Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    CloudRoots: integration of advanced instrumental techniques and process modelling of sub-hourly and sub-kilometre land–atmosphere interactions
    Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi ; Ney, Patrizia ; Hartogensis, Oscar ; Boer, Hugo De; Diepen, Kevin Van; Emin, Dzhaner ; Groot, Geiske De; Klosterhalfen, Anne ; Langensiepen, Matthias ; Matveeva, Maria ; Miranda-García, Gabriela ; Moene, Arnold F. ; Rascher, Uwe ; Röckmann, Thomas ; Adnew, Getachew ; Brüggemann, Nicolas ; Rothfuss, Youri ; Graf, Alexander - \ 2020
    Biogeosciences 17 (2020)17. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 4375 - 4404.
    The CloudRoots field experiment was designed to obtain a comprehensive observational dataset that includes soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to investigate the interaction between a heterogeneous land surface and its overlying atmospheric boundary layer at the sub-hourly and sub-kilometre scale. Our findings demonstrate the need to include measurements at leaf level to better understand the relations between stomatal aperture and evapotranspiration (ET) during the growing season at the diurnal scale. Based on these observations, we obtain accurate parameters for the mechanistic representation of photosynthesis and stomatal aperture. Once the new parameters are implemented, the model reproduces the stomatal leaf conductance and the leaf-level photosynthesis satisfactorily. At the canopy scale, we find a consistent diurnal pattern on the contributions of plant transpiration and soil evaporation using different measurement techniques. From highly resolved vertical profile measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other state variables, we infer a profile of the CO2 assimilation in the canopy with non-linear variations with height. Observations taken with a laser scintillometer allow us to quantify the non-steadiness of the surface turbulent fluxes during the rapid changes driven by perturbation of photosynthetically active radiation by cloud flecks. More specifically, we find 2 min delays between the cloud radiation perturbation and ET. To study the relevance of advection and surface heterogeneity for the land–atmosphere interaction, we employ a coupled surface–atmospheric conceptual model that integrates the surface and upper-air observations made at different scales from leaf to the landscape. At the landscape scale, we calculate a composite sensible heat flux by weighting measured fluxes with two different land use categories, which is consistent with the diurnal evolution of the boundary layer depth. Using sun-induced fluorescence measurements, we also quantify the spatial variability of ET and find large variations at the sub-kilometre scale around the CloudRoots site. Our study shows that throughout the entire growing season, the wide variations in stomatal opening and photosynthesis lead to large diurnal variations of plant transpiration at the leaf, plant, canopy, and landscape scales. Integrating different advanced instrumental techniques with modelling also enables us to determine variations of ET that depend on the scale where the measurement were taken and on the plant growing stage
    Correction to: Rewiring of glucose metabolism defines trained immunity induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein
    Keating, Samuel T. ; Groh, Laszlo ; Thiem, Kathrin ; Bekkering, Siroon ; Li, Yang ; Matzaraki, Vasiliki ; Heijden, Charlotte D.C.C. van der; Puffelen, Jelmer H. van; Lachmandas, Ekta ; Jansen, Trees ; Oosting, Marije ; Bree, L.C.J. de; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M. ; Moorlag, Simone J.C.F.M. ; Mourits, Vera P. ; Diepen, Janna van; Stienstra, Rinke ; Novakovic, Boris ; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G. ; Crevel, Reinout van; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Riksen, Niels P. - \ 2020
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 98 (2020). - ISSN 0946-2716

    The correct name of the 17th Author is presented in this paper. In the paragraph “Metabolic analysis” of the Method section “an XFp Analyzer” should be changed to “an XFe96 Analyzer”.

