Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Van proefschrift naar varkenstoilet
    Sikkema, Albert ; Smolders, Mart - \ 2012
    pig farming - innovations - animal welfare - pig housing - pigs - manure fermentation - pilot farms - animal production
    De stad heeft honger
    Mansfeld, Madeleine van - \ 2012
    urban areas - urban society - sustainable development - agroindustrial complexes - food production - food supply
    Onderzoek naar een ander klimaat (interview met Leen Moraal)
    Didden, R. ; Moraal, L.G. - \ 2009
    Wageningen Update 1 (2009)09. - ISSN 1569-3279 - p. 18 - 18.
    Can differences in soil community composition after peat meadow restoration lead to different decomposition and mineralization rates?
    Dijk, J. van; Didden, W.A.M. ; Kuenen, F. ; Bodegom, P.M. van; Verhoef, H.A. ; Aerts, R. - \ 2009
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41 (2009)8. - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 1717 - 1725.
    fresh-water wetlands - scots pine forest - nitrogen mineralization - microbial communities - northern wetlands - nutrient dynamics - food webs - carbon - diversity - protozoa
    Reducing decomposition and mineralization of organic matter by increasing groundwater levels is a common approach to reduce plant nutrient availability in many peat meadow restoration projects. The soil community is the main driver of these processes, but how community composition is affected by peat meadow restoration is largely unknown. Furthermore, it is unclear whether restoration induced changes could lead to altered decomposition and mineralization rates. We determined soil community composition in restored peat meadows with different groundwater levels and soil pH. This composition was subsequently used in food web model calculations of C and N mineralization rates to assess whether differences in soil community composition may have contributed to differences in decomposition and mineralization rates observed between these meadows. Community composition of micro-organisms, Collembola and Enchytraeidae differed considerably between meadows and were correlated with differences in groundwater levels and soil pH. Collembolan and enchytraeid species from wet and neutral environments were more abundant at meadows with higher groundwater levels. Lower fungal to bacterial PLFA ratios and higher numbers of protozoa indicated an increased importance of the bacterial part of the food web at meadows with higher groundwater levels. Food web model calculations suggested that the observed changes in community composition would lead to higher rates of C and N mineralization at meadows with high groundwater levels. Results from modeling were consistent with field measurements of C mineralization, but not with measurements of N mineralization
    Accumulation of heavy metals by enchytraeids and earthworms in a floodplain
    Vliet, P.C.J. van; Didden, W.A.M. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M. - \ 2006
    European Journal of Soil Biology 42 (2006)Suppl. 1. - ISSN 1164-5563 - p. S117 - S126.
    eisenia-foetida - copper - cadmium - soils - zinc - resistance - buchholzi - toxicity - field - lead
    The river floodplain `Afferdense and Deestsche Waarden¿ (ADW) in The Netherlands is diffusely contaminated with several heavy metals. It is, however, unclear whether this mixed contamination exerts any adverse ecotoxicological effects. In November 2000 and May 2001 a field survey was conducted in two areas in the ADW to collect a wide range of data concerning contamination levels, bioavailability, enchytraeids and earthworms and abiotic factors such as lutum and organic matter content, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and soil nutrient concentrations. Earthworms and enchytraeids were also analyzed for heavy metal content. At both sites arsenic and zinc were present in soil at relatively high oncentrations (above the Dutch intervention value). In the two areas, both enchytraeids and earthworms accumulated metals. Fridericia ulrikae accumulated more cadmium than Enchytraeus buchholzi and Henlea perpusilla. The earthworm Lumbricus rubellus accumulated larger concentrations of Cr, Cu and Pb than Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica. Dietary, physiological and behavioral characteristics may have contributed to these differences
    The use of enchytraeids in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts
    Jansch, S. ; Rombke, J. ; Didden, W.A.M. - \ 2005
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 62 (2005)2 sp. iss.. - ISSN 0147-6513 - p. 266 - 277.
    body-surface area - terrestrial enchytraeidae - northern england - mineral sites - oligochaeta - forest - associations - density - peat
    In many soils worldwide, enchytraeids (Annelida: Oligochaeta) play a major role in soil functions like the decomposition of organic matter. In addition, standardized sampling methods are available and taxonomic as well as ecological knowledge is rapidly increasing (in particular, ecological profiles of the most abundant species). For these reasons, enchytraeids were recognized as a part of ecological classification and assessment schemes. In this contribution, the most important of these schemes are presented and it is shown that enchytraeids are most valuable as part of a battery approach. By use of examples from The Netherlands (BISQ), and Germany (BBSK), the practicability of the use of enchytraeids is demonstrated in identifying the influence of different anthropogenic land use forms. In these cases, the structure of the enchytraeid community and their abundance and biomass were used as endpoints. However, automation of the identification process can still be improved.
