Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Pilot to actively restore native oyster reefs in the North Sea: comprehensive report to share lessons learned in 2018
Didderen, K. ; Lengkeek, Wouter ; Kamermans, P. ; Deden, B. ; Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, E. ; Bergsma, J.H. ; Gool, A.C.M. van; Have, T.M. van der; Sas, Hein - \ 2019
Culemborg : Bureau Waardenburg (Report / Bureau Waardenburg 19-013) - 33 p.
Recommendations for flat oyster restoration in the North Sea
Sas, Hein ; Didderen, K. ; Have, Tom van der; Kamermans, P. ; Wijngaard, K. van den; Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, E. - \ 2019
- 34 p.
Shellfish bed restoration pilots Voordelta, Netherlands : Annual report 2018
Didderen, K. ; Have, Tom van der; Bergsma, J.H. ; Jagt, H. van der; Lengkeek, Wouter ; Kamermans, P. ; Brink, A.M. van den; Maathuis, Margot ; Sas, Hein - \ 2019
Wageningen Marine Research - 68 p.
Shellfish bed restoration pilots: Voordelta The Netherlands : Annual report 2017
Sas, H. ; Kamermans, P. ; Have, T.M. van der; Christianen, M.J.A. ; Coolen, J.W.P. ; Lengkeek, W. ; Didderen, K. ; Driessen, F. ; Bergsma, J. ; Dalen, Pim van; Gool, A.C.M. van; Pool, Jesse van der; Weide, B.E. van der - \ 2018
Wageningen Marine Research - 44 p.
Return of the native facilitated by the invasive? Population composition, substrate preferences and epibenthic species richness of a recently discovered shellfish reef with native European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the North Sea
Christianen, M.J.A. ; Lengkeek, W. ; Bergsma, J.H. ; Coolen, J.W.P. ; Didderen, K. ; Dorenbosch, M. ; Driessen, F.M.F. ; Kamermans, P. ; Reuchlin-Hugenholtz, E. ; Sas, H. ; Smaal, A. ; Wijngaard, K.A. Van Den; Have, T.M. Van Der - \ 2018
Marine Biology Research 14 (2018)6. - ISSN 1745-1000 - p. 590 - 597.
Ostrea edulis - facilitation - native oyster restoration - invasive alien species - North Sea - biodiversity
After being ecologically extinct for almost a century, the discovery of a shellfish reef with native European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Dutch coastal area of the North Sea by the authors of this study called for an extensive survey to better understand some of the key requirements for the return of the native oyster in coastal waters. We assessed habitat conditions, its potential for increasing biodiversity, and the role of substrate provision by other bivalves such as the invasive alien Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Using underwater visual census, O. edulis size-frequency distributions and attachment substrate was investigated, as well as the composition of the epibenthic community and substrata types inside quadrats that were distributed across the reef. This reef was found to be composed of native European flat oysters, invasive alien Pacific oysters and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis), alternated with sandy patches. The O. edulis population (6.8 ± 0.6 oysters m−2) consisted of individuals of different size classes. In quadrats with native and non-native oysters the number of epibenthic species was 60% higher compared to adjacent sand patches within the reef. Notably, our results showed that the native oyster predominantly used shell (fragments) of the invasive Pacific oyster as settlement substrate (81% of individuals). Our results optimistically show that conditions for native oyster restoration can be suitable at a local scale in the coastal North Sea area and suggest that the return of native oysters may be facilitated by novel substrate provided by invasive oysters at sites where their distribution overlap.
Eco-friendly design of scour protection: potential enhancement of ecological functioning in offshore wind farms : Towards an implementation guide and experimental set-up
Lengkeek, Wouter ; Didderen, K. ; Teunis, M. ; Driessen, F. ; Coolen, J.W.P. ; Bos, O.G. ; Vergouwen, S.A. ; Raaijmakers, T. ; Vries, M.B. de; Koningsveld, M. van - \ 2017
Culemborg : Bureau Waardenburg (Report / Bureau Waardenburg 17-001) - 98 p.
The aim of this study is to explore the possibilities to implement ‘Building with North Sea Nature’ in offshore infrastructures in the North Sea by providing guidelines for the eco-friendly design of scour protection structures around monopiles in planned wind farms to enhance ecological functioning.
