|Het voorzorgsbeginsel. Preadvies voor de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Levensmiddelenrecht
Defares, K.J. ; Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2009
Den Haag : Sdu uitgevers - ISBN 9789012383066 - 59
voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedselveiligheid - eu regelingen - nederland - europese unie - food legislation - food safety - eu regulations - netherlands - european union
In het eerste decennium van het huidige millennium is het levensmiddelenrecht, naar aanleiding van de voedselveiligheidscrises aan een grote hercodificatie onderworpen. Daaraan zijn bij Verordening (EG) 178/2002 beginselen ten grondslag gelegd. Het beginsel van risicoanalyse eist een wetenschappelijke onderbouwing van ingrepen in de markt. Het voorzorgsbeginsel nuanceert dit vereiste voor situaties waarin de wetenschappelijke risicobeoordeling onvoldoende concludent is. Een begin van wetenschappelijk bewijs kan worden ingeroepen als rechtvaardiging voor overheidsoptreden. Dit preadvies voor het eerste lustrum van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Levensmiddelenrecht analyseert de ontwikkeling van het voorzorgsbeginsel in de rechtspraak, de inhoud van het voorzorgsbeginsel in de Algemene levenmiddelenverordening en de betekenis ervan voor de praktijk van het levensmiddelenrecht in Nederland en de Europese Unie.
|Een begin van wetenschappelijk bewijs. Het voorzorgsbeginsel in het levensmiddelenrecht
Defares, K.J. ; Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2009
Sociaal-economische wetgeving : tijdschrift voor Europees en economisch recht / Nederlandse Vereniging voor Europees Recht 57 (2009)12. - ISSN 0165-098X - p. 462 - 482.
Werkverhoudingen en stress op het boerenbedrijf = Stress and work issues among farm couples
Giesen, C.W.M. - \ 1991
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): P.B. Defares, co-promotor(en): J.A.M. Winnubst. - S.l. : Giesen - ISBN 9789051700817 - 199
psychologie - stress - familiebedrijven, landbouw - agrarische samenleving - psychology - stress - family farms - agricultural society
This book is a study of several issues of the working relationship between the farmer and the farmers' wife on Dutch dairy farms, related to their subjective well-being
|Social support en riskant gezondheidsgedrag.
Defares, P.B. ; Soomer, K.L.P. de - \ 1988
In: Toegepaste sociale psychologie 3, J. van Grumbkow, D. van Kreveld en R. van der Vlist (red.). Swets en Zeitlinger, Lisse - p. 1 - 17.
|The effects of negative life events and emotional eating on change in body mass.
Defares, P.B. ; Strien, T. van; Frijters, J.E.R. - \ 1987
In: Progress in psychotherapy research / Huber, W., - p. 231 - 246.
De waarneming en waardering van landschappen
Coeterier, J.F. - \ 1987
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): P.B. Defares, co-promotor(en): M.J. Vroom. - S.l. : Coeterier - 204
milieu - ideologie - landschap - perceptie - taxatie - environment - ideology - landscape - perception - valuation
'Landscape' is defined in many ways. However, all definitions have in common: (a) the interaction between organisms, including man, and inorganic nature; this is landscape as a process; (b) the unity of the landscape and the coherence of its parts; this is landscape as structure*; and often: (c) the influence of social and cultural processes in the formation of the landscape, the social determinism of the landscape. A landscape is conceived of as a system, characterized by the interaction of natural and cultural forces, possessing a definite organization. Depending on one's background and interest, a certain aspect is accentuated in the study of landscapes. Landscape architects mainly concentrate on structural aspects. Perception psychologists too are preoccupied with pattern variables, stemming from Gestalt psychology. Lay people are primarily interested in the social aspects of a landscape, especially in the Netherlands, where every landscape is man-made. For them, human action is the main force in landscape formation.
The Dominant Perceptual Attributes
These attributes have several implications:
ad 1. Unity
ad 2. Use
ad 3. The physical component: soil and water
ad 4. The biotic component: naturalness
ad 5. The spatial arrangement: spatiality
ad 6. Development: the behaviour of the landscape system in time
ad 7. Management
ad 8. Phenomenal aspects
Some Applications of the Dominant Perceptual Attributes in Planning.
|De centrumfunctie en sociale uitwisseling.