    The use of earthworms in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts
    Rombke, J. ; Jansch, S. ; Didden, W.A.M. - \ 2005
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 62 (2005)2 sp. iss.. - ISSN 0147-6513 - p. 249 - 265.
    ecosystem engineers - southern sweden - heavy-metals - forest soil - populations - lumbricidae - oligochaeta - organisms - profiles - invertebrates
    Without doubt, earthworms are the most important soil invertebrates in most soils worldwide, in terms of both biomass and activity. Several species are even considered to be ecosystem engineers. Earthworms are also known to influence soil structure, soil chemistry, and, in particular, processes like organic matter decomposition. In addition, standardized sampling methods are available and their taxonomy is well known (even the first PC-aided keys have been developed). For these reasons, earthworms were recognized as a part of ecological classification and assessment schemes early on. However, due to the relatively small number at many sites, they have to be part of a battery approach. By use of examples from The Netherlands (biological indicator of soil quality) and Germany (soil biological site classification), the practicability of the use of earthworms is demonstrated in determining the influence of different anthropogenic land use forms. In these cases, the structure of the earthworm community, as well as their abundance and biomass, were used as endpoints.
    Enchytraeid communities in grasslands on peat at different groundwater levels
    Didden, W.A.M. ; Dijk, J. van - \ 2005
    Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. Biology. Ecology 54 (2005)4. - p. 315 - 322.
    Soil macrofauna community structure along a gradient of land use intensification in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon.
    Madong à Birang, - \ 2004
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lijbert Brussaard, co-promotor(en): W.A.M. Didden; S. Hauser. - Wageningen : S.n. - ISBN 9789085040316 - 200
    bodemfauna - bodeminvertebraten - aardwormen - formicidae - isoptera - zwerflandbouw - landgebruik - bossen - humide klimaatzones - kameroen - macrofauna - soil fauna - soil invertebrates - earthworms - formicidae - isoptera - shifting cultivation - land use - forests - humid zones - cameroon - macrofauna
    The impact of land use systems on soil macrofauna community structures is described as well as their relationships with the vegetation and soil parameters in the humid forest zone of southernCameroon. 36 Earthworm species were found. A completely different earthworm assemblage was found at high LUI while low and medium LUI blocks had species in common in the various functional groups. Earthworm surface casting decreased when fallow plots were converted to cultivated fields. This reduction depended on the type of fallow. 223 Termite species were recorded.There was no significant effect of LUI but in contrast, a strong effect of LUS on termite species richness and abundance. 80 Ant species were found. LUI and LUS had striking effects on ant communities with highest richness in the low LUI block. Ant species assemblages were location specific.Soil macrofaunal species richness was more responsive to soil and vegetation parameters than macrofaunal abundances.The knowledge gathered on the present state of earthworm, termite and ant communities and the effects of land use change on these macrofauna in southernCameroonconstitutes the baseline information necessary for the design and /or implementation of measures of conservation in which farmers should play a pivotal role.
    Accumulation of heavy metals by enchytraeids and earthworms in a floodplain
    Vliet, P.C.J. van; Didden, W.A.M. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Ma, W.C. ; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M. - \ 2004
    In: Environmental science solutions: a pan-European perspective. - Brussels (Belgium) : SETAC - p. 258 - 258.
    Taxonomy of Fridericia (Oligochaeta, Enchytraeidae)
    Didden, W.A.M. ; Vliet, P.C.J. van - \ 2004
    Pedobiologia 48 (2004)4. - ISSN 0031-4056 - p. 409 - 410.
    Accumulation of heavy metals by enchytraeids and earthworms in a floodplain
    Vliet, P.C.J. van; Didden, W.A.M. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Ma, W.C. ; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M. - \ 2004
    In: XIVth international colloquium on soil zoology and ecology; abstracts. - [S.l.] : S.n. - p. 185 - 185.
    Biological soil quality from biomass to biodiversity - importance and resilience to management stress and disturbance
    Brussaard, L. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Bloem, J. - \ 2004
    In: Managing soil quality; challenges in modern agriculture / Schjønning, P., Elmholt, S., Christensen, B.T., Wallingford (UK) : CABI Publishing - ISBN 9780851996714 - p. 139 - 161.
    bodembiologie - biodiversiteit - bodemkwaliteit - soil biology - biodiversity - soil quality
    Various aspects of the soil biota react sensitively to changes in the environment, including agricultural management. Changes in soil biodiversity cannot easily observed directly (measured in terms of community structure of microbes and nematodes, giving early warnings of long-term changes in organic matter, nutrient status and soil structure)
    Measuring soil biodiversity: experiences, impediments and research needs
    Bloem, J. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. ; Keidel, H. ; Rutgers, M. ; Breure, T. - \ 2004
    In: Agricultural impacts on soil erosion and soil biodiversity: developing indicators for policy analysis. - Rome (Italy) : Istituto Sperimentale per la Nutrizione delle Piante - p. 109 - 120.
