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A Probably Minor Role for Land-Applied Goat Manure in the Transmission of Coxiella burnetii to Humans in the 2007-2010 Dutch Q Fever Outbreak
Brom, R. Van den; Roest, H.I.J. ; Bruin, Arnout de; Dercksen, D. ; Santman-Berends, I.M.G.A. ; Hoek, Wim van der; Dinkla, A. ; Vellema, Jelmer ; Vellema, P. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 16 p.
In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella burnetii. The aims of this study were 1) to clarify the role of C. burnetii contaminated manure from dairy goat farms in the transmission of C. burnetii to humans, 2) to assess the impact of manure storage on temperature profiles in dunghills, and 3) to calculate the decimal reduction time of the Nine Mile RSA 493 reference strain of C. burnetii under experimental conditions in different matrices. For these purposes, records on distribution of manure from case and control herds were mapped and a potential relation to incidences of human Q fever was investigated. Additionally, temperatures in two dunghills were measured and related to heat resistance of C. burnetii. Results of negative binomial regression showed no significant association between the incidence of human Q fever cases and the source of manure. Temperature measurements in the core and shell of dunghills on two farms were above 40°C for at least ten consecutive days which would result in a strong reduction of C. burnetii over time. Our findings indicate that there is no relationship between incidence of human Q fever and land applied manure from dairy goat farms with an abortion wave caused by C. burnetii. Temperature measurements in dunghills on two farms with C. burnetii shedding dairy goat herds further support the very limited role of goat manure as a transmission route during the Dutch human Q fever outbreak. It is very likely that the composting process within a dunghill will result in a clear reduction in the number of viable C. burnetii.
Molecular epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from ruminants in Q fever outbreak, the Netherlands.
Roest, H.I.J. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Tilburg, J.H.H.C. ; Nabuurs-Fransen, M.H. ; Klaassen, C.H.W. ; Vellema, P. ; Brom, R. Van den; Dercksen, D. ; Wouda, W. ; Spierenburg, M. ; Spek, A.N. Van der; Buijs, R. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. - \ 2011
Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (2011)4. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 668 - 675.
goats - history
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. One of the largest reported outbreaks of Q fever in humans occurred in the Netherlands starting in 2007; epidemiologic investigations identified small ruminants as the source. To determine the genetic background of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants responsible for the human Q fever outbreak, we genotyped 126 C. burnetii–positive samples from ruminants by using a 10-loci multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analyses panel and compared them with internationally known genotypes. One unique genotype predominated in dairy goat herds and 1 sheep herd in the human Q fever outbreak area in the south of the Netherlands. On the basis of 4 loci, this genotype is similar to a human genotype from the Netherlands. This finding strengthens the probability that this genotype of C. burnetii is responsible for the human Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands
Reduction of Coxiella burnetii prevalence by vaccination of goats and sheep, the Netherlands
Hogerweg, R. ; Brom, R. Van den; Roest, H.I.J. ; Bouma, A. ; Vellema, P. ; Pieterse, M. ; Dercksen, D. ; Nielen, M. - \ 2011
Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (2011). - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 379 - 386.
q-fever - pregnant goats - outbreak
Recently, the number of human Q fever cases in the Netherlands increased dramatically. In response to this increase, dairy goats and dairy sheep were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii. All pregnant dairy goats and dairy sheep in herds positive for Q fever were culled. We identified the effect of vaccination on bacterial shedding by small ruminants. On the day of culling, samples of uterine fluid, vaginal mucus, and milk were obtained from 957 pregnant animals in 13 herds. Prevalence and bacterial load were reduced in vaccinated animals compared with unvaccinated animals. These effects were most pronounced in animals during their first pregnancy. Results indicate that vaccination may reduce bacterial load in the environment and human exposure to C. burnetii.
Overleving van Coxiella burnetii in geitenmest : eindrapportage
Roest, H.I.J. ; Dinkla, A. ; Rotterdam, B. van; Bruin, A. de; Dercksen, D. ; Vellema, P. - \ 2011
[S.l.] : S.n. (Rapport 11/CVI0212) - 23
geitenhouderij - dierlijke meststoffen - stalmest - huisvesting op dik strooisel - coxiella burnetii - kwantitatieve analyse - temperatuur - bacteriëntelling - geitenziekten - q-koorts - goat keeping - animal manures - farmyard manure - deep litter housing - coxiella burnetii - quantitative analysis - temperature - bacterial counting - goat diseases - q fever
De afname van het aantal bacteriën in geitenmest is bestudeerd onder omstandigheden, zoals die zich in opgeslagen geitenmest voordoen. De afname van het aantal bacteriën bij verschillende temperaturen wordt weergegeven door middel van de decimale reductietijd (DRT of Dwaarde). De DRT is de tijd die nodig is om het aantal bacteriën met een factor 10 te laten afnemen bij een bepaalde temperatuur. In dit onderzoek is de DRT voor C. burnetii in geitenpotstalmest bij verschillende temperaturen bepaald.
|How widespread is resistance to invermectin among gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep in The Netherlands? = Hoe wijd verspreid is resistentie tegen ivermectine van maagdarmwormen bij het schaap in Nederland?
Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Verkaik, J.C. ; Moll, L. ; Dercksen, D. ; Vellema, P. ; Bavinck, G. - \ 2010
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 135 (2010)21. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 782 - 785.
ivermectine - schapen - maagdarmziekten - wormen - schapenhouderij - haemonchus contortus - ivermectin - sheep - gastrointestinal diseases - helminths - sheep farming - haemonchus contortus - anthelmintic resistance - teladorsagia-circumcincta - haemonchus-contortus - moxidectin - ostertagia - efficacy - benzimidazole - association - strain
In Autumn 2009, a faecal egg count reduction test (FERCT) was carried out on three sheep farms. Groups of 8-11 lambs were treated with ivermectin or moxidectin, with a 14-day interval between treatment and sampling. Ivermectin resistance was present on all three farms. Treatment with ivermectin resulted in a reduction in faecal egg numbers of 94.6%, 63%, and 59%. On two farms, 14 days after treatment pooled faecal samples yielded predominantly larvae of Hamonchus contortus (100% and 98%, respectively). On the third farm, H. contortus and (probably) Teladorsagia circumcincta were resistant to ivermectin (64% and 36% of the larvae, respectively). Treatment with moxidectin resulted in a 100% reduction in egg output in sheep on all three farms. More sensitive culture techniques failed to detect any larvae in samples taken from two farms, but a few Ostertagia-type larvae, probably of T. circumcincta, were detected in samples from the third farm. It can be concluded that gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep from these three farms were resistant to ivermectin, whereas resistance to moxidectin was not detected.
|Bekämpfung der Blauzungenkrankheit - Eine neue Herausforderung für Europa
Makoschey, Birgit ; Beer, M. ; Zientara, S. ; Haubruge, E. ; Rinaldi, L. ; Dercksen, D. ; Millemann, Y. ; Rijn, P. van; Clercq, K. De; Oura, C. ; Saegerman, C. ; Domingo, M. ; Sánchez-Vizcaino, J.M. ; Mehlhorn, H. ; Tamba, M. ; Thiry, E. - \ 2008
Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 121 (2008)7-8. - ISSN 0005-9366 - p. 306 - 313.
|First outbreak of bluetongue in goats in The Netherlands
Dercksen, D. ; Groot Nibbelink, N. ; Paauwe, R. ; Backx, A. ; Rijn, P.A. van; Vellema, P. - \ 2007
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 132 (2007)10. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 786 - 790.
For the first time, bluetongue has been diagnosed in goats in the Netherlands and in Northwest-Europe. On the 17th of August 2006, bluetongue was for the first time diagnosed in sheep and a little later in cattle in The Netherlands. The clinical symptoms, diagnostics and differential diagnosis of bluetongue (BT) in goats in the Netherlands are described. The most obvious clinical signs were an acute drop in milk production and high fever (up to 42 degrees C). Clinical signs were less obvious than usually seen for clinically diseased sheep and cattle. A few goats showed oedema of the lips and the head, some nasal discharge and scabs on the nose and lips. Further erythema of the skin of the udder and small subcutaneous hemorrhages were seen. Just like one year ago, for the very first suspicion of bluetongue in Northwest-Europe, a good collaboration between practitioners, specialists of the Animal Health Service (GD Deventer), the Specialist Team of the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA), and the Central Institute for animal Disease Control (CIDC-Lelystad) in The Netherlands, led to the first and rapid notification and confirmation of the suspicion of bluetongue.
Mond- en klauwzeer en bluetongue: verschillen en overeenkomsten = Foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue disease: differences and similarities
Dekker, A. ; Dercksen, D. ; Snoep, J. ; Wuijckhuise, L. van - \ 2007
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 132 (2007)18. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 695 - 701.
mond- en klauwzeer - bluetonguevirus - dierziekten - symptomen - symptomatologie - differentiële diagnose - diagnostische technieken - pathogenese - rundveeziekten - schapenziekten - herkauwers - schapen - geiten - foot and mouth disease - bluetongue virus - animal diseases - symptoms - symptomatology - differential diagnosis - diagnostic techniques - pathogenesis - cattle diseases - sheep diseases - ruminants - sheep - goats - netherlands - cattle
On 26th of july 2007 a new case of bluetongue was notified in the Netherlands and on 2nd of august 2007 food and-mouth disease was diagnosed in Surrey, England, which raised the threat of having both infections simultaniously in one area. Bluetongue and foot-and-mouth disease have a different pathogenesis, but symptoms may resemble each other at a later stage of infection. The pathogenesis and possible clinical symptoms of both infections are discussed and illustrated with pictures.
MKZ en Blue tongue: verschillen en overeenkomsten. Denk aan beide in de differentiaaldiagnose!
Dercksen, D. ; Snoep, J. ; Dekker, A. - \ 2007
Dier en arts 22 (2007). - ISSN 0920-2412 - p. 317 - 320.