Soomer, K.L.P. de; Defares, P.B. ; Slijkerman, A.J.M. - \ 1987
Bedrijfsontwikkeling 18 (1987). - ISSN 0303-4127 - p. 166 - 172.
Cultuur, psychologie, omgevingsvormgeving en zelfoverstijging
Boerwinkel, H.W.J. - \ 1986
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): P.B. Defares; M.J. Vroom. - Wageningen : Boerwinkel - 436
cultuur - ontwerp - milieu - milieueffect - geschiedenis - landschap - mens - perceptie - ruimtelijke ordening - planning - psychologie - sociaal milieu - beschaving - cultuurgeschiedenis - invloeden - culture - design - environment - environmental impact - history - landscape - man - perception - physical planning - planning - psychology - social environment - civilization - cultural history - influences
Development as manifested both in the culture as a whole and in individuals is based on a dialectical process. This is the central theme of this study.
The nature of this dialectical process is explored in order to assess to what extent it may contribute to a solution of what has been labeled: the problem of self- transcendance in western culture. In this context, it is contended that the dialectical process runs as follows: a satisfying transactional event (thesis), is gradually hampered and eventually blocked and is inevitably being converted into a diametrically opposite direction (antithesis) and has ultimately to be 'liberated' (synthesis) by proceeding to a higher level of transactional functioning of the organism - and/or the culture.
This very outcome is due to a differentiation steered by a set of four basic components, called 'dialectical control functions' (DCF's). These control functions are deducted on the basis of a formal analysis and illustrated with reference to basic theories and models of behavior borrowed from general psychology. Not only developmental stages of personality growth, but also models of perception and learning are reconstructed in such a fashion that the dialectical dynamics takes the form of successive stages.
It is suggested that these stages are related to functional exchange structures in the brain.
With due reference to diverse dialectical conceptualizations of philosophers who deal with the course of history, it seems possible to conceive of a culture as homologuous with processes in the individual.
An important supplementation of the socalled 'forward' character of dialectic process, such as described above, is a 'backward' type of dialectic dynamics. This backward type of dialectic dynamics is engendered by the transactional partner, in close correspondence with the gradual appropriation by the subject of the dialectical control functions (DCF's). This backward dialectic appears to have a basic connection with the problem of self-transcendence as mentioned above. The transactional partner, eg. a parent in the role of 'counterpart' for the child, reverses the sequence of DCF-combinations so as to bring about 'disappropriation', while the subject - the child - is proceeding forwards.
The concepts of 'giving and taking', of 'love for the other and self-love', of 'self- denial and self-actualisation' are thus connected in a fundamental dialectical bond.
The main topics of this thesis concern the following. In chapter 2 several models of development of western culture comprising explicit or less conspicuous dialectical themes are explored.
In chapter 3 some basic parallels concerning discussions about the problem of self-transcendence in the period around the beginning of our era among the Greek, the Romans and in Christianity and comparable discussions in our time are explored. The implications of these parallels for the interpretation of the period 'in between' as a fundamental dialectical regression of western culture are introduced as a warning to be vigilant with regard to the fundamental options of cultural progression, stagnation and regression.
Chapter 4 describes the derivation of the basics of DCF-dialectics, both the forward and the backward types. In a brief comparative excursion the evident correspondence of the DCF-control-system is discussed. In view of the seemingly evident parallels between this system and the Periodic System of Elements in chemistry the dialectical system as depicted in this study is further referred to as a Periodic System of Psychological Transactions.
In chapter 5 the forward and backward PSPT-dialectic are considered so as to see what practical consequences are implicated.
First, the 'mystic road', in the sense that this may refer to a gradual and stepwise submergence into a sort of a union with the Absolute, is interpreted as typical for the backward dialectic; this in apparent contradiction to a downright regression. The former is a proces which takes place within a limited space and time dimension which is liable at any time to resume forward progression. Regression implies a less controlled form of a setback to earlier stages in PSPT-terms.
Moreover a more or less drastic dissolution of the self is involved in surrendering to environmental demands.
In order to make a clear distinction between the two modes, reference was made to an analysis of Erich Fromm, presented in chapter 3 in terms of healthy as opposed to negative, 'symbiotic' transcendence in relationships which imply mutual dependency.