    We summarise methods to assess biomass, activity and diversity of soil organisms and show some results. In contaminated soils community structure had changed but diversity was not always reduced. Biomass and activity were much more reduced than diversity. In agricultural soils organic management resulted in an increased role of soil organisms. Replacement of mineral fertilisers by farmyard manure stimulated the bacterial branch of the soil food web. Reduced availability of mineral nutrients appeared to increase fungi, presumably mycorrhiza. Bacterial DNA profiles did not indicate low genetic diversity in agricultural soils. At extensive and biological grassland farms nitrogen mineralisation was about 50% higher than at intensive farms. Not only microbial biomass and activity but also different groups of soil fauna tended to be higher. Soil biodiversity can not be monitored meaningfully with a few simple tools. Extensive and long-term monitoring is probably the most realistic approach to obtain objective information on differences between, changes within, and human impact on ecosystems. In most countries, microbial biomass, respiration and potential N mineralisation are regarded as part of a minimum data set. Adding the main functional groups of the soil food web brings us closer to biodiversity and gives the potential to relate the structure of the soil community to functions.
    Biological soil quality
    Brussaard, L. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Bloem, J. - \ 2003
    In: Future soils managing soil Resources to ensure access to markets for future generations : Australian society of soil science national conference, Perth, 2002 / D. Williamson, C. Tang, A. Rate [S.l.] : s.n. - p. 6 - 13.
    Efffects of heavy metals on enchytraeid community composition in floodplain grasslands
    Vliet, P.C.J. van; Didden, W.A.M. - \ 2003
    In: 5th International Symposium on Enchytraeidae / Didden, W.A.M., van Vliet, P.C.J., Wageningen : Wageningen University - p. 97 - 108.
    Newsletter on Enchytraeidae
    Didden, W.A.M. ; Vliet, P.C.J. van - \ 2003
    Development and potential of a stereotype as a reference site in ecological monitoring
    Didden, W.A.M. - \ 2003
    In: 5th International Symposium on Enchytraeidae / Didden, W.A.M., van Vliet, P.C.J., Wageningen : Wageningen University - p. 33 - 40.
    The effect of prolonged storage time on extraction results for enchytraeids
    Didden, W.A.M. - \ 2003
    In: 5th International Symposium on Enchytraeidae / Didden, W.A.M., Vliet, P.C.J., Wageningen : Wageningen University - p. 69 - 75.
    Didden, W.A.M. - \ 2003
    In: Bioindicators & Biomonitors-Principles, concepts and applications / Markert, B.A., Breure, A.M., Zechmeister, H.G., Amsterdam : Elsevier - ISBN 9780080441771 - p. 555 - 576.
    lumbricidae - aardwormen - bodemverontreiniging - biologische indicatoren - ecotoxicologie - biologische monitoring - lumbricidae - earthworms - soil pollution - biological indicators - ecotoxicology - biomonitoring
    Locatiespecifieke ecologische risicobeoordeling; praktijkonderzoek met de TRIADE-benadering: deel 3
    Baerselman, R. ; Bloem, J. ; Bogte, J.J. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Dirven-van Breemen, E.M. ; Groot, A.C. de; Keidel, H. ; Mulder, C. ; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M. ; Rutgers, M. ; Schouten, A.J. ; Siepel, H. ; Wouterse, M. - \ 2003
    Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 711701036) - 91 p.
    Ecologische kwaliteit van de bodem
    Breure, A.M. ; Rutgers, M. ; Bloem, J. ; Brussaard, L. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. ; Mulder, C. ; Schouten, A.J. ; Wijnen, H.J. van - \ 2003
    Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 607604005 / 2003) - 32
    bodembiologie - biologische bodemactiviteit - landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - grondbewerking - bodemkwaliteit - soil biology - biological activity in soil - land use - sustainability - tillage - soil quality
    In dit rapport wordt beschreven wat ecologische kwaliteit van bodem is, en op welke wijze deze gekwantificeerd kan worden. In bodem vinden een groot aantal processen plaats, die van belang zijn voor de mens (nutsfuncties), omdat ze bijdragen aan bijvoorbeeld de voedselvoorziening, het type en de kwaliteit van de natuur en de levering van schoon grondwater (voor de productie van drinkwater). Bodemorganismen spelen een belangrijke rol in die processen. Bij een duurzaam gebruik van de bodem ishetvan belang, om de bodemorganismen zodanig te gebruiken en te beheren, dat deze processen ook voor de toekomst gewaarborgd zijn. Hierbij moet ook de mogelijkheid beschikbaar blijven om het bodemgebruik te veranderen. Ter onderbouwing van het duurzaamheidsbeleid van de bodem wordt gewerkt aan de ontwikkeling van een bodembiologische indicator (BoBI) voor gebruik op nationale schaal. Daarvoor worden ecologische gegevens over de soortdiversiteit, het aantal organismen per soort en deactiviteitvan de organismen verzameld
    Bodembiologische indicator 1999 : ecologische kwaliteit van graslanden op zandgrond bij drie categorieen melkveehouderijbedrijven
    Schouten, A.J. ; Bloem, J. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. ; Keidel, H. ; Rutgers, M. - \ 2003
    Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 607604003/2003) - 107
    bodembiologie - bodemfauna - bodemflora - soortendiversiteit - zandgronden - biologische indicatoren - indicatorsoorten - weiden - nederland - bodemkwaliteit - soil biology - soil fauna - soil flora - species diversity - sandy soils - biological indicators - indicator species - pastures - netherlands - soil quality
    A nematode reference database as an instrument for biological soil assessment: a case study from the Netherlands
    Goede, R.G.M. de; Bongers, A.M.T. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Doelman, P. ; Keidel, H. ; Kerkum, F. ; Knoben, R. ; Schouten, T. ; Waarden, J. van der; Wagelmans, M. - \ 2002
    In: Nematology Symposium abstracts Leiden : Brill Academic Publishers - p. 150 (080) - 150 (080).
