ; Miranda, Flávia Regina ; Rodrigues, Flávio Henrique Guimarães ; Ubaid, Flávio Kulaif ; Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes ; Silva, Franciane Almeida da; Grotta-Neto, Francisco ; Souza, Franco Leandro de; Costa, Francys Emanuelle ; Pérez-Garduza, Freddy ; Delsuc, Frédéric ; Lemos, Frederico ; Pinto, Fredy Ramirez ; Boaglio, Gabriel Ivan ; Massocato, Gabriel Fávero ; Preuss, Gabriel ; Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach ; Aguiar, Gabriel Lima ; Oliveira, Gabriela Schuck ; Duarte, Gabriela Teixeira ; Beca, Gabrielle ; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez ; Batista, Graziele Oliveira ; Gil, Guillermo Eduardo ; Gonsioroski, Gustavo ; Secco, Helio ; Medeiros, Hugo Reis ; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer ; Franceschi, Ingridi Camboim ; Bernardi, Itiberê ; Torre, Antonio de la; Zocche, Jairo José ; Seibert, Jardel Brandão ; Faria Falcão, Jéssica Caroline de; Dias, Jéssica Helena Mangueira ; Nodari, Joana Zorzal ; Oliveira, João Alves ; Giovanelli, João Gabriel Ribeiro ; Favoretti, João Paulo Pandini ; Polisar, John ; Sponchiado, Jonas ; Cherem, Jorge José ; Ramírez, José Fernando Moreira ; Toledo, José Julio de; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti ; Matos, Jose Roberto de; Arrabal, Juan Pablo ; Faria Oshima, Júlia Emi de; Ribeiro, Juliana Fernandes ; Bogoni, Juliano André ; Pacheco, Julio Javier Chacón ; Schuchmann, Karl L. ; Ferraz, Katia M.P.M.B. ; Santos Everton, Laís dos; Bailey, Larissa L. ; Gonçalves, Larissa Oliveira ; Cullen, Laury ; Andrade, Layla Reis de; Trevelin, Leonardo Carreira ; Bonjorne, Lilian ; Almeida Rodrigues, Livia de; Leuzinger, Lucas ; Perillo, Lucas Neves ; Araújo, Luciana Souza ; Hufnagel, Ludmila ; Ribeiro, Ludmilla Oliveira ; Bernardo, Luis Renato Rezende ; Oliveira-Santos, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues ; Varzinczak, Luiz Henrique ; Borges, Luiz Henrique Medeiros ; Guimarães, Luiza Neves ; Möcklinghoff, Lydia ; Oliveira, Marcela Alvares ; Magioli, Marcelo ; Assis Jardim, Márcia Maria de; Oliveira, Márcio Leite de; Tortato, Marcos Adriano ; Dums, Marcos ; Iezzi, Maria Eugenia ; Pereira, Maria João Ramos ; Jorge, Maria Luísa ; Castro Morini, Maria Santina de; Landis, Mariana Bueno ; Xavier, Mariana Sampaio ; Barros, Marília A.S. ; Silva, Marina Lima da; Rivero, Marina ; Zanin, Marina ; Marques, Marinêz Isaac ; Alves, Mario Henrique ; Bitetti, Mario S. Di; Alvarez, Martín R. ; Graipel, Maurício Eduardo ; Godoi, Mauricio Neves ; Benedetti, Maximiliano Augusto ; Beltrão, Mayara Guimarães ; Monteiro, Miguel Coutinho Moretta ; Paula, Milton José de; Perilli, Miriam Lucia Lages ; Silva, Murillo Prado da; Villar, Nacho ; Albuquerque, Natasha Moraes De; Canassa, Nathália F. ; Filho, Newton Mota ; Rosa Oliveira, Nicole da; Pasqualotto, Nielson ; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos ; Attias, Nina ; Favarini, Marina Ochoa ; Ribeiro, Otávio Santi ; Gonçalves, Pablo Rodrigues ; Rocha, Patrício Adriano da; Condé, Paula Alves ; Akkawi, Paula ; Cruz, Paula ; Lira, Paula Koeler ; Ferreira, Paula Modenesi ; Arroyo-Gerala, Paulina ; Hartmann, Paulo Afonso ; Tarso Zuquim Antas, Paulo de; Marinho, Paulo Henrique ; Faria Peres, Pedro Henrique de; Peña-Mondragón, Juan Luis ; Lombardi, Pryscilla Moura ; Souza Laurindo, Rafael de; Alves, Rafael Souza Cruz ; Grangeiro, Raissa Danielle Praxedes ; Silva, Ramon Lima ; Beltrão-Mendes, Raone ; Bonikowski, Renata Twardowsky Ramalho ; Reppucci, Juan ; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa ; Sampaio, Ricardo ; Sartorello, Ricardo ; Bovendorp, Ricardo Siqueira ; McNab, Roan ; Hack, Robson Odeli Espíndola ; Magalhães, Rodolfo Assis ; Araújo, Rodrigo Costa ; Almeida Nobre, Rodrigo de; Pérez, Rodrigo Raúl León ; Massara, Rodrigo Lima ; Paula, Rogério Cunha de; Anleu, Rony García ; Marques, Rosane Vieira ; Dornas, Rubem ; Rolim, Samir Gonçalves ; Cavalcanti, Sandra M.C. ; Lima, Saulo Ramos ; Ballari, Sebastián A. ; Santamaría, Silvia Benito ; Silva, Sofia Marques ; Age, Stefani Gabrieli ; Godim, Tayana ; Sobral-Souza, Thadeu ; Maccarini, Thiago Bernardes ; Rodrigues, Thiago Ferreira ; Piovezan, Ubiratan ; Cunha Tavares, Valéria da; Quiroga, Verónica Andrea ; Krepschi, Victor Gasperotto ; Filho, Vilmar Picinatto ; Galvão Bastazini, Vinícius Augusto ; Oliveira Gasparotto, Vinicius Peron de; Orsini, Vinicius Santana ; Guedes Layme, Viviane Maria ; Hannibal, Wellington ; Dáttilo, Wesley ; Carvalho, William Douglas de; Loughry, William James ; Blanco, Yamil Edgardo Di; Núñez-Regueiro, Mauricio M. ; Giubbina, Marina Furlan ; Passamani, Marcelo ; Alagão Querido, Luciano Carramaschi de; Costa Toledo, Gustavo Alvez da; Ribeiro, Igor Kintopp ; Quintilham, Lucas ; Bustos, Soledad de; Maza, Javier de la; Lima Neto, Jorge Ferreira ; Kossel de Andrade Silva, Katyucha Von; Sartorello, Leonardo ; Rampim, Lilian Elaine ; Marás, Gustavo A. ; Camino, Micaela ; Freitas-Junior, Mozart ; Perovic, Pablo Gaston ; Paolino, Roberta Montanheiro ; Ferreira, Scarlat Dalva ; Towns, Valeria ; Esperandio, Isadora Beraldi ; Aximoff, Izar ; Beduschi, Júlia ; Guenther, Mariana ; Cassia Bianchi, Rita de; Keuroghlian-Eaton, Sean ; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena ; Fatima Cunha, Lerrane de; Cirignoli, Sebastián ; Ciocheti, Giordano ; Prado, Helena Alves do; Fernandes-Ferreira, Hugo ; Mendes de Sena, Liana Mara ; Yamane, Marcelo Hideki ; Brennand, Pamella G.G. ; Silva, Rayana Diniz da; Escobar, Santiago ; Endo, Whaldener ; Hurtado, Rafael Reyna ; Gontijo, Nila Rássia Costa ; Marsh, Laura K. ; Severo, Magnus Machado ; Pardo, Julia Martinez ; Costa, Sebastián Andrés ; Melo, Geruza Leal ; Santana, Gindomar Gomes ; Miranda Mourão, Guilherme de; Gaspari, Gustavo Gabirele ; Duarte, Herbert ; Cabral, Hugo ; Silva, Leonardo Henrique da; Mendonça, Luana ; Barbosa, Lucas Lobo ; Santos, Manuela Vieira dos; Moraes, Marcela Figuerêdo Duarte ; Gordo, Marcelo ; Versiani, Natalia Fraguas ; Cantero, Nicolás ; Pays, Olivier ; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves ; Colas-Rosas, Paul François ; Ribeiro, Paulo ; Renaud, Pierre Cyril ; Hoogesteijn, Rafael Jan ; Ayala, Rodrigo ; Cunha, Rogério Grassetto Teixeira da; Schaub, Roxane ; Laurito, Sabrina ; Betkowski, Samuel Eurich ; Cortez, Sara ; Silva, Shirley Seixas Pereira ; Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes de; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Gengler, Nicholas ; Hidalgo, Mircea Mihart ; Juárez, Rugieri ; Iglesias, Jesús A. ; Anacleto, Teresa Cristina ; Souza Fialho, Marcos de; Cavicchioli, Guilherme ; Beccato, Maria Angélica Barbosa ; Silva, Marcelo da; Neto, Omar Correia ; Lopes, Karine Galisteo Diemer ; Godoy, Leandro Perez ; Luiz, Micheli Ribeiro ; Rojas Bonzi, Viviana B. ; Ferreira, Guilherme Braga ; Oliveira, Marcelo Juliano Rabelo ; Hinojosa, Javier ; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa de; Nagy-Reis, Mariana Baldy ; Ramirez, Sixto Fernández ; Concone, Henrique Villas Boas ; Mourthe, Italo ; Martínez-Lanfranco, Juan A. ; Zanoni, Juliani Bruna ; Moreira, Tainah Cruz ; Guarderas, Zoila Vega ; Bazilio, Sérgio ; Cervini, Marcelo ; Pinheiro, Marcell Soares ; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves ; Peroni, Nivaldo ; Trigo, Tatiane Campos ; Machado, Ricardo Bomfim ; Gaspari, Fernando ; Koenemann, Joceleia G. ; Rudolf, Juan Carlos ; Benchimol, Maíra ; Vieira, Marcus Vinícius ; Retta, Lucía Martínez ; Santiago, Pablo Gerardo Fernández ; Ciccia, Paula Gonzalez ; Estrela, Pedro Cordeiro ; Carvalho, Santiago ; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa ; Cruz, Yaribeth Bravata de la; Castro-Prieto, Jessica ; Braga, Ricardo Miranda ; Cartes, Jose Luis ; Andrade-Núñez, María José ; Denkiewicz, Natalia Mariana ; Falconi, Nereyda ; Pezzuti, Juarez Carlos Brito ; Castillo Cordero, Hugo Fernando del; Sousa, Luziene Conceição de; Gaspari Júnior, Roque Lázaro de; Santos-Filho, Manoel ; Almeida, Josué Santos ; Thompson, Jeffrey J. ; Santos, Juliana Silveira dos; Pereira-Ribeiro, Juliane ; Burs, Kathrin ; Silva, Kena Ferrari Moreira da; Velilla, Marianela ; Silva, Marina Xavier da; Sancha, Noé U. de la; Pinheiro, Paula Fabiana ; Castilho, Pedro Volkmer de; Bercê, William ; Assis, Julia Camara ; Tonetti, Vinicius Rodrigues ; Alves-Eigenheer, Milene ; Chinem, Simonne ; Honda, Laura K. ; Godoy Bergallo, Helena de; Alberici, Vinicius ; Wallace, Robert ; Campos Krauer, Juan Manuel ; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar ; Galetti, Mauro - \ 2019
Ecology 100 (2019)7. - ISSN 0012-9658
biodiversity hotspot - cingulata - forest fragmentation - habitat loss - neotropical mammals - neotropical region - pilosa - xenarthra
Xenarthrans—anteaters, sloths, and armadillos—have essential functions for ecosystem maintenance, such as insect control and nutrient cycling, playing key roles as ecosystem engineers. Because of habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, and conflicts with domestic dogs, these species have been threatened locally, regionally, or even across their full distribution ranges. The Neotropics harbor 21 species of armadillos, 10 anteaters, and 6 sloths. Our data set includes the families Chlamyphoridae (13), Dasypodidae (7), Myrmecophagidae (3), Bradypodidae (4), and Megalonychidae (2). We have no occurrence data on Dasypus pilosus (Dasypodidae). Regarding Cyclopedidae, until recently, only one species was recognized, but new genetic studies have revealed that the group is represented by seven species. In this data paper, we compiled a total of 42,528 records of 31 species, represented by occurrence and quantitative data, totaling 24,847 unique georeferenced records. The geographic range is from the southern United States, Mexico, and Caribbean countries at the northern portion of the Neotropics, to the austral distribution in Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, and Uruguay. Regarding anteaters, Myrmecophaga tridactyla has the most records (n = 5,941), and Cyclopes sp. have