The guidelines include specifications on: The type of hard substrate material or products available and how these can potentially enhance ecological functioning (and have added value compared to regular types used); How different types of hard substrates and configurations can be (experimentally) designed to vary spatially, in such a systematic manner that the effect on ecological enhancement can be determined empirically; How the effects of these scour protection structures can be monitored and evaluated; Whether site-specific conditions apply to wind planned farm locations in the Dutch North Sea. Eco-friendly design in this study entails optimising the scour protection of offshore wind farms to enhance its ecological functioning. Enhancement of ecological functioning has been defined as: increasing habitat suitability for species (or communities) occurring naturally in the Dutch North Sea, in particular, for policyrelevant
(from a conservation perspective) and endangered species, such as those
listed in the EU Habitats Directive, OSPAR or national red lists (see Annex 2 in Bos et al. in prep.). Where previous work has explored the more general possibility for enhancement of ecological functioning in offshore wind farms (van Duren et al. 2016; Smaal et al. in prep.), this study provides explicit steps towards realising an eco-friendly design of scour protection and a practical field experiment to allow for scientific evaluation. From an analysis of physical conditions in the North Sea that influence both biodiversity and scouring mechanisms at wind farm locations, it is concluded that scour protection will be required in most, or all, future offshore wind farms on the Dutch Continental Shelf. It is also concluded that scour protection design could be altered to benefit the ecology, but that new designs will require additional testing for
anti-scouring effects. Based on a selection of policy-relevant species for the North Sea, two umbrella species were selected: Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis). Focussing design variables and principles on these two umbrella species is expected to result in optimising the habitat for a wide range of native hard substrate biodiversity. Based on existing data from current wind farm scour protection, other artificial hard substrates and natural hard substrates from the North Sea, it is hypothesized that an optimised design of scour protection will yield increased populations of umbrella species or increased native biodiversity in general, including policy-relevant species.
Based on available knowledge on ecological principles and expert judgement of North Sea hard substrate ecologists, four design variables for optimised scour protection are defined: 1. Adding larger structures than conventional scour protection to create large holes and crevices, to provide adequate shelter / holes for large mobile species. 2. Adding more small-scale structures than conventional scour protection to create more small-scale holes and crevices but also attachment substrate and settlement substrate. 3. Providing or mimicking natural (biogenic) chemical substrate properties to facilitate species. An example is to provide chalk-rich substrate such as concrete with added chalk, or even natural substrate such as shell material. 4. Active introduction of specimens of target species to enhance establishment of new populations. This is to facilitate recruitment at locations where reproduction by naturally occurring adults is These design variables are made practically applicable by providing example
materials and specifications for implementation in the field and, a cost overview is provided for example materials. Combining the above information, this study provides design guidelines for wind farms with optimised scour protection to enhance ecological functioning. In addition it defines a minimum and a standardized approach for deployment and monitoring of a subset of locations to allow for scientific evaluation. The monitoring techniques that are required to do so, are described and a cost estimate for the monitoring is provided.
In conclusion, this study provides eco-friendly design principles for scour protection and a first experimental design to implement ‘Building with North Sea Nature’: ecological enhancement by optimising scour protection in offshore wind farms. This is considered as a first step in a process that should result in ‘learning by doing’.
Importance of habitat structure as a determinant of the taxonomic and functional composition of lentic macroinvertebrate assemblages.
Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Didderen, K. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2012
Limnologica 42 (2012)1. - ISSN 0075-9511 - p. 31 - 42.