    Traditionally, assessments of ecological risks of soil pollution are based on chemical analyses compared to a set of standards. Recently, in the Netherlands, investigations were initiated to explore the possibility of including biological indicators in ecological risk assessment procedures. Nematodes are among the soil fauna groups that have promising characteristics as indicators for soil quality (i.e., ubiquitous,high species diversity, sensitive to various kinds of soil disturbances, speci¿ c nematode-based indicators). However, interpretation depends on comparison with undisturbed controls or references. As local reference sites or data are often unavailable, there is demand for a nation-wide reference system. In the present project, we built a database (DAWACO Nematodes) of 1600 nematode fauna samples from which all taxa were identi- ¿ ed. The samples were collected across the country, representing a variety of soil-, vegetation- and land-use types between 1985 and 2001. Samples from undisturbedor reference locations were analysed with multivariate analyses techniques to select clusters of samples (14 from terrestrial soils, six from aquatic sediments) with similar nematode fauna and habitat characteristics. Based on the statistical characterisation of the composition of taxa from a reference cluster, the probability of membership of any sample requiring assessment can now be calculated and evaluated.
    Earthworm activity and decomposition of 14C-labelled grass root systems
    Uyl, A. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Marinussen, J. - \ 2002
    Biology and Fertility of Soils 36 (2002)6. - ISSN 0178-2762 - p. 447 - 455.
    soil organic-matter - nitrogen - carbon - aggregation - plants
    Decomposition of 14C-labelled root systems of the grass species Holcus lanatus and Festuca ovina, representative of mesotrophic and oligotrophic situations, respectively, was monitored during 14 months under field conditions in the presence or absence of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus). During the experiment respiration was monitored, and after 6 weeks and 3 and 14 months the carbon distribution in the soil was determined in various pools of aggregates and organic matter. Hypotheses tested were: (1) roots of oligotrophic plants decompose more slowly than roots of mesotrophic plants, (2) earthworms prefer mesotrophic organic material, and (3) in worm excrements organic material is protected against rapid decomposition. Initially, Holcus root material decomposed faster than that of Festuca, which was probably connected with the higher amount of rhizodeposits in the former. For both species, decomposition was faster in the presence of earthworms, due to enhanced fragmentation and mixing of the material. It appeared, however, that Festuca material fragmented more easily than that of Holcus and it seemed that earthworms had a higher preference for Festuca material. Consequently, more Festuca material was incorporated in macro- and microaggregates, and these aggregates stayed stable for a longer period than those with Holcus material. Although earthworm activity was markedly decreased after 3 months, their effects remained visible throughout the experimental period. It also appeared that after 3 months the processes taking place with the added root material could no longer be distinguished from those involving older organic material. It is concluded that the first two hypotheses could not be confirmed, and that the third remains likely. Furthermore, it is argued that nutrient cycling in an oligotrophic ecosystem will be decelerated more by earthworm activity than in a mesotrophic system. The preference of worms for Festuca and the probably longer protection of this material within aggregates will accelerate species replacement during succession.
    A survey of enchytraeid communities in grassland and horticultural soil. The enchytraeid community as a monitoring tool
    Didden, W. - \ 2002
    Newsletter on Enchytraeidae 7 (2002). - p. 6 - 16.
    Bodemvervuiling in uiterwaarden
    Vliet, P. van; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Didden, W. ; Ma, W. - \ 2002
    Natuur en Techniek 3 (2002). - ISSN 0028-1093 - p. 56 - 56.