the fewest (n = 240). The armadillo species with the most data is Dasypus novemcinctus (n = 11,588), and the fewest data are recorded for Calyptophractus retusus (n = 33). With regard to sloth species, Bradypus variegatus has the most records (n = 962), and Bradypus pygmaeus has the fewest (n = 12). Our main objective with Neotropical Xenarthrans is to make occurrence and quantitative data available to facilitate more ecological research, particularly if we integrate the xenarthran data with other data sets of Neotropical Series that will become available very soon (i.e., Neotropical Carnivores, Neotropical Invasive Mammals, and Neotropical Hunters and Dogs). Therefore, studies on trophic cascades, hunting pressure, habitat loss, fragmentation effects, species invasion, and climate change effects will be possible with the Neotropical Xenarthrans data set. Please cite this data paper when using its data in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us of how they are using these data
Influence of foliar kaolin application and irrigation on photosynthetic activity of grape berries
Garrido, Andreia ; Serôdio, João ; Vos, Ric De ; Conde, Artur ; Cunha, Ana - \ 2019
Agronomy 9 (2019)11. - ISSN 2073-4395
Grape berry tissues - Irrigation - Kaolin - Light micro-climates - Mitigation strategies - Photosynthesis - Photosynthetic pigments - Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry - Vitis vinifera L
Climate changes may cause severe impacts both on grapevine and berry development. Foliar application of kaolin has been suggested as a mitigation strategy to cope with stress caused by excessive heat/radiation absorbed by leaves and grape berry clusters. However, its effect on the light micro-environment inside the canopy and clusters, as well as on the acclimation status and physiological responses of the grape berries, is unclear. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of foliar kaolin application on the photosynthetic activity of the exocarp and seeds, which are the main photosynthetically active berry tissues. For this purpose, berries from high light (HL) and low light (LL) microclimates in the canopy, from kaolin-treated and non-treated, irrigated and non-irrigated plants, were collected at three developmental stages. Photochemical and non-photochemical efficiencies of both tissues were obtained by a pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis. The maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) data for green HL-grown berries suggest that kaolin application can protect the berry exocarp from light stress. At the mature stage, exocarps of LL grapes from irrigated plants treated with kaolin presented higher Fv/Fm and relative electron transport rates (rETR200) than those without kaolin. However, for the seeds, a negative interaction between kaolin and irrigation were observed especially in HL grapes. These results highlight the impact of foliar kaolin application on the photosynthetic performance of grape berries growing under different light microclimates and irrigation regimes, throughout the season. This provides insights for a more case-oriented application of this mitigation strategy on grapevines.
Recovery of calcium phosphate granules from black water using a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge bed and gas-lift reactor
Cunha, Jorge Ricardo ; Schott, Chris ; Weijden, Renata D. van der; Leal, Lucía Hernández ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Buisman, Cees - \ 2019
Environmental Research 178 (2019). - ISSN 0013-9351
Anaerobic treatment - Calcium phosphate precipitation - Crystallisation - Granulation - Methane
Adding calcium during anaerobic digestion of vacuum collected black water (BW) in an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor increased the retention of total phosphorus (P) in the reactor from 51% to 87%. However, the insufficient mixing in the reactor caused cementation and relatively high content of organics in the recovered calcium phosphate (CaP) granules, limiting the P recovery. In this study, the UASB reactor was mixed with an internal gas-lift (UASB-GL) to prevent cementation and to enhance the P content in CaP granules. The novel UASB-GL reactor operated for 300 days, treating concentrated BW. At steady state, the removal of total COD and P was 92% and 90%, respectively. The gas injection created a sludge bed with an average total suspended solids concentration of 73 ± 16 g/L at the bottom and 31 ± 5 g/L at the top of the reactor. The concentration of solid P at the bottom of the reactor was 4.58 ± 1.34 gP/L, while at the top a much lower concentration was obtained (0.75 ± 0.32 gP/L). 89% of the CaP granules was found at the bottom of the reactor. The harvested CaP granules (>0.4 mm diameter) contained on average 7.8 ± 0.6 wt% of P. A potential recovery of 57% of P in BW as CaP granules was calculated, considering actual application of the UASB-GL reactor in source separated sanitation.