Another specification referring to the backward dialectic (in chapter 5) is to be found in the professional development of the reknowned psychotherapist from the humanistic school Carl Rogers. In this context due reference is given to the psychodynamics of his therapeutic procedure.
As an example of regression which has to be taken as a serious option of defective self-transcendence in society, reference is made to the measurement of the socalled 'authoritarian reaction' in (American) society.
The specific dimensions relevant for adaptation the backward dialectic and regression are finally integrated in the same chapter into a general model of decision making under threat.
The change in basic orientation regarding the problem of self-transcendence - both in a personal (professional) and in cultural sense - may be interpreted as a process of successive steps in which the need for a fundamental change in adaptational strategy is evaluated by the subject or the culture.
A prediction was put forward that a discriminative. assessment of a potential long term regressive dynamic in future cultural change is not to be expected before the end of the century.
In chapter 6 an operationalization is presented of three socalled 'basic attitudes', to be defined as 'standards' from which each member of our culture is supposed to derive a priority-system of values.
With formal reference to the PSPT-system, and with reference to the psychological analysis of western history which was presented in chapter 2, these three basic attitudes are called 'nomocentrism', 'technocentrism' and 'biocentrism'.
Nomocentrism refers to the preferred valuation of traditional and hierarchically institutionalized values, customs and authority in a spatially bounded - more or less local - area.
Technocentrism is the basic attitude favoring the functional allocation of differentiated tasks and facilities to be perceived as means to enhance organizational expertise.
Biocentrism is the basic attitude in which all living creatures are the main focus which acts as the starting point and inspiration for decisional options. The former implies the living nature outside and inside the self and involves both human and nonhuman beings.
In biocentrism the basic viewpoint is also that self-transcendence has to be integrated with self-actualization on a genuine nondominant basis.
These three basic attitudes have been operationalized by means of the socalled NTB-scale, presenting 14 to 16 basic problems with which society is presently confronted. These problems range from small scale conflicts in the family via medium scale conflicts regarding environmental design to large scale conflicts concerning environmental pollution, nature conservation, financing of higher education, liberal art, arms control a.o.
In three studies the scale was administered to a student population and permitted assessment in terms of validation.
There appeared to be predominant adherence to the biocentric outlook. A further outcome showed successive steps of equal and significant distances for technocentrism and nomocentrism. The latter was evidently rejected by the majority of the respondents.
Biocentrism appeared also to be significantly linked with a measure of generalized and differentiated forms of coping; and also with positive 'self experience', as measured with a special scale. A factor dimension in this scale, which was interpreted in terms of 'transcendence', was exclusively and posi tively correlated with NTB-biocentrism.
The last two chapters are specifically concerned with the implications of the preceding for environmental design, with special reference to landscape architecture.
In chapter 7 aspects of historical development in urban design and landscape architecture could be interpreted as a specification of the general dialectical picture in western culture as was described earlier.
The professional development of the architect and urban designer Christopher Alexander was dealt with stipulating that his basic attitude is to a large extent comparable to the stand of Carl Rogers. The implimentation of the evocation of ideational processes in Alexander's clients could moreover be interpreted as basically similar in terms of the backward dialectic, as is the case in mysticism and also in the therapeutic process in Rogers' clinical practice.
In chapter 8 the fundamental process of imaginative submergence in the object of design on the side of the client is differentiated formally in three phases.
In the first phase, which was called the 'context of imagination', the dynamics of self-transcendence were considered to be steered by social psychological processes among different participants - including the designers - , implicating mutual exchange with regard to their respective basic attitudes.
In the second phase, which was called the 'freedom of imagination' the dynamics of self-transcendence was considered to be steered by the interests of others outside the group of participants.
In a formal sense the administration of local, regional and central government operating on principles of law and formal agreements constitute the financial and material limitations within which imagination may move freely. In a less formal sense the interests of people who just pass by, such as tourists and non- residents, can be brought into the imaginative process during this phase
At last the dynamics of self-transcendence are directed at the imaginative processes with reference to spatial conditions, functional significance and personal experience.
This in fact refers to the third phase which is called 'dynamics of imagination'. This phase is thoroughly covered by Alexander.