    Soil organic matter distribution as influenced by enchytraeid and earthworm activity
    Koutika, L.S. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Marinissen, J.C.Y. - \ 2001
    Biology and Fertility of Soils 33 (2001). - ISSN 0178-2762 - p. 294 - 300.
    Loam and sandy soils, and the earthworm casts produced with 14C-labelled plant material in both soils, were incubated in airtight glass vessels with and without enchytraeids to evaluate the effects of soil fauna on the distribution and fragmentation of organic matter. After 1, 3, and 6 weeks, the amount of C mineralised was determined in soils and earthworm casts, and the soil was fractionated into particulate organic matter (POM), the most active pool of soil organic matter, after complete physical dispersion in water. The percentage weight of fine fractions (0-50 ?m) was 67.4␒n the loam soil. Sand (coarse, i.e. 150-2,000 ?m and fine 50-150 ?m) represented 87.2␘f total weight in sandy soil, while the percentages of C (PC) were 23.2␒n coarse POM (2,000-150 ?m) and 11.9␒n fine POM (150-50 ?m). These percentages were higher than those in loam soil, i.e. 3.4øcoarse POM) and 5.4øfine POM). The PC in coarse POM (9.50€and fine POM (16.4€remained higher in casts from sandy soil than in casts from loam soil (4.7␒n coarse and 14.3␒n fine POM). The highest percentages of 14C-labelled leaves were found in fine fractions, 55.9␒n casts from loam soil and 48.8␒n casts from sandy soil. The C mineralisation of the added plant material was higher in casts from the sandy soil (20.3€than from the loam soil (13.5Ž Enchytraeids enhanced C mineralisation in the bulk sandy soil, but did not affect the mineralisation of added plant material in either soil. The main enchytraeid effect was enhancement of the humification process in the bulk sandy soil, the casts from this soil, and the bulk loam soil.
    Community food web, decomposition and nitrogen mineralisation in a stratified Scots pine forest soil
    Berg, M. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Didden, W. ; Janssen, M. ; Schouten, T. ; Verhoef, H. - \ 2001
    Oikos 94 (2001). - ISSN 0030-1299 - p. 130 - 142.
    A soil community food web model was used to improve the understanding of what factors govern the mineralisation of nutrients and carbon and the decay of dead organic matter. The model derives the rates of C and N mineralisation by organisms by splitting their uptake rate of food resources into a rate at which faeces or prey remains are added to detritus, a rate at which elements are incorporated into biomass, and a rate at which elements are released by organisms as inorganic compounds. The functioning of soil organisms in the mineralisation of C and N was modelled in the soil horizon of a Scots pine forest. The organic horizon was divided into three distinct layers, representing successive stages of decay, i.e. litter, fragmented litter, and humus. Each of the layers had a different, quantitative, biota composition. For each layer the annual C and N mineralisation rates were simulated and compared to observed C and N mineralisation rates from organic matter in stratified litterbags. Simulated C and N mineralisation was relatively close to measured losses of C and N, but the fit was not perfect. Discrepancies between the observed and predicted mineralisation rates are discussed in terms of variation in model parameter values of those organisms that showed the highest contribution to mineralisation rates. The measured, and by the model predicted, significant decrease in mineralisation rates down the profile was not explained by the biomass of the primary decomposers and only partly by the total food web biomass. Modelling results indicated that indirect effects of soil fauna, due to trophic interactions with their resources, are an important explanatory factor. In addition, the analyses suggest that community food web structure is an important factor in the regulation of nutrient mineralisation. The model provided the means to evaluate the contribution of functionally defined groups of organisms, structured in a detrital food web, to losses of C and N from successive decay stages.
    Enchytraeids as indicator organisms for chemical stress in terrestrial ecosystems
    Didden, W. ; Römbke, J. - \ 2001
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 50 (2001). - ISSN 0147-6513 - p. 25 - 43.
    This review article surveys the available data on enchytraeid sensitivity toward chemical stress, and the effects of chemical stress on enchytraeid communities in terrestrial ecosystems. The factors affecting bioavailability of stressors to enchytraeids and the nature of direct and indirect effects that may occur are discussed, and the importance of laboratory tests and field studies for the evaluation of toxic effects is underlined. The existing data on specific types of stressors such as pesticides, metals, fertilizers, and industrial and domestic chemicals often show clear responses of enchytraeids, and in many cases interspecific differences in sensitivity are recorded. It is concluded that, although in several fields additional data are required, there are good perspectives for the use of enchytraeids as indicator organisms.
    Analyse nematoden bestand. Deelrapportage 1, Projectcode 99.1259 Opdrachtgever: SKB
    Waarde, J. van der; Wagelmans, M. ; Knoben, R. ; Schouten, T. ; Goede, R. de; Keidel, H. ; Kerkum, F. ; Jonge, J. de; Bongers, T. ; Didden, W. - \ 2001
    Groningen : Bioclear - 22 p.