species richness - invertebrate colonization - environment relationships - community structure - aquatic macrophyte - plant architecture - body-size - complexity - abundance - stream
Variation in habitat structure provided by macrophytes is regarded as one of the determinants of macroinvertebrate species composition in lentic ecosystems, but mechanisms underlying this relationship appear to be confounded with site-specific factors, such as physicochemical factors, epiphyton and composition of the vegetation. To better understand the relationship between structural complexity of a macrophyte stand and its macroinvertebrate assemblage composition, it is essential to determine the ecological role of different components of habitat structure for the phytomacrofauna. Using artificial structures as macrophyte mimics, representing three growth forms (stems, broad-leaved, finely dissected) and three structure surface areas (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 m2), a full factorial field experiment was conducted in a series of drainage ditches. We investigated if macroinvertebrate assemblages colonizing the structures were affected by an increase in macrophyte structure surface area, structural complexity, or by a combination of both, and if the observed patterns were consistent among sites differing in physicochemical and habitat characteristics. Assemblages were characterized both in terms of taxonomic and functional composition, because we expected that non-taxonomic aggregation of species into functional categories would give a different insight in habitat complexity–macroinvertebrate relationships in comparison to approaches based on the taxonomic assemblage composition. Ditch intrinsic factors, in part reflected in the periphyton on the structures, explained the major proportion of the variance in both the taxonomical macroinvertebrate assemblages and functional groups among structures. Contrary to our expectation, patterns in the taxon-based and functional dataset resembled each other. Only a minor contribution of growth form to the explained variance was observed in the taxonomical dataset, whilst differences in functional composition were unrelated to habitat structure. In conclusion, processes operating on larger spatial scales overrode the micro-scale effects of habitat structural complexity and surface area on macroinvertebrates.
Belang van dispersie bij herstel van waternatuur
Didderen, K. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2010
De Levende Natuur 111 (2010)3. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 24 - 29.
hydrobiologie - migratie - duikers - waterdieren - dispersie - macrofauna - hydrobiology - migration - culverts - aquatic animals - dispersion
Resultaten van herstelmaatregelen in wateren vallen vaak tegen, omdat de gewenste fauna niet (terug)komt. Een belangrijke reden hiervoor is dat (her)kolonisatie van waterfauna moet plaatsvinden vanuit bronpopulaties. Om meer te weten te komen over de dispersie van macrofauna en hun verplaatsing door het water is de barrièrewerking van duikers onderzocht. Dit leidt tot een aantal aanbevelingen.
Paaiende rivierprikken in de Maas twee weken later
Didderen, K. - \ 2010
Nature Today 2010 (2010)04-05.
Dikke buiken in de Grensmaas
Didderen, K. - \ 2010
Nature Today 2010 (2010)20-05.
Pas op voor de zorgzame vader (VIDEO)
Didderen, K. - \ 2010
Nature Today 2010 (2010)23-05.
Kaderrichtlijn Water en waterafhankelijke EHS : de actuele toestand van de onderlinge afstemming
Didderen, K. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1997) - 93
aquatische ecologie - kwaliteit - aquatische gemeenschappen - watersystemen - ecologische hoofdstructuur - kaderrichtlijn water - ecologisch herstel - aquatic ecology - quality - aquatic communities - water systems - ecological network - water framework directive - ecological restoration
Zowel de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur als de Kaderrichtlijn Water dragen bij aan het behoud en het versterken van de biodiversiteit in watersystemen. De centrale vraag in dit rapport is of er voldoende aandacht wordt besteed aan de afstemming van de KRW en de EHS. Waterplannen en ervaringen van experts zijn gebruikt om tot een overzicht van de stroomlijning en de knelpunten bij de afstemming van EHS en KRW te komen. De KRW draagt bij aan de morfologische behoeften van aquatische ecosystemen in de EHS, vooral voor grote wateren. De KRW-maatregelen zijn echter niet voldoende voor de verbetering van de waterkwaliteit (zowel oppervlaktewater als grondwater), de verbetering van grondwaterkwantiteit en het herstel van natuurwaarden in kleine wateren.
Enquête beek(dal)herstelprojecten 2004-2008 : evaluatie van beekherstel over de periode 1960-2008 en analyse van effecten van 9 voorbeeldprojecten
Didderen, K. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Knegtel, R.M.A. ; Lototskaya, A.A. - \ 2009
Ede : Ministerie LNV, Directie Kennis en Innovatie (Rapport DKI nr. 2009/dk 125-O) - 69
herstel - waterlopen - beekdalen - aquatische ecologie - ecologisch herstel - natura 2000 - rehabilitation - streams - brook valleys - aquatic ecology - ecological restoration - natura 2000
Om inzicht te krijgen in de stand van de aquatisch-ecologische aspecten van beekherstel zijn door Alterra in de jaren 1993 (uitgebreid), 1998 (verkort) en 2003 (verkort) beekherstelenquêtes uitgevoerd en gerapporteerd. De Nederlandse natuur- en waterbeheerders hebben behoefte aan de resultaten van dergelijke enquêtes om (1) van elkaar te leren en (2) om nieuwe inzichten en mogelijkheden te leren kennen. OBN heeft de resultaten nodig om een scherp beeld van de mogelijkheden en onmogelijkheden van verschillende herstelmaatregelen onder verschillende omstandigheden te krijgen. In 2008 is een opnieuw een enquête gehouden, welke een vervolg is op de voorgaande beekherstelenquêtes. Deze laatste enquête echter richtte zich naast beekherstel ook op beekdalherstel. In dit rapport wordt de actuele stand (2004-2008) omtrent beek(dal)herstel in Nederland gerapporteerd. (zie ook Alterra rapport 1858).