    Rewiring of glucose metabolism defines trained immunity induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein
    Keating, Samuel T. ; Groh, Laszlo ; Thiem, Kathrin ; Bekkering, Siroon ; Li, Yang ; Matzaraki, Vasiliki ; Heijden, Charlotte D.C.C. van der; Puffelen, Jelmer H. van; Lachmandas, Ekta ; Jansen, Trees ; Oosting, Marije ; Bree, L.C.J. de; Koeken, Valerie A.C.M. ; Moorlag, Simone J.C.F.M. ; Mourits, Vera P. ; Diepen, Janna van; Stienstra, Rinke ; Novakovic, Boris ; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G. ; Crevel, Reinout van; Joosten, Leo A.B. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Riksen, Niels P. - \ 2020
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 98 (2020). - ISSN 0946-2716 - p. 819 - 831.
    Atherosclerosis - Cardiovascular disease - Diabetes complications - Glycolysis - Immunometabolism - Inflammation - Trained immunity

    Abstract: Stimulation of monocytes with microbial and non-microbial products, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), induces a protracted pro-inflammatory, atherogenic phenotype sustained by metabolic and epigenetic reprogramming via a process called trained immunity. We investigated the intracellular metabolic mechanisms driving oxLDL-induced trained immunity in human primary monocytes and observed concomitant upregulation of glycolytic activity and oxygen consumption. In two separate cohorts of healthy volunteers, we assessed the impact of genetic variation in glycolytic genes on the training capacity of monocytes and found that variants mapped to glycolytic enzymes PFKFB3 and PFKP influenced trained immunity by oxLDL. Subsequent functional validation with inhibitors of glycolytic metabolism revealed dose-dependent inhibition of trained immunity in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo administration of the glucose metabolism modulator metformin abrogated the ability for human monocytes to mount a trained response to oxLDL. These findings underscore the importance of cellular metabolism for oxLDL-induced trained immunity and highlight potential immunomodulatory strategies for clinical management of atherosclerosis. Key messages: Brief stimulation of monocytes to oxLDL induces a prolonged inflammatory phenotype.This is due to upregulation of glycolytic metabolism.Genetic variation in glycolytic genes modulates oxLDL-induced trained immunity.Pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis prevents trained immunity.

    Deletion of haematopoietic Dectin-2 or CARD9 does not protect from atherosclerosis development under hyperglycaemic conditions
    Thiem, Kathrin ; Hoeke, Geerte ; Zhou, Enchen ; Hijmans, Anneke ; Houben, Tom ; Boels, Margien G. ; Mol, Isabel M. ; Lutgens, Esther ; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit ; Bussink, Johan ; Kanneganti, Thirumala D. ; Boon, Mariëtte R. ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Tack, Cees J. ; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Berbée, Jimmy F.P. ; Diepen, Janna A. van - \ 2020
    Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research 17 (2020)1. - ISSN 1479-1641 - p. 1 - 12.
    Atherosclerosis - C-type lectin receptors - CARD9 - Dectin-2 - hyperglycaemia - inflammation - monocytes/macrophages

    Background: C-type lectin receptors, including Dectin-2, are pattern recognition receptors on monocytes and macrophages that mainly recognize sugars and sugar-like structures present on fungi. Activation of C-type lectin receptors induces downstream CARD9 signalling, leading to the production of cytokines. We hypothesized that under hyperglycaemic conditions, as is the case in diabetes mellitus, glycosylated protein (sugar-like) structures activate C-type lectin receptors, leading to immune cell activation and increased atherosclerosis development. Methods: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow from control wild-type, Dectin-2−/− or Card9−/− mice. After 6 weeks of recovery, mice received streptozotocin injections (50 mg/g BW; 5 days) to induce hyperglycaemia. After an additional 2 weeks, mice were fed a Western-type diet (0.1% cholesterol) for 10 weeks. Results and Conclusion: Deletion of haematopoietic Dectin-2 reduced the number of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production, but did not affect atherosclerosis development. Deletion of haematopoietic CARD9 tended to reduce macrophage and collagen content in atherosclerotic lesions, again without influencing the lesion size. Deletion of haematopoietic Dectin-2 did not influence atherosclerosis development under hyperglycaemic conditions, despite some minor effects on inflammation. Deletion of haematopoietic CARD9 induced minor alterations in plaque composition under hyperglycaemic conditions, without affecting lesion size.