    Earthworm communities in grasslands and horticultural soils
    Didden, W.A.M. - \ 2001
    Biology and Fertility of Soils 33 (2001). - ISSN 0178-2762 - p. 111 - 117.
    In a survey of 42 farm sites, comprising grassland and two types of horticultural farms (growing vegetables or flower bulbs), earthworm communities were sampled by hand-sorting and a number of soil physico-chemical characteristics recorded. For heavy metals the availability in the soil solution was estimated based on the measured absolute content. Abundance, biomass and species richness were significantly higher in grassland soils than in horticultural soils, and within the horticultural farms significantly higher in vegetable than in flower-bulb farms. No epigeic species were found in horticultural soils. The differences between the various farm types were probably related to the intensity of management practices, such as soil tillage, harvesting and crop protection measures, that result in less soil organic matter of lower quality. The data from the grassland farms were analyzed in conjunction with the physico-chemical soil characteristics, applying canonical correspondence analysis. Community parameters such as species richness and diversity apparently were not related to soil characteristics, but an appreciable part of the variation in abundance and biomass of several individual species could be explained by factors such as lutum content (particles <16 7m), pH, bio-availability of metal ions and geographical position of the sample site. It is concluded that repeated surveys of this type may become a valuable tool for monitoring soil quality.
    Pilotproject bodembioloigsche indicator voor life support functies van de bodem
    Schouten, A.J. ; Bloem, J. ; Breure, A.M. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Esbroek, M. van; Ruiter, P.C. de; Rutgers, M. ; Siepel, H. ; Velvis, H. - \ 2000
    Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM Rapport 607604001) - 107 p.
    I het milieu- en natuurbeleid is er een groeiende behoefte aan instrumenten die de kwaliteit van ecosytemen kunnen voorspellen in relatie tot milieudrukfactoren. Duurzame ontwikkeling en duurzaam gebruik van biodiversiteit zijn in dit verband de sleutelwoorden. In Nederland is het biodiversiteitsbeleid gebaseerd op de klassieke benadering van soortbescherming en natuurreservaten. Er is echter een toenemende zorg bij de overheid of deze maatregelen ook voldoende zijn om een duurzaam gebruik van bijv. agrarische ecosystemen te waarborgen. Het hier beschreven onderzoek vindt z'n oorsprong in het biodiversiteitsverdrag van Rio de Janeiro (UNCED 1992). Er wordt verslag gedaan van een pilotproject dat is uitgevoerd om het Bodembiologische Indicatorsysteem in de praktijk te te testen. Dit werd gedaan in het kader van het Landelijk Meetnet Bodemkwaliteit op 20 veehouderijbedrijven op zeeklei en 17 vollegrondstuinbouwbedrijven. De Bodembiologische indicator is ontworpen om een geintegreerd beeld te geven van de eologische bodemkwaliteit. Door de opzet van de indicator wordt een koppeling gelegd tussen structuur en functies van het ecosysteem zoals afbraak van organisch materiaal en mineralisatie van stikstof . Gebruikte indicatorgroepen waren: nematoden, pot- en regenwormen, potentiele nitrificatie, diversiteit van microbiole afbraakroutes en aantal, biomassa en activiteit van microorganismen. Analyse van bodemmijten en een complete voedselwebmodellering kon slechts op twee locaties worden uitgevoerd. In het rapport worden aggregatiemethoden gepresenteerd (AMOEBE en index) waarmee een ecologische kwaliteitsbeoordeling kan worden uitgevoerd. Aansluitend worden de bevindingen van de pilot geevalueerd. Het leidt tot de aanbeveling om het meetprogramma uit te breiden naar meerdere grondsoorten en bodemgebruikstypen, en een goede referentieset op te bouwen. Hierdoor ontstaat een database waarmee ook een prognostisch instrument te maken is in de vorm van habitat-responsrelaties, naar voorbeeld van het MOVE-model.
    Development of a biological indicator for soil quality
    Schouten, I. ; Bloem, J. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Rutgers, M. ; Siepel, H. ; Pothuma, L. ; Brevre, A.M. - \ 2000
    SETAC Globe 1 (2000). - p. 30 - 32.
    Life support functies van de bodem: operationalisering t.b.v. het biodiversiteitsbeleid
    Siepel, H. ; Schouten, A.J. ; Breure, A.M. ; Bloem, J. ; Didden, W. ; Ruiter, P.C. de - \ 1999
    Unknown Publisher (RIVM-rapport 607601003) - 55 p.
