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Fleet, D.M. ; Dau, K. ; Gutow, L. ; Schulz, M. ; Unger, Bianca ; Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2017
Wilhelmshaven : Common Wadden Sea Secretariat (Wadden Sea Quality Status Report ) - 22 p.
The results from the various investigations and monitoring programmes presented in this report demonstrate the continuous and widespread occurrence of litter in the Wadden Sea and adjacent offshore waters. Marine litter of different sizes and from diverse sources occurs on dunes and beaches, in and on inter- to subtidal sediments and in marine organisms, including protected seabirds and mammals. The OSPAR Beach Litter Monitoring and Monitoring on Litter in Fulmars’ Stomachs provide an evaluation of the temporal development of litter abundance in the southern North Sea. Both programmes clearly show that litter densities have not declined since the last Wadden Sea QSR in 2009, indicating that large amounts of litter are still entering the marine environment either directly within the Wadden Sea or from adjacent waters. The amount of litter entering the marine environment is continuously increasing
(Jambeck et al., 2015). This increase is, however, not apparent in the results of the two monitoring programmes. Litter degrades in the marine environment and breaks down into ever smaller fragments. The fragmentation of plastic objects produces microplastics, which are not sufficiently assessed by current monitoring programmes. Densities of microplastics are expected to increase substantially in the future in all marine habitats. Accordingly, scientifically sound monitoring of these synthetic particles with standardized methods that allow for the comparison of results from different programmes will be indispensable.
Marine litter is not restricted to specific habitats but occurs in all compartments of the marine environment with a constant exchange between them. Accordingly, monitoring litter densities in both coastal and offshore habitats is essential for a sound evaluation of litter pollution of the Wadden Sea. Many of the investigations presented in this report are on-off events, which do not provide information on temporal trends. However, they do demonstrate that the Wadden Sea is contaminated with marine litter and that litter densities in the Wadden Sea are not lower than in other coastal regions. The litter densities presented in this report provide a valuable baseline for future evaluations of temporal trends. The monitoring of litter in fulmars’ stomachs and the examinations of carcasses of harbour porpoise, harbour seals and eider ducks revealed that litter does not simply occur in the marine environment but actually interacts in a potentially harmful way with the marine biota. It is well established that the ingestion of litter can have deleterious and often lethal effects on marine organisms. It is yet unknown whether marine litter has demographically relevant implications for marine species. For evaluating this, the effects of marine litter must not be considered in isolation but always together with the effects of other environmental stressors such as ocean warming and acidification, eutrophication and the exploitation of natural stocks (see reports on climate change, geomorphology, eutrophication and fisheries). Several
Wadden Sea Plan targets are compromised by the continuous pollution of the North Sea with marine litter. A proper management of the marine litter problem will require appropriate reduction measures and extended and optimized monitoring programmes in order to evaluate future developments.
Finding common ground in implementation: towards a theory of gradual commonality
Haar, M. ter; Aarts, N. ; Verhoeven, P. - \ 2016
Health Promotion International 31 (2016)1. - ISSN 0957-4824 - p. 214 - 230.
This article reports on an empirical study that aimed to design a practice-based theory about collaboration on the local implementation of a nationally developed health-promoting intervention. The study's objective is to better understand the dynamic process of complex collaboration. The research is based on a Delphi study among some 100 individuals in local and regional networks, in which various professionals work together to implement the BeweegKuur, which translates as ‘course of exercise’. The BeweegKuur is a combined lifestyle intervention aimed at promoting sufficient physical exercise and a healthy diet among people in the Netherlands who are overweight and at risk of diabetes. The Delphi study in three rounds systematically and interactively constructs a common perspective on implementation, reflecting stakeholders' ideas about the collaboration and providing an insight into how these ideas are influenced by the context of the implementation. The statistical and qualitative analyses of the responses to the feedback in the Delphi study form the basis for this practice-based theory on complex collaboration, called the theory of gradual commonality. During interaction, consensus gradually emerges about co-creation as a collaboration strategy. Co-creation leaves room for various ways of achieving the ambitions of the BeweegKuur. This article discusses the importance of this practice-based theory and the value of the Delphi research strategy for promoting health.
Thermodynamic characterization of the PR-10 allergens Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 and pH-dependence of nApi g 1 and nDau c 1
Bollen, M.A. ; Wichers, H.J. ; Helsper, J.P.F.G. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2010
Food Chemistry 119 (2010)1. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 241 - 248.
