Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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The effect of phytase, xylanase and their combination on growth performance and nutrient utilization in Nile tilapia
Maas, Roel M. ; Verdegem, Marc C.J. ; Dersjant-Li, Yueming ; Schrama, Johan W. - \ 2018
Aquaculture 487 (2018). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 7 - 14.
Fish - Nitrogen balance - Phytase - Synergy - Xylanase
Increasing the inclusion rate of plant ingredients will increase the content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and phytate in the fish feed. Both NSP and phytate are undesired in fish feed due to their anti-nutritional properties. The main objective of the present study was to assess the impact of exogenous enzyme supplementation on growth, body composition, digestibility and the energy, nitrogen and phosphorus balances in Nile tilapia. Four experimental diets were tested in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The first factor was phytase supplementation at a dose of either 0 or 1000 FTU/kg and the second factor was xylanase supplementation at a dose of 0 or 4000 U/kg. This resulted in a control diet (CON-CON) without enzymes, phytase diet (PHY-CON), xylanase diet (CON-XYL) and a diet with both xylanase and phytase (PHY-XYL). In total 24 tanks (6 replicates/treatment) were used with 30 (mean initial body weight 42 g) fish each. Fish were restrictively (80% of expected satiation) fed the experimental diets for 38 days. Growth was significantly affected by the interaction between phytase and xylanase supplementation (P < 0.05), showing a synergism between both enzymes. Growth at the CON-CON and CON-XYL diets were similar, whereas fish fed the PHY-CON had an improved growth. The effect of phytase supplementation on growth was further enhanced when xyalanse was supplemented (PHY-XYL diet). Phytase significantly improved the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, carbohydrates, energy, ash, phosphorus and calcium (P < 0.001). Xylanase enhanced the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, carbohydrates and energy significantly (P < 0.05). In contrast to growth, there was no significant synergetic effect of the combination of phytase and xylanase on the digestibility (P > 0.05). The significant synergetic effect of the combination of phytase and xylanase on growth was not reflected on the digestibility (P > 0.05). The nitrogen balance showed that the synergism on growth was predominantly due the significant synergistic effect of phytase and xylanase on the protein retention (P = 0.005). Both xylanase and phytase showed to be an effective tool to improve the nutrient availability and growth in Nile tilapia. Fish fed the diet supplemented with both phytase and xylanase had a significantly higher growth than all other treatments.
The impact of xylanase, phytase and their combination on performance, nutrient utilization and nitrogen/energy balance in nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus
Maas, R.M. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Verdegem, M.C.J. ; Dersjant-Li, Yueming ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2017
- 4 p.
Nile tilapia - enzymes - Energy balance
Soy protein classification and its impact on amino acids digestibility
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Heinsbroek, L.T.N. ; Peisker, M. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2012
The impact of low concentrations of aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol or fumonisin in diets on growing pigs and poultry
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2003
Nutrition Research Reviews 16 (2003)2. - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 223 - 239.
moniliforme culture material - vomitoxin-contaminated wheat - broiler-chickens - tissue distribution - young-pigs - c-14-labeled deoxynivalenol - immune-responses - finishing swine - weanling swine - feeding diets
In the present review, the quantitative impact of dietary aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin concentrations on performance of pigs and broilers is evaluated, with special emphasis on low concentrations of these toxins. Also, responses in performance of pigs and broilers to these three toxins are related to their absorption and elimination kinetics. By applying simple linear regression, information from many literature sources is integrated and condensed into, for example, estimates of depression in rates of weight gain, relative to non-contaminated diets, with increasing toxin concentrations. It was estimated that with each mg/kg increase of aflatoxin in the diet, the growth rate would be depressed by 16 % for pigs and 5 % for broilers. For DON, with each mg/kg increase in the diet, the growth depression was estimated at about 8 % for pigs, while broilers showed no response to DON concentrations below 16 mg/kg. Fumonisin showed the lowest impact on growth performance; with each mg/kg increase, the depression in growth rate was estimated at 0·4 and 0·0 % for pigs and broilers, respectively. Dietary concentrations that cause a 5 % reduction in growth rate were estimated at 0·3 and 1·0 mg/kg for aflatoxin for pigs and broilers, respectively; 1·8 and 0·6 mg/kg for pure and naturally contaminated DON for pigs, respectively; 21 and 251 mg/kg for fumonisin for pigs and broilers, respectively.
Changes in oxygen content and acid-base balance in arterial and portal blood in response to the dietary electrolyte balance in pigs during a 9-h period after a meal
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Jansman, A. ; Schulze, H. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2002
Journal of Animal Science 80 (2002)5. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1233 - 1239.