Bulk pH and Carbon Source Are Key Factors for Calcium Phosphate Granulation
Cunha, Jorge Ricardo ; Morais, Sara ; Silva, Joana C. ; Weijden, Renata D. Van Der; Hernández Leal, Lucía ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)3. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 1334 - 1343.
Recovery of calcium phosphate granules (CaP granules) from high-strength wastewater is an opportunity to reduce the natural phosphorus (P) scarcity, geographic imbalances of P reserves, and eutrophication. Formation of CaP granules was previously observed in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating source separated black water and is enhanced by Ca2+ addition. However, the required operating conditions and influent composition for CaP granulation are still unknown. In this study, we have experimentally demonstrated that the carbon source and bulk pH are crucial parameters for the formation and growth of CaP granules in a UASB reactor, operating at relatively low upflow velocity (<1 cm h-1). Degradation of glucose yielded sufficient biomass (microbial cells and extracellular biopolymers) to cover crystal and amorphous calcium phosphate [Cax(PO4)y], forming CaP granules. Influent only containing volatile fatty acids as the carbon source did not generate CaP granules. Moreover, bulk pH between 7.0 and 7.5 was crucial for the enrichment of Cax(PO4)y in the granules over bulk precipitation. Bulk pH 8 reduced the Cax(PO4)y enrichment in granules of >1.4 mm diameter from 9 to 5 wt % P. Moreover, for bulk pH 7.5, co-precipitation of CaCO3 with Cax(PO4)y was reduced.
A global spatially explicit database of changes in island palaeo-area and archipelago configuration during the late Quaternary
Norder, Sietze J. ; Baumgartner, John B. ; Borges, Paulo A.V. ; Hengl, Tomislav ; Kissling, Daniel W. ; Loon, E.E. van; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F. - \ 2018
Global Ecology and Biogeography 27 (2018)5. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 500 - 505.
general dynamic model - glacial sensitive model - insular biodiversity patterns - island archaeology - island biogeography - palaeo-geography - palaeo-shorelines - Pleistocene climate change - prehistoric human settlement patterns - sea level fluctuations
Motivation: Past sea level fluctuations have shaped island area and archipelago configuration. The availability of global high-resolution data on bathymetry and past sea levels allows reconstruction of island palaeo-geography. Studies on the role of palaeo-area often consider only the Last Glacial Maximum, which neglects the dynamics of island fusion and fission resulting from cyclic sea level fluctuations throughout the Quaternary. Currently, no global database is available to test the role of changing island geographies driven by Quaternary sea level change on evolutionary, ecological and archaeological patterns. However, data on island palaeo-environments is crucial for understanding insular biodiversity distributions and human settlement patterns. Here, we present the Palaeo-Islands and Archipelago Configuration (PIAC) database, containing sea level-driven palaeo-geography changes over the late Quaternary of 178 islands in 27 archipelagos, and discuss its relevance, limitations and uncertainties. The R functions developed to create the PIAC database are provided to allow calculations for other islands, time steps, sea-level curves and higher spatio-temporal resolutions. Main types of variables contained: Polygon shapefiles with archipelago configuration and tables with palaeo-area per island. Spatial location and grain: The database has a global representation, with 27 archipelagos being covered: Aldabra, Azores, Balearic Islands, California Channel Islands, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Comoros, Cook Islands, Crozet Islands, Dutch Caribbean, Galápagos, Gulf of Guinea, Hawaii, Inner Seychelles, Juan Fernández, Kuril Islands, Madeira, Marianas, Marquesas, Mascarenes, Phoenix Islands, Pitcairn Islands, Prince Edward Islands, Revillagigedo, Samoan Islands, Society Islands and Tristan da Cunha. All data are at 1 km2 spatial resolution. Time period and grain: The focus of this paper is on the last 35 kyr; data for the last 140 kyr are also provided. The grain is 1 kyr temporal resolution. Level of measurement: Data are per island, grouped per archipelago. Software format: The data were produced in the R programming language.
Multi-locus phylogeny and taxonomy of exserohilum
Hernández-Restrepo, M. ; Madrid, H. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Cunha, K.C. da; Gené, J. ; Guarro, J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2018
Persoonia 41 (2018). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 71 - 108.
Curvularia - Helminthosporium - Human and plant pathogen - New species - Setosphaeria - Systematics
Exserohilum includes a number of plant pathogenic, saprobic and clinically relevant fungi. Some of these species are of great importance in human activities, but the genus has never been revised in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we revise Exserohilum based on available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections, observation of the holotypes and/or protologues, and additional isolates from diverse substrates and geographical origins. Based on nine nuclear loci, i.e., ITS, LSU, act, tub2, cam, gapdh, his, tef1 and rpb2, as well as phenotypic data, the genus and species boundaries are assessed for Exserohilum. Three species, i.e., E. novae-zelandiae, E. paspali and E. sorghicola, are excluded from the genus and reallocated in Sporidesmiella and Curvularia, respectively, whereas E. heteropogonicola and E. inaequale are confirmed as members of Curvularia. Exserohilum rostratum is revealed as conspecific with species previously described in Exserohilum such as E. antillanum, E. gedarefense, E. leptochloae, E. longirostratum, E. macginnisii and E. prolatum. Additionally, E. curvatum is revealed as synonym of E. holmii, and E. fusiforme of E. oryzicola. A total of 11 Exserohilum phylogenetic species are described, illustrated and discussed, including one novel taxon, E. corniculatum. The placements of 15 other doubtful species are discussed, and E. elongatum is validated.