His manner of dealing with the imaginative process, which we interpreted earlier as a specification of the backward dialectic, is conceived as a model for projects of landscape planning and design.
By way of exemplification a design was presented which was diagnosed as suggesting a kind of self-transcendence on a truly biocentric basis, while at the same time suppression of the individual by a local community is to be feared.
Another example refers to a project in which opportunities for genuine selftranscendence by local participants were probably overlooked.
Two other projects in which environmental psychologists participated seemed to have failed in offering a substantial contribution to the dynamics of imagination in phase three - as was the case with the architects.
In the final section attention is given to techniques which may enhance the capacity of architects to share their own imaginative experience with the users of their designs.
|Traumatische ervaringen, gevolgen en verwerking.
Kleber, R.J. ; Brom, D. ; Defares, P.B. - \ 1986
Lisse : Swets & Zeitlinger - ISBN 9789026507571 - 278 p.
|Traumatische ervaringen, gevolgen en verwerking.
Kleber, R.J. - \ 1986
University of Amsterdam (UvA). Promotor(en): P.B. Defares; P.E. Boeke. - Lisse : Swets en Zeitlinger - 278 p.
|Traumatische ervaringen en psychotherapie.
Brom, D. ; Kleber, R.J. ; Defares, P.B. - \ 1986
Lisse : Swets en Zeitlinger - ISBN 9789026507595 - 225
geestelijke stoornissen - psychiatrie - psychosen - psychotherapie - mental disorders - psychiatry - psychoses - psychotherapy
|Traumatische ervaringen en psychotherapie.
Brom, D. - \ 1986
University of Amsterdam (UvA). Promotor(en): P.B. Defares; J.H. Dijkhuis. - Lisse : Swets en Zeitlinger - 225 p.
|The Dutch eating behavior questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behavior.
Strien, T. van; Frijters, J.E.R. ; Bergers, G.P.A. ; Defares, P.B. - \ 1986
International Journal Eating Disorders 5 (1986). - p. 295 - 315.
Schuldgevoel en subjectieve competentie : condities voor verandering van gedrag
Soomer, K.L.P. De - \ 1986
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): P.B. Defares. - Wageningen : De Soomer - ISBN 9789026507045 - 229
abnormaal gedrag - verwantschap - ethiek - tabak - verslaving - tabak roken - obesitas - overgewicht - vriendschap - abnormal behaviour - kinship - ethics - tobacco - addiction - tobacco smoking - obesity - overweight - friendship
In emotion theory, much attention has been given to guilt feelings as important emotions that play a significant role in interactions with the environment. Since Freud stressed the destructive influence of neurotic guilt feelings on the adaptive resources of the individual, ample attention has been given to these negative aspects in the psychological literature. It is important to emphasize that, according to this stand, guilt feelings have harmful effects on the intrapsychic dynamics of individuals and on their capacity to engage in interpersonal and social intercourse. In contrast, the potential positive impact of guilt feelings has been neglected in the history of psychology. Positive effects of guilt feelings are obviously not to be expected in the case of neurotic and unjustified guilt feelings. However, the negative evaluation of guilt may have obscured the functionality of guilt for adaptive behavioral change.
In research on helping behavior, evidence has been found that moral transgression leads to greater compliance. According to Freedman (1970), the internal state that ties together the experimental findings, should be labeled as guilt. Guilt, the unpleasant emotion following neglected responsibility, can have positive effects for prosocial behavior. The research presented here elaborates on potential positive effects derived from guilt. Freedman draws attention to two major problems concerning guilt as an intervening variable: firstly guilt is a very rich, but somewhat vague concept, and secondly it is difficult to measure it directly. According to Freedman, various attempts to construct measures of guilt have been unsuccessful.
