Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Why irrigation water pricing is not widely used
Davidson, Brian ; Hellegers, Petra ; Namara, Regassa Ensermu - \ 2019
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 40 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 1 - 6.

Despite its obvious advantages, pricing irrigation water is not widely practiced because it is not easy to deploy effectively. Water authorities require an understanding of the objectives they hope to gain from it, the performance different pricing instruments have and the preconditions that must be met to enable them to work. Also, pricing instruments work under assumptions that do not hold in an environment where multiple market failures exist and their introduction may lead to a number of unintended consequences those who operate irrigation systems never considered. The aim in this paper is to outline the difficulties that are associated with implementing pricing instruments in the irrigation sector.

The opportunity costs of increasing reliability in irrigation systems
Davidson, Brian ; Hellegers, Petra ; George, Biju ; Malano, Hector - \ 2019
Agricultural Water Management 222 (2019). - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 173 - 181.
Catchments - Foregone benefits - Reliability - Water planning - Water use and management

Increasing water reliability in a catchment requires reducing the total quantity of water available to users in some years in order to supply it in more years when its supply is constrained. Thus, the more reliable the supply the more water that needs to be withheld. Consequently, increased levels of water reliability to a catchment, which reduces the costs associated with an unreliable supply, often comes at an incremental increase in costs that researchers do not consider; that of the water foregone that could be have been used productively if the system had been run less reliably. In this paper the trade-offs between the costs of water foregone to maintain a level of reliability and the costs associated with an unreliable supply of water at different levels of reliability in an irrigation system are discussed. The concepts developed are applied to the irrigation sector in the Musi catchment in Andhra Pradesh, India from 2011 to 2040. In this catchment it was found that the costs of water foregone to increase reliability rise as the level of reliability rises, while the benefits generally fall. When the level of reliability exceeded approximately 85% (where water is so scarce that it is used on only the most valuable output), the costs of greater reliability exceed the benefits resulting in net losses to the system. These results were found to vary in each demand centre across the catchment. These results have implications for those considering innovations that improve the level of reliability in a catchment.

Volatile compounds as insect lures: factors affecting release from passive dispenser systems
Nielsen, Mette Cecilie ; Sansom, Catherine E. ; Larsen, Lesley ; Worner, Susan P. ; Rostás, Michael ; Chapman, Bruce ; Butler, Ruth C. ; Kogel, Willem J. de; Davidson, Melanie M. ; Perry, Nigel B. ; Teulon, David A.J. - \ 2019
New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science (2019). - ISSN 0114-0671
homologues - methyl isonicotinate - non-pheromone semiochemical - pest management - release rates - Thysanoptera

Knowledge about the behaviour of passive dispensers used to release semiochemicals for insect pest management is essential to ensure the efficacy of monitoring and control methods based on the use of the semiochemicals. The release characteristics of different passive dispenser types (commercial sachet, altered commercial sachet, polyethylene bags and cotton rolls) were investigated in the laboratory under various conditions. Using the volatile compound methyl isonicotinate (MI), a known lure for western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and two additional homologues ethyl and n-propyl isonicotinate the effect of loading amount (0.5, 1.0 or 2.5 ml), temperatures (15°C, 25°C or 35°C) and air flow (0.1–0.15 m/s or 0.25–0.3 m/s) were tested in a low-speed laminar-flow wind tunnel. The results showed zero-order release kinetics for all tested dispenser types. Release rate kinetics relies on the type of molecule, dispenser type, and the climatic conditions with temperature being a major determinant of release rate. The results of the release characteristics of the different dispensers are discussed in regards to their practical use under greenhouse and field conditions.

Preface
Finlayson, Max ; Everard, Mark ; Irvine, Kenneth ; McInnes, Robert J. ; Middleton, Beth A. ; Dam, Anne A. van; Davidson, Nick C. - \ 2018
In: The Wetland Book Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789400714717 - p. vii - x.
The Wetland Book : I: Structure and Function, Management, and Methods
Finlayson, Max ; Everard, Mark ; Irvine, Kenneth ; McInnes, Robert J. ; Middleton, Beth A. ; Dam, Anne A. van; Davidson, Nick C. - \ 2018
Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789400714717 - 2238 p.