Anaerobic calcium phosphate bio granulation
Cunha, Jorge Ricardo - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.J.N. Buisman; G. Zeeman, co-promotor(en): R.D. van der Weijden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435031 - 214
Anaerobic calcium phosphate bio granulation was originally observed by Tervahauta et al. (2014c) during treatment of source separated black water. However, the required conditions and mechanism behind the granulation were unknown, which limited the phosphorus recovery efficiency to only 2%. Therefore, in this thesis, the anaerobic calcium phosphate bio granulation, to enhance the process feasibility for simultaneous recovery of phosphorus and methane in a single bioreactor, was extensively investigated.
In Chapter 2, the results for the reproduction of the calcium phosphate bio granulation during anaerobic treatment of black water using an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor are presented. An increased bicarbonate concentration in raw black water reduces the ionic activity of soluble calcium significantly, decreasing the phosphorus accumulation in the UASB reactor. Thus, a low concentration of soluble calcium limits phosphorus accumulation, and consequently, affects calcium phosphate bio granulation. Without calcium addition, 5% of the total influent phosphorus was found as calcium phosphate granules in the reactor, after 260 days of operation. Simultaneously, 65% of the organic loading in black water was converted to methane at a process temperature of 25°C.
Chapter 3 shows that addition of extra calcium increases the accumulation of phosphorus in the reactor from 51% to 89% and also stimulates the formation and growth of calcium phosphate granules. Moreover, calcium addition increases the phosphorus content in calcium phosphate granules (> 0.4 mm diameter) from 3.7 to 5.6 wt%. The phosphorus recovery efficiency as calcium phosphate granules increased to 31%, by dosing 250 mgCa2+ L-1 of black water.
A characteristic outer biofilm around the calcium phosphate core was consistently observed, as presented in Chapter 2 and 3. Thus, the role of the outer biofilm on calcium phosphate bio granulation was described in Chapter 4. An increasing pH gradient from the edge (7.4) to the granule core (7.9) was measured. The pH gradient enhances internal supersaturation for calcium phosphate phases, creating conditions for preferable calcium phosphate enrichment of the granule over bulk calcium phosphate precipitation. The pH profile can be explained by measured bio-conversion of acetate and H2, HCO3-, and H+ into CH4 in the outer biofilm and eventually stripping of biogas (CO2 and CH4) from the granule. Consequently, H+ released from aqueous phosphate species during Cax(PO4)y crystallization are internally buffered, stimulating further calcium phosphate precipitation.
In Chapter 5 results that demonstrate that the carbon source and bulk pH are crucial parameters for formation and growth of calcium phosphate granules in a UASB reactor are presented. Anaerobic calcium phosphate bio granulation was achieved using glucose as the sole carbon source while keeping the bulk pH at 7.5. Volatile fatty acids did not yield calcium phosphate granules, and higher bulk pH (8.0 to 8.2) enhanced calcium phosphate precipitation in the bulk of the reactor. Produced extracellular biopolymers stimulated agglomeration of biomass and inorganic calcium phosphate particles, promoting the formation of granules at relatively low upflow velocity (< 1 cm h-1).
In Chapter 6, a novel reactor design, to enhance the phosphorus content in the calcium phosphate granules and the concentration of granules at the harvesting location, is presented. The novel reactor consists of a combination of UASB and gas-lift technologies. The injection of N2 at the bottom of a concentric draft tube creates an internal loop with a concentric upflow velocity (18 m h-1), which lifts lighter particles from the bottom of the sludge bed. Consequently, at steady state, the bottom of the reactor became more compact (73 g of total solids L-1 of sludge), while at the top of the reactor a lighter sludge bed was obtained (31 g of total solids L-1 of sludge). Moreover, the phosphorus concentration at the bottom of the reactor (harvesting location) increased from 3.0 g L-1 in a conventional UASB reactor with calcium addition to 4.6 g L-1 in the novel reactor. Similarly, the phosphorus content in the granules increased from 6.7 wt% to 7.8 wt%. The higher shear obtained by the gas recirculation increases the phosphorus content by reducing the thickness of the outer biofilm, and consequently, decreases the organic content in calcium phosphate granules.
Chapter 7 presents the results of the characterization of calcium phosphate granules, harvested in the novel reactor and subsequently fluidized at an upflow velocity of 76 m h-1. The calcium phosphate granules were characterized to study their potential use as replacement for phosphate rock. The higher shear applied, increased the phosphorus content of the granules to 10 wt% (or 23 wt%P2O5), from which 35% was dissolved within 5 min in citric acid and 85% in H2SO4. Heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd, As, and Pb) and organic micropollutants in calcium phosphate granules are below the Dutch and European regulatory limits for application as a direct fertilizer, but pathogens in raw granules are a concern. Therefore, calcium phosphate granules were glowed at 550ºC to remove pathogens and the remaining organic content (29 wt%), increasing the phosphorus content to 15 wt% (or 34 wt%P2O5). The glowing process enables the direct substitution of phosphate rock by calcium phosphate granules in the phosphate industry for the production of water-soluble phosphate.