In an attempt to overcome the latter difficulty, a new guilt scale was developed. In a preliminary phase, 30 subjects were interviewed on their belief s and feelings concerning situations that may arouse guilt feelings. On the basis of the data, 112 statements were formulated, indicating diverse aspects of guilt. In a later phase, these statements were presented to 188 subjects, using a five-point scale format. The data were condensed by way of factor analysis. The resulting guilt scale finally comprises 14 items. Factor one reflects a negative assessment of one's own functioning concerning both physical and psychological aspects. The second factor reflects the feelings of being rejected with reference to a negative evaluation of one's own behavior. Factor I refers to distress in a moral general sense. Factor II reflects the guilt element more specifically. In order to tackle the ambiguous content validity of the guilt concept, guilt was related tot the concept of (negative) subjective competence. Bowerman's (1978) subjective competence model provides a framework for assessing negative selfreferent belief structures, indicating the degree to which the subject attributes unfavorable behavior to himself of herself. The self-referent belief structures represent attribution-sequences implying three qualitatively different attributions, namely: action-attribution, i.e. attributing an action to an actor; effectattribution, i.e. attributing an effect to an action; and affect-attribution, i.e. attributing a positive or a negative affect to an effect. Each attribution can have a more or less positive or negative value. The value of the attribution-sequence is defined by the product of the different attributions: (action-attribution) x (effect-attribution) x (affect-attribution) = subjective competence.
Additionally to an analysis of personal feelings of responsibility in terms of concrete, identifiable actions, the subjective competence model provides a new instrument for measuring cognitive defensiveness. The theory distinguishes between primitive and complex defenses. Primitive defenses resemble defenses known as denial and stopping thinking, and seem to be less susceptible to change or influence. Complex defenses resemble justifications and rationalizations, and seem to be more susceptible to change and influence. Individuals with stronger negative subjective competence will demonstrate more complex defenses, which is considered to facilitate behavioral change. On the other hand, individuals with less negative subjective competence will demonstrate more primitive defenses, which is considered to hamper behavioral change. Negative subjective competence indicates the degree of responsibility a person may feel with regard to his defective behavior and unfavorable outcomes, which he attributes to himself as an actor. To the extent that the explanation of negative subjective competence does not take the concept of guilt into account, the explanation would be morally neutral. Whenever a person's responsibility is at stake, however, a moral explanation is involved. Therefore, both guilt and negative subjective competence were operationalized as intervening variables in a research design which was applied to two different kinds of risky health behavior, namely cigarette smoking and overeating.
In an initial pilot study a tentative operationalization of the subjective competence theory was tested using 85 cigarette smokers. In a later stage a more elaborate research study was carried out with 270 cigarette smokers in order to test a research design in which anxiety, negative self esteem, and attributionstyle predict guilt feelings concerning smoking and negative subjective competence concerning smoking, both to be considered as intervening variables. Subsequently, a higher degree of guilt and negative subjective competence, together with situational determinants and population characteristics, predict the following dependent variables: a stronger intention to quit smoking, more complex and less primitive defenses, and less positive attitude towards smoking. The evidence corroborates the theory to a considerable extent, and the results obtained via path-analysis gave further support to the validity of the theoretical model.
In addition, three different degrees of guilt feelings were induced experimentally in order to test a differential effect on the readiness to change risky health behavior. In the first instance, a hypothesis concerning a curvilinear effect on change scores was not corroborated. Yet, on the basis of further analysis, using Analysis of Variance, the data indicate that the degrees of guilt induction are indeed differentially effective in enhancing the intention to behavioral change and in optimizing the structure of cognitive defenses. In fact the differences concerning primitive and complex defenses were substantial in the condition in which the middle level of guilt was induced. On the basis of the empirical findings it is concluded that the degree to which induction of guilt might contribute to behavioral change is to be considered as a function of (a) the strength of the message, (b) the susceptibility of the receiver, and (c) characteristics of the person or institution being held responsible for the message.
A similar research model was tested on the topic of overeating, using 64 subjects, partly obese and partly non-obese individuals. Negative subjective competence concerning three patterns of overeating — emotional eating, external eating, and non-restrained eating — could in an analogous fashion be predicted by anxiety, guilt and negative self-esteem. In correspondence with the previous study a higher degree of negative subjective competence predicts stronger intentions to change behavior, and similar defense structures. More guilt and more negative subjective competence clearly contribute to a much higher extent than do low guilt and low negative subjective competence to the intention to change risky health behavior. Subjects with more guilt and more negative subjective competence demonstrate a more differentiated defense system in comparison with subjects with low guilt and low negative subjective competence, who demonstrate more primitive defenses. Further research on this topic is recommended in order to investigate whether guilt feelings can be fruitfully utilized in the context of therapeutic and preventive manoeuvres, especially in the field of addiction, pertaining to smoking, eating disorders, alcoholism, and drugs abuse, or even more generally in different areas of unwanted behaviors, such as vandalism and antisocial behavior.