The Wetland Book is a comprehensive resource aimed at supporting the trans- and multidisciplinary research and practice which is inherent to this field. Aware both that wetlands research is on the rise and that researchers and students are often working or learning across several disciplines, The Wetland Book is a readily accessible online and print reference which will be the first port of call on key concepts in wetlands science and management. This easy-to-follow reference will allow multidisciplinary teams and transdisciplinary individuals to look up terms, access further details, read overviews on key issues and navigate to key articles selected by experts.

Introduction to the wetland book 1 : Wetland structure and function, management, and methods
Davidson, Nick C. ; Middleton, Beth A. ; McInnes, Robert J. ; Everard, Mark ; Irvine, Kenneth ; Dam, Anne A. van; Max Finlayson, C. - \ 2018
In: The Wetland Book Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789400714717 - p. 3 - 14.
Wetland function - Wetland management - Wetland methods - Wetland policy - Wetland structure

The Wetland Book 1 is designed as a 'first port-of-call' reference work for information on the structure and functions of wetlands, current approaches to wetland management, and methods for researching and understanding wetlands. Contributions by experts summarize key concepts, orient the reader to the major issues, and support further research on such issues by individuals and multidisciplinary teams. The Wetland Book 1 is organized in three parts - Wetland structure and function; Wetland management; and Wetland methods - each of which is divided into a number of thematic sections. Each section starts with one or more overview chapters, supported by chapters providing further information and case studies on different aspects of the theme.

Spatial Frames and the Quest for Institutional Fit
Koppen, C.S.A. van; Bush, S.R. - \ 2018
In: Environment and Society / Boström, Magnus, Davidson, Debra J., Palgrave Macmillan - ISBN 9783319764146 - p. 305 - 326.
Spatial frames play a crucial role in debates over environmental sustainability. Building on a social scientific understanding of space, we discuss key spatial frames in biodiversity and ecosystem management, including territory, social-ecological systems, global networks and flows, and sense of place. In evaluating these frames, we argue that the state with its territorial power has clear limitations in effectively and legitimately addressing ecosystem problems, even when it remains a crucial power-container and regulator. Adapting institutional arrangements to ecosystem scale, as advocates of social-ecological systems propose, is often inappropriate because of cross-scale socio-political dynamics. Given the importance of global flows, we argue that place-based or landscape approaches that bring together local ecosystem management and global value chains present an ambivalent, but highly relevant spatial framing.
Global Environmental Networks and Flows Addressing Global Environmental Change
Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2018
In: Environment and Society / Boström, Magnus, Davidson, Debra J., Palgrave Macmillan - ISBN 9783319764146 - p. 95 - 118.
Globalization and its sustainability implications create considerable governance challenges. The global and complex stretch of commodity chains imply innovative governance arrangements because the spatially bounded conventional governance management practices do no longer suffice. Environmental networks and flows studied in environmental social sciences provide a basis for connecting material and non-material flows and social actors in their social networks. Innovative environmental governance arrangements building on this framework offer opportunities for dealing with environmental challenges but also creates challenges with regard to its legitimacy. This perspective is applied in the case of the global palm oil network. This results in some potentially useful conclusions for social sciences more generally: the relevance of including material dimensions, bringing in time and space, using a global perspective, and recognising complexity.
Wetland ecosystem services
Groot, Dolf de; Brander, Luke ; Max Finlayson, C. - \ 2018
In: The Wetland Book / Finlayson, C.M., Everard, M., Irvine, K., McInnes, R.J., Middleton, B.A., van Dam, A.A., Davidson, N.C., Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789400714717 - p. 323 - 333.
Coastal wetlands - Concept - Description and examples - Economic valuation - Inland wetlands - Millennium ecosystem assessment - The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity - Wetland ecosystem services

Wetlands and the ecosystem services they provide are hugely valuable to people worldwide in many ways: For livelihood, for their biodiversity and existence values and for their economic benefits. Yet many of these services, such as the recharge of groundwater, water purification or cultural values are not immediately obvious when one looks at a wetland and most are public services that are not traded in conventional markets. This chapter gives a brief introduction into the concept of wetlands ecosystems services and their values.