    Ter uitvoering van actiepunt NMW1a uit het Strategisch Plan van Aanpak biodiversiteit (SPA; LNV, VROM, V&W, OCW, EZ, BZ, 1995) en als onderdeel van actie N59 uit het NMP-2, is eerder een studie uitgevoerd naar de mogelijkheden om een indicatorsysteem op te stellen voor biodiversiteit van de bodem in relatie tot Life support functies (LSF). In een pilotproject is het indicatorsysteem vervolgens getest binnen de infrastructuur van het Landelijk Meetnet Bodemkwaliteit (LMB). Het indicatorsysteem, en de daaruit af te leiden bodembiologische indicator, bestaat uit een aantal deelindicatoren. De vragen van het onderzoek waren.- kan de gekozen indicatorset worden toegepast in een meetnet; hebben de deelindicatoren van de set voldoende onderscheidend vermogen; kunnen de resultaten worden ingepast in de huidige diagnostische en prognostische gereedschappen van het RIVM (Natuurplanner en EKI).De resultaten en conclusies uit de pilot zijn in dit beleidsgerichte rapport kort beschreven. Een meer gedetailleerde uitwerking van de onderzoeksresultaten verschijnt in het achtergrond-rapport. De pilot heeft aangetoond dat de geselecteerde deelindicatoren gevoelig en onderscheidend zijn voor verschillende combinaties van bodemtype en landgebruik. Als een mogelijke vorm voor het weergeven van de resultaten behaald met de bodembiologische indicator, is een AMOEBE gemaakt voor graslanden op zeeklei. Hierbij is gebruik gemaakt van een gekozen (voorlopige) referentie. De gegevens zijn verder geaggregeerd tot een Bodemkwaliteitsindex (BKX). Op deze wijze zou aan een ecologische bodembeoordeling vorm gegeven kunnen worden. Door systematisch onderzoek aan LSF-deelindicatoren in het Landelijk Meetnet Bodemkwaliteit (40 locaties per jaar) kan in 5 jaar een database opgebouwd worden waarmee responsrelaties voor bodemeigenschappen, systeemeigen- en systeemvreemde stoffen zijn af te leiden. Hiermee kan een LSF-module (prognostisch instrument) worden opgenomen in een decision support systeem als de Natuurplanner
    Humus profile degradation as influence by decreasing earthworm activity
    Delft, S.P.J. van; Marinussen, J.C.Y. ; Didden, W.A.M. - \ 1999
    Pedobiologia 43 (1999). - ISSN 0031-4056 - p. 561 - 567.
    Humus profile development as influenced by earthworm activity
    Delft, S.P.J. van; Marinissen, J.C.Y. ; Didden, W.A.M. - \ 1998
    In: book of abstracts of the 6th International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology, Vigo, Spain, 31 August - 4 September 1998. Universidad de Vigo & Universidad Complutense de Madrid (1998) - p. 49 - 49.
    Dynamics and stratification of Enchytraeidae in the organic layer of a Scots pine forest.
    Didden, W.A.M. ; Fluiter, R. de - \ 1998
    Biology and Fertility of Soils 26 (1998). - ISSN 0178-2762 - p. 305 - 312.
    Community food web, decomposition and nutrient mineralisation in a stratified Scots pine forest soil
    Berg, M. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Didden, W.A.M. ; Janssen, M.P.M. ; Schouten, A.J. ; Verhoef, H.A. - \ 1997
    In: Decomposition, nutrient flow and food web dynamics in a stratified pine forest soil / Berg, M.,
    Enchytraeids and nematophagous fungi in soil microcosms.
    Jaffee, B.A. ; Muldoon, A.E. ; Didden, W.A.M. - \ 1997
    Biology and Fertility of Soils 25 (1997). - ISSN 0178-2762 - p. 382 - 388.
    Influence of the enchytraeid worm Buchholzia appendiculata on aggregate formation and organic matter decomposition.
    Marinissen, J.C.Y. ; Didden, W.A.M. - \ 1997
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 29 (1997)3-4. - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 387 - 390.
    organische verbindingen - bodem - bodemchemie - aardwormen - cellulose - koolhydraten - decompositie - organic compounds - soil - soil chemistry - earthworms - cellulose - carbohydrates - decomposition
    Enchytraeid worms were kept in <0.3 mm sieved sandy loam subsoil mixed with ground wheat, for 6 weeks at 16°C. Sieved soil with organic matter but without worms was also incubated. The soil was then allowed to air-dry slowly during 6 weeks. Enchytraeid casts were collected from the surface of the soil with worms, and the remaining soil was separated into three size fractions by dry sieving. All size fractions were analysed for stability and %C, and mineralisation potential. The amount of soil in the fraction > 0.3 mm (including the casts) was larger in the presence of enchytraeid worms, at the cost of soil from the fraction 0.3 0.03 mm. The %C in both soils was highest in the fraction < 0.03 mm. Activity of enchytraeids significantly decreased the %C in the fraction > 0.3 mm. Fresh excrements, representing 0.5% of the soil, were very high in organic matter content. Mineralisation (expressed as percentage of C that was mineralised) was highest in the fraction <0.03 and lowest in the 0.3-0.03 fraction. Excrements showed very high mineralisation rates. Enchytraeid activity enhanced mineralisation in the fraction > 0.3 ram. Aggregates > 0.3 mm from the treatment with worms dispersed less clay after shaking with water than those from the treatment without worms. Although the influence of enchytraeid worms on total C-content and mineralisation was small, the changes in C of the different size fractions showed that enchytraeids influenced the active fraction of the C in the soil considerably by consuming litter, thereby locating it inside soil aggregates and linking the organic matter to clay particles.