The effect of two dietary electrolyte balance (dEB, Na K - Cl-) levels on arterial and portal blood oxygen content, blood pH, and acid-base status in pigs was studied during a 9-h period after a meal, using a crossover experimental design. The dEB levels were established by changing the Cl- level in the diets. Four pigs with a mean weight of 45 kg were surgically fitted with catheters in the carotid artery and portal vein. Two dEB levels (-100 and 200 mEq/kg) were evaluated in two periods of 1 wk each. Feed was given at 2.6 times the maintenance requirement for energy in two meals per day. Water was freely available. Blood samples were taken at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 h after feeding. Blood hemoglobin; O2 pressure; O2 saturation; O2 content; pH; PCO2; HCO3-; base excess; and Na , K , and Cl- contents were measured. Oxygen contents in arterial and portal blood were lower (P < 0.008) in the -100 mEq/kg group (5.78 and 4.82 mmol/L respectively) compared to the 200 mEq/kg group (6.18 and 4.99 mmol/L respectively). This was related to the lower hemoglobin content in the blood of animals in the -100 mEq/kg group. Arterial and portal blood pH were lower (P < 0.003) at -100 mEq/kg (7.46 and 7.37) than at 200 mEq/kg (7.49 and 7.43). The difference in blood pH between the two groups was sustained throughout the sampling period. The average values of arterial and portal blood for base excess and HCO3- content were higher (P < 0.001) at high dEB (6.96 and 31.0 mmol/L, respectively, for -100 mEq/kg and 12.54 and 35.9 mmol/ L, respectively, for 200 mEq/kg). The Na concentration in the blood was increased and K and Cl- concentrations were decreased (P < 0.02) by increasing dEB from -100 mEq/kg to 200 mEq/kg. Blood electrolyte balance level was higher (P < 0.001) in the 200 mEq/kg dEB group than in the -100 mEq/kg dEB group. In conclusion, dEB changed blood oxygen content and pH, and influenced the acid-base buffer system in pigs. Also, within each group, pigs maintained a relatively constant blood pH level during the 9-h period after feeding.
Effect of dietary electrolyte balance on metabolic rate and energy balance in pigs
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2002
Animal Science 74 (2002)2. - ISSN 1357-7298 - p. 299 - 305.
The impact of changing dietary Na/K ratio's in growth and nutrient utilisation in juvenile African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Sheng Wu, W. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2001
Aquaculture 198 (2001). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 293 - 305.
The effects of dietary Na/K ratios on feed intake, growth, nutrient utilisation, plasma and body mineral concentration in juvenile African catfish were investigated. Four Na/K ratios, 0.2, 0.7, 1.5, 2.5 (mmol/mmol), were tested in a randomised experimental design with three replications in each treatment. Juvenile African catfish (n=360) with a mean initial body weight of 42.9 g were used. The experiment was conducted in 12 (70 l) aquaria with a biofilter and recirculating water supply system. Dietary Na/K ratios were obtained by altering levels of Na2CO3 and K2CO3. Feed was provided manually twice a day to satiation. Feed consumption was not influenced by the mineral composition of the diets. Growth, protein retention, nitrogen and energy utilisation efficiency increased quadratically, body dry matter, fat, nitrogen and energy content increased in a linear or quadratic manner with increasing dietary Na/K ratio. Feed conversion and percentage of energy retention as protein decreased in a quadratic manner. Potassium and chloride concentrations and the ratios between Na/K, Na/Cl and K/Cl in the body remained constant among treatment groups at the end of a 4-week feeding period. In conclusion, excess K in the diet depresses growth and nutrient utilisation efficiency, reduces body fat and protein deposition. The dietary Na/K ratio of 1.5 to 2.5 produced the best growth of African catfish.
Effect of diatery cation-anion differences partitioning in pigs
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Simmins, P.H. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2001
In: Energy Metabolism of farm animals / Chwalibog, A., Jacobsen, K., Wageningen : Wageningen Pers - p. 101 - 104.
Feed intake, growth, digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen in young pigs as affected by dietary cation-anion difference and supplementation of xylanase
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Schulze, H. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2001
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 85 (2001). - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 101 - 109.