The environmental state and environmental governance
Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2018
In: Environment and Society / Boström, Magnus, Davidson, Debra, Palgrave - ISBN 9783319764153 - p. 119 - 142.
Since the late nineteenth century, the nation-state has played a major role in protecting the natural environment. This resulted in the proliferation of specialized state environmental organizations, institutions and practices. For decades this state centrality in environmental protection was judged favourably. However, since the framing of ‘state failure’ in the 1980s and accelerated processes of globalization in the 1990s the environmental state is contested, resulting in the foregrounding of other actors, institutions and authorities in environmental protection. This contribution assesses these debates and developments with respect to the concept of environmental state in OECD countries. It concludes that within today’s polycentric landscape of environmental governance, it is still a useful concept but it has lost its monopoly position and conventional meaning that prevailed earlier.
Comment on “Barriers to enhanced and integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation in Canadian forest management”1
Wellstead, Adam ; Biesbroek, Robbert ; Cairney, Paul ; Davidson, Debra ; Dupuis, Johann ; Howlett, Michael ; Rayner, Jeremy ; Stedman, Richard - \ 2018
Canadian Journal of Forest Research 48 (2018)10. - ISSN 0045-5067 - p. 1241 - 1245.
Adaptation - Climate change - Mechanisms - Mitigation - Policy

We comment on the recent comprehensive review “Barriers to enhanced and integrated climate change adaptation and mitigation in Canadian forest management” by Williamson and Nelson (2017, Can. J. For. Res. 47: 1567–1576, doi:10.1139/cjfr-2017-0252). They employ the popular barriers analysis approach and present a synthesis highlighting the numerous barriers facing Canadian forest managers. The underlying functionalist assumptions of such an approach are highly problematic from both a scholarly and a practical policy perspective. We argue that social scientists engaged in climate change research who want to influence policy-making should understand and then empirically apply causal mechanisms. Methods such as process tracing and qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) are promising tools that can be employed in national-or local-level assessments.

Do payments for forest ecosystem services generate double dividends? An integrated impact assessment of Vietnam’s PES program
Phan, Thu H.D. ; Brouwer, Roy ; Hoang, Long Phi ; Davidson, Marc David - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)8. - ISSN 1932-6203

Payments for ecosystem services (PES) often serve multiple objectives, such as carbon emission reduction and poverty alleviation. However, the effectiveness of PES as an instrument to achieve these multiple objectives, in particular in a conservation-development context, is often questioned. This study adds to the very limited empirical evidence base and investigates to what extent Vietnam’s move to PES has helped protect forest ecosystems and improve local livelihoods and income inequality. We zoom in on Lam Dong province, where PES was first introduced in Vietnam in 2009. Changes in forest cover are analysed using satellite images over a period of 15 years (2000–2014). Socio-economic impacts are assessed based on rural household interviews with PES participants and non-participants as a control group over a period of 7 years (2008–2014). Our results show that PES contributes significantly to forest cover, the improvement of local livelihoods, and the reduction of income inequality.