In the final chapter an attempt is made to apply the theory to the process of socialization. Extreme high guilt feelings, and hypersensitivity for guilt, undoubtedly represent an unwanted outcome of the socialization process, because they may lead to alienation from the self. Extreme low guilt feelings, however, and hyposensitivity for guilt, should also be considered ineffective, because they may lead to alienation from social reality. A medium degree of guilt feelings and sensitivity for guilt will be the better outcome. In this study the theory has been operationalized with respect to two specific risky health behaviors. The findings seem to justify the expectation that the theoretical model can be applied to other behaviors as well. In this manner the presented research possibly may offer a contribution to the rediscovery of the unjustly neglected constructive function, which guilt feelings may have for behavioral change.
|Life events, emotional eating and change in body mass.
Strien, T. van; Rookus, M.A. ; Bergers, G.P.A. ; Frijters, J.E.R. ; Defares, P.B. - \ 1986
International Journal of Obesity 10 (1986). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 29 - 35.
|Handleiding De Nederlandse vragenlijst voor eetgedrag.
Strien, T. van; Frijters, J.E.R. ; Bergers, G.P.A. ; Defares, P.B. - \ 1986
|Geregelde spanning; Liber amicorum voor P.B. Defares.
Soomer, K.L.P. de; Boerwinkel, H.W.J. ; Kleber, R.J. - \ 1986
Wageningen : Stichting voor Onderzoek naar Psycho-sociale Stress - ISBN 9789067540971 - 206
psychologie - psychosociale aspecten - sociaal gedrag - sociologie - verzamelde werken - psychology - psychosocial aspects - social behaviour - sociology - collected papers
Eating behaviour, personality traits and body mass
Strien, T. van - \ 1986
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): P.B. Defares; J.G.A.J. Hautvast. - Wageningen : Van Strien - 167
karakteristieken - consumptiepatronen - voedselhygiëne - voedingstoestand - obesitas - overgewicht - persoonlijkheid - characteristics - consumption patterns - food hygiene - nutritional state - obesity - overweight - personality
In this study, three theories on the development and maintenance of human obesity are investigated. These theories are the psychosomatic theory, the externality theory and the theory of restrained eating.
The psychosomatic theory focuses on emotional factors, and attributes overeating to confusion between internal arousal states accompanying emotional states and physiological states of hunger and satiety. Individuals having the tendency to eat in response to emotional states are considered to be unadjusted and to suffer from unstable emotionality.
Externality theory focuses on external food cues, and attributes overeating to a hyper-responsiveness to food-related cues in the environment together with unresponsiveness to internal cues of hunger or satiety. This tendency is considered to be a manifestation of the general trait of externality.
The theory of restrained eating focuses on side effects of dieting, that is, the possible breakdown of restrictive control so that suppressed eating behaviour is disinhibited and excessive food intake occurs.
Psychosomatic theory emphasizes internal instigation of eating and externality theory focuses on external instigation of eating. Both theories contend that dieting results from overeating and weight gain, whereas according to the theory of restrained eating, dieting may lead to overeating and weight gain. As these theories differ in assumptions why individuals overeat, it is difficult to determine how overeating or overweight can be adequately treated. Thus, the principal aim of this study was to test a number of hypotheses evoking from these theories. This was done by reviewing the literature on these theories (Part I of this dissertation) and subsequently by carrying out a series of psychometric studies on the relationships between the three types of eating behaviour central to these theories (emotional, external and restrained eating behaviour) and variables, such as personality traits and body mass (Part II of this dissertation).
Agrarisch ondernemerschap in psychologisch perspectief.
Defares, P.B. - \ 1986
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 28
cognitieve ontwikkeling - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - mentale vaardigheid - ontwikkelingspsychologie - cognitive development - farm management - mental ability - developmental psychology
|Schokkende gebeurtenissen: therapie en onderzoek
Brom, D. ; Kleber, R.J. ; Defares, P.B. - \ 1985