cherry prunus-avium - birch pollen - globular-proteins - cross-reactivity - celery allergens - epitope analysis - major allergen - ige reactivity - food allergens - in-vivo
Natural and recombinant Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen, and homologous allergens, Api g 1 and Dau c 1, from celery and carrot, respectively, were studied by CD spectroscopy under conditions of varying denaturant concentration, pH and temperature to determine fundamental thermodynamic parameters for conformational stability. Thermodynamic studies increase basic knowledge regarding differences between birch pollen-related allergens and are of importance in choosing processing conditions. The conformational stability determined from guanidine hydrochloride denaturation curves was similar for rBet v 1.0101 and rApi g 1.0101. Conformational responses to chaotropic salt were different for recombinant allergens from different species, but were similar for the natural isoform mixtures. The conformational stabilities of nApi g 1 and nDau c 1, were shown to be similar to rBet v 1.2801 at pH > 4.4 [Mogensen, J. E., Ipsen, H., Holm, J., & Otzen, D. E. (2004). Elimination of a misfolded folding intermediate by a single point mutation
Stability of the Bet v 1 cross-reactive allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 : a biophysical approach
Bollen, M.A. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tiny van Boekel; Huub Savelkoul; Harry Wichers, co-promotor(en): Hans Helsper. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853763 - 160
allergenen - voedselallergieën - kruisreactie - betula - daucus carota - penen - selderij - apium graveolens - hooikoorts - allergens - food allergies - cross reaction - betula - daucus carota - carrots - celery - apium graveolens - pollen allergy
The allergen Bet v 1 is known as the primary sensitizer for birch pollen-related food allergy and is responsible for IgE cross-reactivity to pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) proteins from, in particular, fruits from the Rosaceae and vegetables from the Apiaceae families. The allergenic potential of PR-10 proteins is mainly characterized for specific recombinantly produced isoforms, which are used for research and diagnostic purposes. However, in natural food sources these allergens are often present as isoform mixtures. The first aim of this research was to purify and characterize PR-10 allergens as natural isoform mixtures to determine whether differences could be observed between natural and recombinant allergens and between plant families. The second aim was to find a relationship between the physico-chemical stability of PR-10 proteins and structural characteristics to explain differences in IgE binding potential and cross-reactivity. The PR-10 allergens Bet v 1 from birch, Api g 1 from celery, and Dau c 1 from carrot were purified under mild conditions following a standardized protocol. Different allergen isoforms were determined and circular dichorism (CD) analyses of the allergen mixtures showed a similar secondary structure composition as observed for other PR-10 proteins. The allergen mixtures and recombinant allergens were characterized by stability studies to pH, temperature and denaturant where CD was used to detect structural changes. Minor differences were observed in stability between natural isoform mixtures and between the recombinant isoforms, although recombinant Dau c 1 was likely destabilized by its attached His-tag. A general trend was observed for allergen stability, structural differences and their relationship to the IgE binding capacity in aqueous solutions. The allergenic potential decreases in the following order: Bet v 1, the primary allergen of birch pollen-related allergies, Mal d 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1, in accordance with their amino acid sequence identity. Bet v 1 cross-reactive IgE antibodies preferably bind to the charged and polar residues of Mal d 1 for which the positive charge can be increased by the physiological pH of fruit. Api g 1 appears to be more stable than Dau c 1 as the result of a tighter hydrophobic packing. However, the thermodynamic stability of Api g 1 is similar to that of Bet v 1, but the higher proportion of hydrophobic residues and the reduced proportion of charged residues are responsible for the lower IgE binding capacity. Furthermore, the IgE binding capacity is not severely affected, as long as the protein is able to refold. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of the development of allergic symptoms upon exposure to these PR-10 proteins.
Purification and characterization of natural Bet v 1 from birch pollen and related allergens from carrot and celery
Bollen, M.A. ; Garcia, A. ; Cordewener, J.H.G. ; Wichers, H.J. ; Helsper, J.P.F.G. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2007
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 51 (2007)12. - ISSN 1613-4125 - p. 1527 - 1536.
low-temperature method - major cherry allergen - bet-v-i - cross-reactivity - molecular characterization - mass-spectrometry - apium-graveolens - apple allergen - plant-tissues - pru av-1
Birch pollen allergy is predominantly caused by the major allergen Bet v 1 and can lead to crossreactions with homologous proteins in food. Two major cross-reactive food allergens are Dau c 1 from carrot and Api g 1 from celery, which have never been purified from their natural source. Here, we describe a non-denaturing purification method for obtaining natural Bet v 1, Dau c 1 and Api g 1, comprising of ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. This method resulted in 98-99% pure isoform mixtures for each allergen. Characterization of these isoform mixtures with Q-TOF MS/MS clearly showed earlier reported isoforms of Bet v 1, Dau c 1 and Api g 1, but also new isoforms. The presence of secondary structure in the three purified allergens was demonstrated via circular dichroism and showed high similarity. The immune reactivity of the natural allergens was compared with recombinant proteins by Western blot and ELISA and showed similar reactivity.
|Purification and characterization of natural Dau c 1 from Daucus carota Narbonne and Api g 1 from Apium graveolens
Bollen, M.A. ; Wichers, H.J. ; Helsper, J.P.F.G. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2005
|Vè thành phân hóa hoc tinh dâu nghe trang (Curcuma aromatica Salisb, Zingiberaceae) Viêtnam.
Phan Tông Son, ; Vân Ngo Huróng, ; Nguyên Vân Dâu, ; Lurong Si Binh, ; Khoa Hóa, ; Posthumus, M.A. - \ 1989
Top chí Hóa hoc 3 (1989). - p. 18 - 19.