Response of submerged macrophyte communities to external and internal restoration measures in north temperate shallow lakes
Hilt, Sabine ; Alirangues Nuñez, Marta M. ; Bakker, Elisabeth S. ; Blindow, Irmgard ; Davidson, Thomas A. ; Gillefalk, Mikael ; Hansson, Lars Anders ; Janse, Jan H. ; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Jeppesen, Erik ; Kabus, Timm ; Kelly, Andrea ; Köhler, Jan ; Lauridsen, Torben L. ; Mooij, Wolf M. ; Noordhuis, Ruurd ; Phillips, Geoff ; Rücker, Jacqueline ; Schuster, Hans Heinrich ; Søndergaard, Martin ; Teurlincx, Sven ; Weyer, Klaus van de; Donk, Ellen van; Waterstraat, Arno ; Willby, Nigel ; Sayer, Carl D. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Aquaticplants - Biomanipulation - Eutrophication - Lakerestoration - Nutrient loadreduction - PCLake - Plant traits - Regime shift
Submerged macrophytes play a key role in north temperate shallow lakes by stabilizing clear-water conditions. Eutrophication has resulted in macrophyte loss and shifts to turbid conditions in many lakes. Considerable efforts have been devoted to shallow lake restoration in many countries, but long-term success depends on a stable recovery of submerged macrophytes. However, recovery patterns vary widely and remain to be fully understood. We hypothesize that reduced external nutrient loading leads to an intermediate recovery state with clear spring and turbid summer conditions similar to the pattern described for eutrophication. In contrast, lake internal restoration measures can result in transient clear-water conditions both in spring and summer and reversals to turbid conditions. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these contrasting restoration measures result in different macrophyte species composition, with added implications for seasonal dynamics due to differences in plant traits. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed data on water quality and submerged macrophytes from 49 north temperate shallow lakes that were in a turbid state and subjected to restoration measures. To study the dynamics of macrophytes during nutrient load reduction, we adapted the ecosystem model PCLake. Our survey and model simulations revealed the existence of an intermediate recovery state upon reduced external nutrient loading, characterized by spring clear-water phases and turbid summers, whereas internal lake restoration measures often resulted in clear-water conditions in spring and summer with returns to turbid conditions after some years. External and internal lake restoration measures resulted in different macrophyte communities. The intermediate recovery state following reduced nutrient loading is characterized by a few macrophyte species (mainly pondweeds) that can resist wave action allowing survival in shallowareas, germinate early in spring, have energy-rich vegetative propagules facilitating rapid initial growth and that can complete their life cycle by early summer. Later in the growing season these plants are, according to our simulations, outcompeted by periphyton, leading to late-summer phytoplankton blooms. Internal lake restoration measures often coincide with a rapid but transient colonization by hornworts, waterweeds or charophytes. Stable clear-water conditions and a diverse macrophyte flora only occurred decades after external nutrient load reduction or when measures were combined.
Adaptive policy responses to climate change scenarios in the musi catchment, India
Davidson, Brian ; George, Biju ; Malano, Hector ; Hellegers, Petra - \ 2017
In: Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering, CSEE 2017. - Avestia Publishing - ISBN 9781927877296
In India the stresses on water resource systems have increased, due in part to increased demand for scarce water supplies. Yet, what could be of greater concern is the potential long-run threats of climate change affecting supplies. Before thinking of a policy response to these long-run concerns, the impact of climate change on the reliability of water supply across a catchment needs to be gauged from both a physical and an economic perspective. Once these impacts are known, a more target approach to policy can be formulated. The aim in this research is to briefly present and comment on the results of an assessment of some these dynamic interacting forces across the Musi catchment in India. Of primary interest are the impacts of three different climate variants over the next 30 years have on the reliability of water supply (at the 70, 80 and 90% levels) across seven different agricultural zones in the Musi catchment in India. A hydro-economic modelling effort underlies these results (see Davidson et al forthcoming) which draws on a hydrologic analysis based on the Hadley climate model to model the surface and ground water in the catchment. This model then provides inputs into an allocation model (REALM), to assess the amount of water reliably supplied to different zones in the Musi catchment at different levels of reliability. These flows are ultimately valued to determine the economic consequences of different climate scenarios. In this study, the results are reported for four dryland regions (zones 1 to 4), an irrigation region (Musi Medium,) and two river diverters (the Musi Anicut and the Wastewater irrigation system). Unsurprisingly, from a physical perspective the region's most greatly affected are those heavily dependent on dryland agriculture, especially near Hyderabad City. This region is where the high value products (such as vegetables) are produced. These results imply that some caution should be exercised in choosing policies that allow for the adaptation of climate change, especially in the dryland zones.
Ecological resilience in lakes and the conjunction fallacy
Spears, Bryan M. ; Futter, Martyn N. ; Jeppesen, Erik ; Huser, Brian J. ; Ives, Stephen ; Davidson, Thomas A. ; Adrian, Rita ; Angeler, David G. ; Burthe, Sarah J. ; Carvalho, Laurence ; Daunt, Francis ; Gsell, Alena S. ; Hessen, Dag O. ; Janssen, Annette B.G. ; Mackay, Eleanor B. ; May, Linda ; Moorhouse, Heather ; Olsen, Saara ; Søndergaard, Martin ; Woods, Helen ; Thackeray, Stephen J. - \ 2017
Nature Ecology & Evolution 1 (2017). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1616 - 1624.
There is a pressing need to apply stability and resilience theory to environmental management to restore degraded ecosystems effectively and to mitigate the effects of impending environmental change. Lakes represent excellent model case studies in this respect and have been used widely to demonstrate theories of ecological stability and resilience that are needed to underpin preventative management approaches. However, we argue that this approach is not yet fully developed because the pursuit of empirical evidence to underpin such theoretically grounded management continues in the absence of an objective probability framework. This has blurred the lines between intuitive logic (based on the elementary principles of probability) and extensional logic (based on assumption and belief) in this field.
Methyl isonicotinate - A non-pheromone thrips semiochemical - And its potential for pest management
Teulon, D.A.J. ; Davidson, M.M. ; Perry, N.B. ; Nielsen, M.C. ; Castañé, C. ; Bosch, D. ; Riudavets, J. ; Tol, R.W.H.M. Van; Kogel, W.J. de - \ 2017
International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 37 (2017)2. - ISSN 1742-7584 - p. 50 - 56.
kairomone - pest management strategies - semiochemical - synomone - Thrips