Doramectin and albendazole resistance in sheep in the Netherlands
Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Dercksen, D.D. ; Huijbers, R. - \ 2007
Veterinary Parasitology 144 (2007)1-2. - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 180 - 183.
multiple anthelmintic resistance - haemonchus-contortus - ostertagia-circumcincta - nematode parasites - gastrointestinal nematodes - teladorsagia-circumcincta - new-zealand - goats - ivermectin - moxidectin
A faecal egg count reduction test was conducted on a sheep farm with suspected avermectin resistance. Five groups of 10 sheep were formed. Group 1 was the untreated control group. Groups 2¿5 were treated according to weight with the recommended dose of, respectively, levamisole, doramectin, moxidectin or albendazole. Resistance was found in the sheep treated with doramectin (15% efficacy) and albendazole (87% efficacy). Levamisole and moxidectin were 100 and 99% effective, respectively. Larval identification of the faecal cultures of the doramectin-treated sheep revealed 100% Haemonchus contortus larvae. After albendazole treatment, 77% of the cultured larvae were H. contortus and 23% Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus. Because there is a lot of trade in sheep on the farm, it is probable that the resistant worms were introduced with livestock from other farms than being selected on the farm.
Concurrent paratuberculosis and parasitism in five-months-old lamb in the Netherlands
Dercksen, D.P. ; Muskens, J. ; Vos, J. ; Bakker, D. - \ 1998
Veterinary Record 142 (1998)16. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 433 - 434.
Detection of wild-type Aujeszky's disease virus by polymerase chain reaction in sheep vaccinated with a modified live vaccine strain
Jacobs, L. ; Mulder, W. ; Dercksen, D. ; Vos, J. ; Raymakers, R. ; Kimman, T. - \ 1997
Research in Veterinary Science 62 (1997). - ISSN 0034-5288 - p. 271 - 274.
|A survey of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of sheep in the Netherlands
Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Pekelder, J.J. ; Dercksen, D.P. ; Sol, J. ; Vellema, P. ; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H. ; Linden, J.N. van der - \ 1997
Veterinary Quarterly 19 (1997). - ISSN 0165-2176 - p. 167 - 172.
|Wormen, weidegang en wachttijden
Dercksen, D.P. ; Borgsteede, F.H.M. - \ 1997
Geitenhouderij (1997)juni. - ISSN 0165-9812 - p. 10 - 11.
Anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the Netherlands
Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Pekelder, J.J. ; Dercksen, D.P. - \ 1996
Veterinary Parasitology 65 (1996)1-2. - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 83 - 87.
A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with Angora and Anglo-Nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. Twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. The lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after infection with 5 mg kg-1 oxfendazole, 0.2 mg kg-1 ivermectin or 7.5 mg kg-1 levamisole. The lambs were slaughtered 1 week later and post-mortem worm counts were performed. Benzimidazole resistance was found in Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Cooperia curticei and Trichostrongylus colubriformis with the efficacy of oxfendazole being 68%, 31%, 21% and 48% respectively. No resistance was found against levamisole or ivermectin.
Coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors in the Netherlands
Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Dercksen, D.P. - \ 1996
Veterinary Parasitology 61 (1996)3-4. - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 321 - 326.
An investigation was carried out on coccidial and helminth infections in goats kept indoors on five farms in the Netherlands. The goats were individually sampled. Coccidial oocysts were identified and nematode eggs counted. Larval cultures were made and infective larvae identified to the generic or species level. The goats were divided into three groups according to their age: kids, those weaned but not served, and older goats. Oocysts were found in 26 out of 27 kids (96.3%), in 52 out of 55 weaned but not served goats (94.5%), and in 72 out of 110 older goats (65.5%). Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae was the most common species in all groups with an overall prevalence of 82%, followed by Eimeria arloingi (78%) and Eimeria aspheronica (53.3%). Other species present were Eimeria alijevi (50%), Eimeria christenseni (39.3%), Eimeria caprina (38.7%), Eimeria hirci (28.7%) and Eimeria jolchijevi (7.3%). Nematode eggs were seen on four of the five farms. It appeared that on two farms some goats, although now kept indoors, had been on pasture in the past. These goats excreted low numbers of eggs of Ostertagia and/or Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides papillosus, Haemonchus contortus, Trichuris spp. and larvae of Muellerius capillaris. In goats that were kept exclusively indoors, infections with Strongyloides papillosus were found on two farms in the older group and on one farm also in the group weaned but not served. On two farms Skrjabinema ovis was incidentally observed by the farmer in older goats. This was confirmed by faecal examinations on one farm. All kids were free of nematode infection.
Eradication programme for caseous lymphadenitis in goats in the Netherlands
Dercksen, D.P. ; Laak, E.A. ter; Schreuder, B.E.C. - \ 1996
Veterinary Record 138 (1996)10. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 237 - 237.
|Anthelminthica-resistentie bij nematoden van het schaap in Nederland
Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Pekelder, J.J. ; Dercksen, D.R. ; So, J. ; Vellema, R. ; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H. ; Linden, J.N. van der - \ 1995
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 120 (1995). - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 173 - 176.