The Effect of Bioinduced Increased pH on the Enrichment of Calcium Phosphate in Granules during Anaerobic Treatment of Black Water
Cunha, Jorge Ricardo ; Tervahauta, Taina ; Weijden, Renata D. van der; Temmink, Hardy ; Hernández Leal, Lucía ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Technology 52 (2018)22. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 13144 - 13154.
Simultaneous recovery of calcium phosphate granules (CaP granules) and methane in anaerobic treatment of source separated black water (BW) has been previously demonstrated. The exact mechanism behind the accumulation of calcium phosphate (Cax(PO4)y) in CaP granules during black water treatment was investigated in this study by examination of the interface between the outer anaerobic biofilm and the core of CaP granules. A key factor in this process is the pH profile in CaP granules, which increases from the edge (7.4) to the center (7.9). The pH increase enhances supersaturation for Cax(PO4)y phases, creating internal conditions preferable for Cax(PO4)y precipitation. The pH profile can be explained by measured bioconversion of acetate and H2, HCO3 - and H+ into CH4 in the outer biofilm and eventual stripping of CO2 and CH4 (biogas) from the granule. Phosphorus content and Cax(PO4)y crystal mass quantity in the granules positively correlated with the granule size, in the reactor without Ca2+ addition, indicating that the phosphorus rich core matures with the granule growth. Adding Ca2+ increased the overall phosphorus content in granules >0.4 mm diameter, but not in fine particles (<0.4 mm). Additionally, H+ released from aqueous phosphate species during Cax(PO4)y crystallization were buffered by internal hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and stripping of biogas from the granule. These insights into the formation and growth of CaP granules are important for process optimization, enabling simultaneous Cax(PO4)y and CH4 recovery in a single reactor. Moreover, the biological induction of Cax(PO4)y crystallization resulting from biological increase of pH is relevant for stimulation and control of (bio)crystallization and (bio)mineralization in real environmental conditions.
UV-filters and musk fragrances in seafood commercialized in Europe Union: Occurrence, risk and exposure assessment
Cunha, S.C. ; Trabalón, L. ; Jacobs, S. ; Castro, M. ; Fernandez-Tejedor, M. ; Granby, K. ; Verbeke, W. ; Kwadijk, C. ; Ferrari, F. ; Robbens, J. ; Sioen, I. ; Pocurull, E. ; Marques, A. ; Fernandes, J.O. ; Domingo, J.L. - \ 2018
Environmental Research 161 (2018). - ISSN 0013-9351 - p. 399 - 408.
fish - UV-filters - Musk fragrances - Occurrence - risk assessment - GC-MS/MS
In the framework of the FP7 ECsafeSeafood project, 62 seafood samples commercialized in Europe Union from several representative species – mackerel, tuna, salmon, seabream, cod, monkfish, crab, shrimp, octopus, perch
and plaice – were analysed for residues of 21 personal care products (PCPs), including 11 UV-filters (UV-Fs) and 10 musk fragrances (musks). PCPs analysis were performed by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective Rugged, Safe (QuEChERS), combined with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) or dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE), followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The results showed the presence in a wide range of samples of nine out of eleven UV-Fs compounds analysed, namely 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), 2-
ethylhexyl,4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor (4-MBC), benzophenone-1 (BP1), benzophenone- 3 (BP3), isoamyl-4-methoxycinnamate (IMC), 2,2′-dihydroxy-4,4′-dimethoxybenzophenone (DHMB), homosalate (HS), and octocrylene (OC), whereas galaxolide (HHCB), galaxolide lactone (HHCB-lactone), and tonalide (AHTN) were the most found musks. The potential risks to human health associated with the exposure to eight of the more prevalent PCPs – EHS, EHMC, 4-MBC, BP1, BP3, IMC, HHCB, and AHTN - through seafood
consumption were assessed for consumers from five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). Results showed that the human exposure to UV-Fs and musks estimated from the concentration values
found in seafood and the daily consumption of concerned seafood species, were far below toxicological reference values.
Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in raw and cooked seafood from European market : Concentrations and human exposure levels
Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana ; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara ; Jacobs, Silke ; Serra-Compte, Albert ; Cáceres, Nuria ; Sioen, Isabelle ; Verbeke, Wim ; Barbosa, Vera ; Ferrari, Federico ; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita ; Cunha, Sara ; Granby, Kit ; Robbens, Johan ; Kotterman, Michiel ; Marques, Antonio ; Barceló, Damià - \ 2018
Environment International 119 (2018). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 570 - 581.
Cooking - Dietary exposure - Endocrine disruptors - Pharmaceuticals - Risk - Seafood
Pharmaceuticals (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals of emerging concern that can accumulate in seafood sold in markets. These compounds may represent a risk to consumers through effects on the human reproductive system, metabolic disorders, pathogenesis of breast cancer or development of microbial resistance. Measuring their levels in highly consumed seafood is important to assess the potential risks to human health. Besides, the effect of cooking on contaminant levels is relevant to investigate. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to study the presence and levels of PhACs and EDCs in commercially available seafood in the European Union market, to investigate the effect of cooking on contaminant levels, and to evaluate the dietary exposure of humans to these compounds through seafood consumption. A sampling survey of seafood from 11 European countries was undertaken. Twelve highly consumed seafood types were analysed raw and cooked with 3 analytical methods (65 samples, 195 analysis). PhACs were mostly not detectable or below quantification limits in seafood whereas EDCs were a recurrent group of contaminants quantified in the majority of the samples. Besides, cooking by steaming significantly increased their levels in seafood from 2 to 46-fold increase. Based on occurrence and levels, bisphenol A, methylparaben and triclosan were selected for performing a human exposure assessment and health risk characterisation through seafood consumption. The results indicate that the Spanish population has the highest exposure to the selected EDCs through seafood consumption, although the exposure via seafood remained below the current toxicological reference values.