Methyl isonicotinate is one of several patented 4-pyridyl carbonyl compounds being investigated for a variety of uses in thrips pest management. It is probably the most extensively studied thrips non-pheromone semiochemical, with field and glasshouse trapping experiments, and wind tunnel and Y-tube olfactometer studies in several countries demonstrating a behavioural response that results in increased trap capture of at least 12 thrips species, including the cosmopolitan virus vectors such as western flower thrips and onion thrips. Methyl isonicotinate has several of the characteristics that are required for an effective semiochemical tool and is being mainly used as a lure in combination with coloured sticky traps for enhanced monitoring of thrips in greenhouses. Research indicates that this non-pheromone semiochemical has the potential to be used for other thrips management strategies such as mass trapping, lure and kill, lure and infect, and as a behavioural synergist in conjunction with insecticides, in a range of indoor and outdoor crops.

A comparative study of transaction costs of payments for forest ecosystem services in Vietnam
Phan, Thu Ha Dang ; Brouwer, Roy ; Davidson, Marc David ; Hoang, Long Phi - \ 2017
Forest Policy and Economics 80 (2017). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 141 - 149.
Conditionality - Institutional design - Payments for forest ecosystem services - Transaction costs - Vietnam

Two payments for forest ecosystem services (PFES) schemes under one common legal-institutional coordination mechanism but different historical-institutional background and organizational design are analyzed to measure and explain their transaction costs (TC). Data on TC related to payment transfers and conditionality compliance are collected using a combination of in-depth interviews with local PFES scheme coordinators, site visits, and secondary data analysis. The two PFES schemes show substantial differences in TC despite the fact that they emerged from the same legal-institutional framework due to differences in participation rates, types of forest ecosystem services providers, and payment characteristics.