Witsnuiten en geelvlekken kleuren de slootfauna
Didderen, K. - \ 2009
Nature Today 2009 (2009)11-09.
Wanneer komen doelsoorten naar een nieuwe beek?
Didderen, K. - \ 2009
Nature Today 2009 (2009)21-08.
Waterbeheer en verspreiding waterorganismen
Didderen, K. - \ 2009
Nature Today 2009 (2009)10-07.
Addition of wood to streams: experiences from a lowland stream restoration project
Didderen, K. ; Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (GOCE-CT-2003-505540 323)
Sampling of a restored lowland stream and the potential effects of climate change on the restoration success
Didderen, K. ; Lototskaya, A.A. ; Hoorn, M.W. van den; Sinkeldam, J.A. ; Wiggers, R. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (GOCE-CT-2003-505540 232) - 57 p.
Effecten van piekafvoeren op kokerjuffers in laaglandbeken
Didderen, K. ; Dekkers, T.B.M. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2009
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 42 (2009)23. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 33 - 35.
waterlopen - neerslag - afvoer - aquatisch milieu - trichoptera - ecologische verstoring - macrofauna - aquatische ecologie - streams - precipitation - discharge - aquatic environment - ecological disturbance - aquatic ecology
De verwachting is dat neerslagextremen door de opwarming van de aarde vaker zullen gaan voorkomen. Dat zal leiden tot een toename in de omvang en frequentie van piekafvoeren. De vraag is wat de effecten zijn van dergelijke weersextremen op organismen in laaglandbeken. Daarom is in het kader van het Europese project Euro-limpacs onderzocht wat de effecten van piekafvoeren zijn op het gedrag en de habitatvoorkeur van kokerjuffers. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat bij verstoring drift toeneemt en soorten specifiek gedrag vertonen. Zandtransport verstoort alle soorten kokerjuffers. Bij herinrichting van beken en bij beken waarvan de hydrologie en morfologie niet op orde zijn, zou zandtransport daarom moeten worden voorkomen
Effecten van piekafvoeren op kokerjuffers in laaglandbeken : een experimentele benadering
Didderen, K. ; Dekkers, T.B.M. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1912) - 71
trichoptera - ecologische verstoring - habitatselectie - diergedrag - waterlopen - afvoer - klimaatverandering - experimenten - macrofauna - ecological disturbance - habitat selection - animal behaviour - streams - discharge - climatic change - experiments
De verwachting is dat door de klimaatverandering een toename in neerslagextremen zal plaatsvinden, hetgeen zal leiden tot een toename in de omvang en frequentie van piekafvoeren. De vraag is wat de effecten zijn van een toenemende omvang en frequentie van verstoringen op organismen in laaglandbeken. Het onderzoek is gericht op de effecten van verstoring op het gedrag en op de habitatvoorkeur van kokerjuffers. Verschillende soorten reageren anders op verstoringen, maar over het algemeen zijn specialisten minder beweeglijk en meer gebonden aan een specifiek habitat dan generalisten. Ze zijn daarom kwetsbaar en minder goed in staat zich aan te passen wanneer de frequentie of omvang van verstoringen in laaglandbeken toeneemt. Uit het onderzoek blijkt verder dat een verhoogde stroomsnelheid en turbulente verstoring van het habitat reeds het gedrag van kokerjuffers beinvloeden. Wanneer het habitat bedekt wordt met zand is de verstoring het grootst en treedt uiteindelijk sterfte op. Door de hydrologie van beken op orde te brengen en bij beekherstelmaatregelen voorbereidingen te treffen, moet zandtransport zo veel mogelijk worden voorkomen
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