Characterization of the superoxide dismutase gene family in seeds of two Ricinus communis L. genotypes submitted to germination under water restriction conditions
Gomes Neto, V. ; Ribeiro, P.R. ; Del-Bem, L.E. ; Bernal, D.T. ; Cunha Lima, S.T. ; Ligterink, W. ; Fernandez, L.G. ; Castro, R.D. de - \ 2018
Environmental and Experimental Botany 155 (2018). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 453 - 463.
Castor bean - Germinability - Oilseeds - Oxidative stresses - Pre-germination treatments - Seed priming - Water restriction
Abiotic stresses are the most important environmental factors that negatively affects crop production worldwide, whereas germination is the most critical phase in the plants life cycle. Water availability is essential for proper seed imbibition and vigorous germination and often scarce for Ricinus communis (castor bean) cultivated in semiarid regions of Brazil. Water restriction generally leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and one of the major families of enzymes that counteract ROS are superoxide dismutases (SODs). The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the SOD gene family of R. communis by phylogenetic, biochemical and gene expression analysis and link it to the effect of osmoconditioning on seed vigor. We characterized the effect of osmotic conditioning treatments of seeds of two contrasting R. communis cultivars, EBDA MPA34 and PARAGUAÇU, on germination performance. We also searched the R. communis genome for SOD genes and analyzed them phylogenetically and evaluated their activity and expression in embryos of seeds imbibed under different PEG concentrations (water restriction stress). We could show that some of these treatments improved germinability and vigor of seeds and seedlings in a cultivar-dependent manner. Additionally, R. communis seeds turned out to be very sensitive to the inhibition of germination by osmotic stress even at relative low concentrations. Eight SOD genes were found in the R. communis genome and classified based on phylogenetic analysis, protein domains and prediction of subcellular localization. SOD gene expression was mostly induced during seed imbibition, although their expression was generally inhibited in osmotic potentials below −0.6 MPa and showed partly different gene expression profiles between contrasting cultivars. Cv. PARAGUAÇU showed increased seed vigor after osmoconditioning as compared to cv. EBDA MPA34 which could be related to higher responses of some cv. PARAGUAÇU SOD genes to stress. Our results indicate that SOD genes might be of special interest for R. communis genetic engineering aimed at the increase of production in semiarid regions.
Effects of steaming on contaminants of emerging concern levels in seafood
Barbosa, Vera ; Maulvault, Ana Luísa ; Alves, Ricardo N. ; Kwadijk, Christian ; Kotterman, Michiel ; Tediosi, Alice ; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita ; Sloth, Jens J. ; Granby, Kit ; Rasmussen, Rie R. ; Robbens, Johan ; Witte, Bavo De; Trabalón, Laura ; Fernandes, José O. ; Cunha, Sara C. ; Marques, António - \ 2018
Food and Chemical Toxicology 118 (2018). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 490 - 504.
Musk fragrances and UV-Filters - PAHs - PFCs - Seafood - Steaming - Toxic elements
Seafood consumption is a major route for human exposure to environmental contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs). However, toxicological information about the presence of CeCs in seafood is still insufficient, especially considering the effect of cooking procedures on contaminant levels. This study is one among a few who evaluated the effect of steaming on the levels of different CeCs (toxic elements, PFCs, PAHs, musk fragrances and UV-filters) in commercially relevant seafood in Europe, and estimate the potential risks associated with its consumption for consumers. In most cases, an increase in contaminant levels was observed after steaming, though varying according to contaminant and seafood species (e.g. iAs, perfluorobutanoate, dibenzo(ah)anthracene in Mytilus edulis, HHCB-Lactone in Solea sp., 2-Ethylhexyl salicylate in Lophius piscatorius). Furthermore, the increase in some CeCs, like Pb, MeHg, iAs, Cd and carcinogenic PAHs, in seafood after steaming reveals that adverse health effects can never be excluded, regardless contaminants concentration. However, the risk of adverse effects can vary. The drastic changes induced by steaming suggest that the effect of cooking should be integrated in food risk assessment, as well as accounted in CeCs regulations and recommendations issued by food safety authorities, in order to avoid over/underestimation of risks for consumer health.
Calcium addition to increase the production of phosphate granules in anaerobic treatment of black water
Cunha, Jorge Ricardo ; Schott, Chris ; Weijden, Renata D. van der; Leal, Lucía Hernández ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Buisman, Cees - \ 2018
Water Research 130 (2018). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 333 - 342.