    Didden, W. ; Fründ, H.C. ; Graefe, U. - \ 1997
    In: Fauna in Soil Ecosystems - Recycling Processes, Nutr. Fluxes, and Agric. Prod / Benckiser, G., - p. 135 - 172.
    Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in soil.
    Brussaard, L. ; Behan-Pelletier, V.M. ; Bignell, D.E. ; Brown, V.K. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Folgarait, P.J. ; Fragoso, C. ; Freckman, D.W. ; Gupta, V.V.S.R. ; Hattori, T. - \ 1997
    Ambio 26 (1997). - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 563 - 570.
    Enchytraeids. Fauna in soil ecosystems.
    Didden, W. ; Fründ, H.C. ; Graefe, U. - \ 1996
    In: Recycling processes, nutrient fluxes, and agricultural production / Benckiser, G., - p. 135 - 172.
    Effects of soil fauna on Orobanche seeds.
    Borg, S.J. ter; Didden, W.A.M. ; Ferro, I. ; Zweers, P. - \ 1996
    In: Advances in parasitic plant research, M.T. Moreno et al. (eds.). Proc. 6th Int. Parasitic Weed Symp., Cordoba. Junta de Andalucia, Consejeria de Agricultura y Pesca, Sevilla, Spain - p. 401 - 408.
    The effect of nitrogen deposition on enchytraeid-mediated decomposition and mobilization: a laboratory experiment.
    Didden, W. - \ 1995
    Acta zoologica fennica 196 (1995). - ISSN 0001-7299 - p. 60 - 64.
    The relative efficiency of wet funnel techniques for the extraction of Enchytraeidae.
    Didden, W. ; Born, H. ; Domm, H. ; Graefe, U. ; Heck, M. ; Kühle, J. ; Mellin, A. ; Römbke, J. - \ 1995
    Pedobiologia 39 (1995). - ISSN 0031-4056 - p. 52 - 57.
    Simulation of dynamics in nitrogen mineralisation in the belowground food webs of two arable farming systems
    Ruiter, P.C. de; Bloem, J. ; Bouwman, L.A. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Hoenderboom, G.H. ; Lebbink, G. ; Marinissen, J.C.Y. ; Vos, J.A. de; Vreeken-Buijs, M.J. ; Zwart, K.B. ; Brussaard, L. - \ 1994
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 51 (1994). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 199 - 208.
    akkerbouw - veldgewassen - mineralisatie - modellen - nitrificatie - onderzoek - arable farming - field crops - mineralization - models - nitrification - research
    Food web dynamics in a conventional (high-input) and an integrated (reduced-input) arable farming system were modelled to simulate the dynamics in N mineralisation during 1 year under winter wheat. The simulated N mineralisation rates were compared with the observed in situ N mineralisation rates. In the lower depth layers (10–25 cm) the simulated rates matched the observed rates better than in the upper depth layers (0–10 cm). Declines in N mineralisation were better matched than peaks in N mineralisation. The food web model simulated net N immobilisation in the conventional practice and net N mineralisation in the integrated practice for the period following harvest, which was combined with the addition of crop residues and tillage, and in the conventional practice also with soil fumigation. These simulated rates were in agreement with the observed rates. The results indicate that in the investigated arable soils, N mineralisation depended strongly on bacteria decomposing soil organic matter and microbivores, especially protozoans, releasing N from the bacterial biomass.
    Population dynamics in the belowground food webs in two different agricultural systems.
    Zwart, K.B. ; Burgers, S.L.G.E. ; Bloem, J. ; Bouwman, L.A. ; Brussaard, L. ; Lebbink, G. ; Didden, W.A.M. ; Marinissen, J.C.Y. ; Vreeken-Buijs, M.J. ; Ruiter, P.C. de - \ 1994
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 51 (1994). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 187 - 198.
    bedrijfssystemen - bodembiologie - farming systems - soil biology
    Effects of oligochaete worms on soil aggregates and implications for organic matter dynamics.
    Didden, W.A.M. ; Marinissen, J.C.Y. - \ 1994
    In: Transactions 15th World Congr. Soil Science. Vol. 4a: Commission III: Symposia. Acapulco, Mexico - p. 92 - 101.
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