An experiment was conducted to test the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (CAD, Na K -Cl, mEq/kg diet) and xylanase addition on feed consumption, digestibility of nutrients, plasma electrolyte balance and growth performance in young pigs. A 2 3 factorial arrangement with three dietary CAD levels (100, 200, and 500 mEq/kg) and two levels of xylanase supplementation (0 and 0.1!ylanase derived from Trichoderma longibrachiatum) was used. Thirty-six individually housed, castrated pigs (5 weeks old) with an initial body weight of 9.34 ± 0.28 kg (mean ± SEM) were randomly assigned to the six treatments. Diets were provided to pigs as cold pellets. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water. Venous plasma Cl concentration was higher (p < 0.0001) in dietary CAD of 100 mEq/kg group compared with the other two CAD groups. Dietary CAD did not affect Na and K concentrations in the venous plasma. Growth rates were higher (p < 0.05) in pigs receiving dietary CAD of 200 mEq/kg (657 g/pig.day) and dietary CAD of 500 mEq/kg (603 g/pig.day) than in pigs receiving dietary CAD of 100 mEq/kg (484 g/pig.day). Faecal dry matter and nitrogen decreased with increasing dietary CAD. Faecal apparent digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen was higher (p < 0.05) in the dietary CAD of 500 mEq/kg compared to the two lower level CAD groups. Supplementation of xylanase did not affect the performance of pigs. Xylanase addition in the diet significantly increased apparent faecal digestibility of dry matter and tended to increase apparent digestibility of nitrogen. No interaction between dietary CAD and xylanase was found. In conclusion, dietary CAD influenced the performance and digestibility of nutrients of pigs. Xylanase supplementation improved digestibility of dry matter
Performance, digesta characteristics, nutrient flux, plasma composition and organ weight in pigs as effected by dietary cation anion difference and non starch polysaccharide
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Schulze, H. ; Zandstra, T. ; Boer, H. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2001
Journal of Animal Science 79 (2001). - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1840 - 1848.
Two dietary cation anion difference (CAD) levels (-100 and 200 mEq/kg) and two dietary nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) levels (10 and 15€were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement in two randomized blocks (trials) to evaluate performance, digesta pH and buffer capacity, apparent digestibility, plasma composition, and organ weight in pigs. Seven pigs with a mean initial weight of 7.5 kg were used in each treatment. Pigs had free access to feed and water during the 3-wk experimental period. At the end of the experiment, all pigs were killed approximately 2.5 h after addition of fresh feed. Liver, kidneys, and small and large intestine were removed and weighed immediately. Gastric and small intestinal (divided into two equal parts) digesta were collected. Dry matter, pH, buffering capacity, viscosity, acid insoluble ash, mineral content (Na , K , and Cl-), nitrogen, and gross energy content (only in the second part of the small intestine) of the digesta were measured. An interaction (P < 0.05) between dietary CAD and dietary NSP was observed for feed intake, growth, apparent digestibility of DM and gross energy in the distal small intestine, and chloride in the stomach and duodeno-jejunal part of the small intestine. Increasing dietary NSP content increased apparent digestibility of DM and chloride in the stomach and increased apparent digestibility of DM, chloride, sodium, and potassium in the first part of the small intestine. Lowering dietary CAD levels significantly increased apparent digestibility of DM in the first part of the small intestine and decreased chloride influx in the stomach and the small intestine. No significant differences were found for pH, buffering capacity, and viscosity of digesta, except the buffering capacity in the second part of the small intestine, which was higher (P < 0.05) in the 200 mEq/kg CAD group than in the -100 CAD mEq/ kg group. Plasma urea decreased in the low dietary CAD groups and plasma ammonia increased in the high NSP groups. Large intestine weight was significantly less for the -100 mEq/kg CAD groups than for the 200 mEq/kg CAD groups. In conclusion, the effect of CAD on feed intake and growth in pigs depends on dietary NSP levels.
Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on energy partitioning in pigs
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Heetkamp, M.J.W. ; Simmins, P.H. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2001
In: Energy Metabolism of Animals / Chwalibog, A., Jacobsen, K., Wageningen : Wageningen Pers - p. 101 - 104.
The impact of the dietary electrolyte balance on growth performance, energy metabolism and acid-base balance: a comparison between African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and pigs
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Huisman, E.A. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 2001
Aquaculture Research 198 (2001). - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 293 - 305.
Metabolic costs of changing the cation-anion difference in the diet of juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Tijssen, P.A.T. ; Booms, R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Huisman, E.A. - \ 2000
Aquaculture Nutrition 6 (2000). - ISSN 1353-5773 - p. 39 - 45.
The influence of dietary cation-anion difference (CAD, Na K - Cl, mEq kg1) on energy metabolism and nitrogen losses in juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) was examined in fish exposed to different dietary CAD levels (-146, 116, 497, 713 and 828 mEq kg1 diet). The experiment was conducted in open circuit balance respiration chambers over a 3-week period. Five 24-h monitoring periods were carried out at 3-day intervals during the experimental period with O2 consumption, ammonia and nitrate nitrite (NOx) and CO2 production being measured at 5-min intervals for each chamber. The negative dietary CAD (-146 mEq kg1) resulted in the highest energy expenditures (83 kJ kg0.8? d1). With increasing dietary CAD levels, heat loss gradually decreased to minimum values of 56 kJ kg0.8 day1 at a dietary CAD level of 713 mEq kg1. Consequently, metabolizable energy utilization efficiency (MEU, percentage of retained energy over metabolizable energy) quadratically (P < 0.05) increased and reached a maximum at a dietary CAD of 713 mEq kg1.