Remote Sensing of Wetland Types: Peat Swamps
Hoekman, D.H. - \ 2017
In: The Wetland Book / Finlayson, C.M., Everard, Mark, Irvine, Kenneth, McInnes, Robert J., Middleton, Berth A., van Dam, Anne A., Davidson, Nick C., Dordrecht : Springer Science + Business Media - ISBN 9789400761728 - 10 p.
Deposits of peat underneath peat swamp forests are among the world’s largest reservoirs of carbon. Although tropical peatlands occupy only about 0.3 % of the global land surface, they could contain as much as 20 % of the global soil carbon stock, representing 63–148 Gt of carbon.

Peat swamp forests are among the worlds most threatened and least known ecosystems. In Southeast Asia large areas of peat swamp forest have been deforested, converted for agricultural projects or into plantations (such as oil palm).

Drainage through canalisation has frequently severely disrupted water table level dynamics, resulting in CO2 emissions due to oxidisation and vulnerability to fire, especially during ‘El-Niño’ years. Water management is essential in addressing disturbances and rehabilitation of degraded tropical peatlands.

Radar satellite observations can be made frequently, also in the wet season.Because of a certain level of penetration of the radar waves, also observation below the canopy is possible. Particularly the L-band sensors on board the former JERS-1 and ALOS-1 satellites are superior to all other spaceborne sensors for assessment of flooding and drought conditions and, thus, hydrological cycles.
Ecological Instability in Lakes: A Predictable Condition?
Spears, B.M. ; Carvalho, L. ; Futter, Martyn N. ; May, L. ; Thackeray, Stephen J. ; Thackeray, Stephen J. ; Adrian, R. ; Angeler, David G. ; Burthe, Sarah J. ; Davidson, Thomas A. ; Janssen, A.B.G. - \ 2016
Environmental Science and Technology 50 (2016)7. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 3285 - 3286.
The Alaska Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA-AK)
Walker, Donald A. ; Breen, Amy L. ; Druckenmiller, Lisa A. ; Wirth, Lisa W. ; Fisher, Will ; Raynolds, Martha K. ; Šibík, Jozef ; Walker, Marilyn D. ; Hennekens, Stephan ; Boggs, Keith ; Boucher, Tina ; Buchhorn, Marcel ; Bültmann, Helga ; Cooper, David J. ; Daniëls, Fred J.A. ; Davidson, Scott J. ; Ebersole, James J. ; Elmendorf, Sara C. ; Epstein, Howard E. ; Gould, William A. ; Hollister, Robert D. ; Iversen, Colleen M. ; Jorgenson, M.T. ; Kade, Anja ; Lee, Michael T. ; MacKenzie, William H. ; Peet, Robert K. ; Peirce, Jana L. ; Schickhoff, Udo ; Sloan, Victoria L. ; Talbot, Stephen S. ; Tweedie, Craig E. ; Villarreal, Sandra ; Webber, Patrick J. ; Zona, Donatella - \ 2016
Phytocoenologia 46 (2016)2. - ISSN 0340-269X - p. 221 - 229.
Circumpolar - Cluster analysis - Database - Tundra - Turboveg - Vegetation classification

The Alaska Arctic Vegetation Archive (AVA-AK, GIVD-ID: NA-US-014) is a free, publically available database archive of vegetation-plot data from the Arctic tundra region of northern Alaska. The archive currently contains 24 datasets with 3,026 non-overlapping plots. Of these, 74% have geolocation data with 25-m or better precision. Species cover data and header data are stored in a Turboveg database. A standardized Pan Arctic Species List provides a consistent nomenclature for vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens in the archive. A web-based online Alaska Arctic Geoecological Atlas (AGA-AK) allows viewing and downloading the species data in a variety of formats, and provides access to a wide variety of ancillary data. We conducted a preliminary cluster analysis of the first 16 datasets (1,613 plots) to examine how the spectrum of derived clusters is related to the suite of datasets, habitat types, and environmental gradients. We present the contents of the archive, assess its strengths and weaknesses, and provide three supplementary files that include the data dictionary, a list of habitat types, an overview of the datasets, and details of the cluster analysis.

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