Anaerobic treatment - Black water - Calcium phosphate - Phosphate recovery - UASB reactor
Simultaneous recovery of calcium phosphate granules (CaP granules) and methane from vacuum collected black water (BW), using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was previously investigated. It was calculated that only 2% of the total phosphorus (P) fed was present as CaP granules whereas 51% of the P accumulated dispersed in the reactor, limiting the applicability of this process for recovery of phosphate. This study proposes adding calcium to increase the P accumulation in the reactor and the production of CaP granules. Calcium was added in a lab-scale UASB reactor fed with BW. An identical UASB reactor was used as reference, to which no calcium was added. The treatment performance was evaluated by weekly monitoring of influent, effluent and produced biogas. Sludge bed development and CaP granulation were assessed through particle size analysis. The composition and structure of CaP granules were chemically and optically assessed. Calcium addition increased accumulation of P in the reactor and formation and growth of granules with size > 0.4 mm diameter (CaP granules). Moreover, with calcium addition, CaP granules contained 5.6 ± 1.5 wt% of P, while without calcium a lower P content was observed (3.7 ± 0.3 wt%). By adding Ca, 89% of the incoming P from BW accumulated in the reactor and 31% was sampled as CaP granules (> 0.4 mm diameter). Addition of 250 mgCa L−1 of BW was the optimum loading found in this study. Furthermore, no significant reduction in CODTotal removal (> 80%) and CH4 production (0.47 ± 0.10 gCOD-CH4 g−1CODTotal-BW) was observed. Therefore, adding calcium can significantly increase the CaP granulation without inhibiting the simultaneous CH4 recovery. This further indicates the potential of this process for phosphate recovery.
Assessing the effects of seawater temperature and pH on the bioaccumulation of emerging chemical contaminants in marine bivalves
Maulvault, Ana Luísa ; Camacho, Carolina ; Barbosa, Vera ; Alves, Ricardo ; Anacleto, Patrícia ; Fogaça, Fabiola ; Kwadijk, Christiaan ; Kotterman, Michiel ; Cunha, Sara C. ; Fernandes, José O. ; Rasmussen, Rie R. ; Sloth, Jens J. ; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar ; Eljarrat, Ethel ; Barceló, Damià ; Marques, António - \ 2018
Environmental Research 161 (2018). - ISSN 0013-9351 - p. 236 - 247.
Acidification - Bioaccumulation - Emerging chemical contaminants - Flame retardants - Perfluorinated compounds - Toxic elements - Warming
Emerging chemical contaminants [e.g. toxic metals speciation, flame retardants (FRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), among others], that have not been historically recognized as pollutants nor their toxicological hazards, are increasingly more present in the marine environment. Furthermore, the effects of environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and pH) on bioaccumulation and elimination mechanisms of these emerging contaminants in marine biota have been poorly studied until now. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the effect of warmer seawater temperatures (Δ = + 4 °C) and lower pH levels (Δ = − 0.4 pH units), acting alone or combined, on the bioaccumulation and elimination of emerging FRs (dechloranes 602, 603 and 604, and TBBPA), inorganic arsenic (iAs), and PFCs (PFOA and PFOS) in two estuarine bivalve species (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Ruditapes philippinarum). Overall, results showed that warming alone or combined with acidification promoted the bioaccumulation of some compounds (i.e. dechloranes 602, 604, TBBPA), but also facilitated the elimination of others (i.e. iAs, TBBPA). Similarly, lower pH also resulted in higher levels of dechloranes, as well as enhanced iAs, PFOA and PFOS elimination. Data also suggests that, when both abiotic stressors are combined, bivalves' capacity to accumulate contaminants may be time-dependent, considering significantly drastic increase observed with Dec 602 and TBBPA, during the last 10 days of exposure, when compared to reference conditions. Such changes in contaminants' bioaccumulation/elimination patterns also suggest a potential increase of human health risks of some compounds, if the climate continues changing as forecasted. Therefore, this first study pointed out the urgent need for further research on the effects of abiotic conditions on emerging contaminants kinetics, to adequately estimate the potential toxicological hazards associated to these compounds and develop recommendations/regulations for their presence in seafood, considering the prevailing environmental conditions expected in tomorrow's ocean.
Simultaneous recovery of calcium phosphate granules and methane in anaerobic treatment of black water : Effect of bicarbonate and calcium fluctuations
Cunha Costa, J.M.R. da; Tervahauta, T. ; Weijden, R.D. van der; Hernández Leal, L. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2018
Journal of Environmental Management 216 (2018). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 399 - 405.
Calcium phosphate recovery - Granules - Methane - Source separated black water - UASB reactor
Calcium phosphate (CaP) granules were discovered in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water (BW), using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology. This allows simultaneous recovery of CaP granules and methane in the UASB reactor. However, the role of BW composition on CaP granulation is not yet understood. Moreover, CaP granulation was not observed in previous research on anaerobic treatment of BW, although similar treatment conditions were applied. Therefore, this study shows specifically the influence of bicarbonate and calcium fluctuations in BW on the phosphorus accumulation in the UASB reactor, which directly affects CaP granulation. Without calcium addition, 5% of the total phosphorus (P) fed was found as CaP granules in the reactor (61 mgP g-1dried matter), after 260 days of operation. Simultaneously, 65% of the COD in BW was efficiently converted into methane at 25 °C. Variations of bicarbonate and calcium concentrations in raw BW showed a significant influence on phosphorus accumulation in the UASB reactor. Geochemical modelling showed that the increase of soluble calcium from 39 to 54 mg L-1 in BW triggers supersaturation for calcium phosphate precursors (Cax(PO4)y). Concurrently, bicarbonate decreased from 2.7 to 1.2 g L-1, increasing further the ionic activity of calcium. Formation and accumulation of seed particles possibly enhanced CaP granulation. Preliminary results showed that addition of calcium (Ca2+/PO4 3- molar ratio of 3) increased the accumulation of total P in the UASB reactor to more than 85%. This further increases the granulation rate and consequently, the process feasibility.