Impact of dietary cation anion difference in fish and pigs: a comparative study
Dersjant-Li, Y. - \ 2000
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.W.A. Verstegen; E.A. Huisman; J.A.J. Verreth; J. Schrama. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082978 - 169
vissen - varkens - diervoedering - diervoeding - zuur-base-evenwicht - ph - groei - energiemetabolisme - voedingsfysiologie - fishes - pigs - animal feeding - animal nutrition - acid base equilibrium - ph - growth - energy metabolism - nutrition physiology

Dietary cation anion difference (CAD, Na + K - Cl, mEq kg -1 ) determines the pH and acid base status of a diet, consequently affecting the acid base balance in the body compartments of animals. After feeding, a low dietary CAD will contribute more acids to the animals than a high dietary CAD. An optimal dietary CAD will increase the acid buffer capacity of a diet and this will help animals to compensate for metabolic acidosis. It is hypothesized that with an optimal dietary CAD, less energy will be needed for acid base regulation, indirectly improving feed intake and growth of animals. In the present study the effect of dietary CAD on growth performance, energy metabolism, acid base balance in the blood and in the digestive system were investigated in African catfish and pigs. The study consisted of 3 parts. Part 1 dealt with the growth response to dietary CAD and dietary Na/K ratio. Part 2 dealt with the energetic response to dietary CAD. Parts 3 dealt with the acid base balance in the blood and in the digestive system in response to dietary CAD. A negative dietary CAD (-100 mEq kg -1 ) resulted in a low feed intake and growth in both African catfish and young pigs. In African catfish, increasing dietary CAD from -100 to 700 mEq kg -1 led to a linear increase in growth.

In pigs, the optimal dietary CAD was observed to be between 200 and 500 mEq kg -1 . The optimal dietary Na/K ratio in formulating dietary CAD was 1.5 to 2.5 (mol/mol) for African catfish. The lowest maintenance cost was observed at a dietary CAD level of 700 mEq kg -1 for African catfish. In pigs, dietary CAD of 200 mEq kg -1 tended to increase energy requirement for maintenance compared with dietary CAD of -100 mEq kg -1 , at restricted feeding. In pigs, a -100 mEq kg -1 CAD diet resulted in low blood pH, oxygen and HCO 3- content (mmol L -1 ) compared to a 200 mEq kg -1 CAD diet. During the postprandial period, however, pigs maintained a relative constant pH level in both portal and arterial blood within each CAD group. African catfish fed 700 mEq kg -1 CAD diet showed higher stomach digesta pH than fish fed -100 mEq kg -1 CAD diet both 0.5 and 3 h after feeding. However, no difference in pH of small intestine digesta was observed. In pigs, dietary CAD levels of -100 and 200 mEq kg -1 did not affect either stomach or small intestine digesta pH 2.5 h after feeding. The possible mechanisms of dietary CAD effect on feed intake and growth were discussed.

Effect of dietary cation-anion differences on energy partitioning in pigs
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Heetkamp, M. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Simmins, H. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2000
In: 15th Symposium on energy metabolism in animals, Elsinore, Denmark, 10-16 September Elsinore : - p. 1 - 1.
Post prandial blood pH and acid base balance in pigs as affected by dietary cation-anion difference
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Schulze, H. - \ 1999
Journal of Animal Science 77 (1999)suppl. 1. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 198 - 198.
The influence of dietary cation-anion differences on acid-base balance, food intake, growth and nutrient utilisation of juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Evers, F. ; Tijssen, P.A.T. ; Booms, G.H.R. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 1999
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 20 (1999). - ISSN 0920-1742 - p. 305 - 311.
Cost of growth in larval and juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in relation to growth rate, food intake and oxygen consumption.
Conceicao, L.E.C. ; Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 1998
Aquaculture 161 (1998). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 95 - 106.
Effects of dietary cation-anion differences on food intake, growth maintenance costs and energy utilisation in juvenile African catfish.
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Evers, F. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. - \ 1998
In: Proc. Symp. Recent advances in finn fish and crustacean nutrition VIII, Las Palmas, Spain, 1-5 June (1998) 1 pp
Effects of dietary cation-anion differences in food intake, growth and nutritional utilization in piglets.
Dersjant-Li, Y. ; Schulze, H. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 1998
Journal of Animal Science 76 (1998)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 189 - 189.
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