    Akkermansia muciniphila Exerts Lipid-Lowering and Immunomodulatory Effects without Affecting Neointima Formation in Hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP Mice
    Katiraei, Saeed ; Vries, Margreet R. de; Costain, Alice H. ; Thiem, Kathrin ; Hoving, Lisa R. ; Diepen, Janna A. van; Smits, Hermelijn H. ; Bouter, Kristien E. ; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Quax, Paul H.A. ; Nieuwdorp, Max ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Vos, Willem M. de; Cani, Patrice D. ; Belzer, Clara ; Dijk, Ko Willems van; Berbée, Jimmy F.P. ; Harmelen, Vanessa van - \ 2020
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 64 (2020)15. - ISSN 1613-4125 - 10 p.
    Akkermansia muciniphila - atherosclerosis - immunity - lipid metabolism - mesenteric lymph nodes

    Scope: Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) is an intestinal commensal with anti-inflammatory properties both in the intestine and other organs. The aim is to investigate the effects of oral administration of A. muciniphila on lipid metabolism, immunity, and cuff-induced neointima formation in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L).CETP mice. Methods and results: Hyperlipidemic male E3L.CETP mice are daily treated with 2 × 108 CFU A. muciniphila by oral gavage for 4 weeks and the effects are determined on plasma lipid levels, immune parameters, and cuff-induced neointima formation and composition. A. muciniphila administration lowers body weight and plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides levels. A. muciniphila influences the immune cell composition in mesenteric lymph nodes, as evident from an increased total B cell population, while reducing the total T cell and neutrophil populations. Importantly, A. muciniphila reduces the expression of the activation markers MHCII on dendritic cells and CD86 on B cells. A. muciniphila also increases whole blood ex vivo lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-10 release. Finally, although treatment with A. muciniphila improves lipid metabolism and immunity, it does not affect neointima formation or composition. Conclusions: Four weeks of treatment with A. muciniphila exerts lipid-lowering and immunomodulatory effects, which are insufficient to inhibit neointima formation in hyperlipidemic E3L.CETP mice.

    Deletion of hematopoietic Dectin-2 or CARD9 does not protect against atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic mice
    Thiem, Kathrin ; Hoeke, Geerte ; Berg, Susan van den; Hijmans, Anneke ; Jacobs, Cor W.M. ; Zhou, Enchen ; Mol, Isabel M. ; Mouktaroudi, Maria ; Bussink, Johan ; Kanneganti, Thirumala D. ; Lutgens, Esther ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Tack, Cees J. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Berbée, Jimmy F.P. ; Diepen, Janna A. van - \ 2019
    Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Inflammatory reactions activated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on the membrane of innate immune cells play an important role in atherosclerosis. Whether the PRRs of the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family including Dectin-2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains largely unknown. Recently, the CLR-adaptor molecule caspase recruitment domain family member 9 (CARD9) has been suggested to play a role in cardiovascular pathologies as it provides the link between CLR activation and transcription of inflammatory cytokines as well as immune cell recruitment. We therefore evaluated whether hematopoietic deletion of Dectin-2 or CARD9 reduces inflammation and atherosclerosis development. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr)-knockout mice were transplanted with bone marrow from wild-type, Dectin-2- or Card9-knockout mice and fed a Western-type diet containing 0.1% (w/w) cholesterol. After 10 weeks, lipid and inflammatory parameters were measured and atherosclerosis development was determined. Deletion of hematopoietic Dectin-2 or CARD9 did not influence plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Deletion of hematopoietic Dectin-2 did not affect atherosclerotic lesion area, immune cell composition, ex vivo cytokine secretion by peritoneal cells or bone marrow derived macrophages. Unexpectedly, deletion of hematopoietic CARD9 increased atherosclerotic lesion formation and lesion severity. Deletion of hematopoietic CARD9 did also not influence circulating immune cell composition and peripheral cytokine secretion. Besides a tendency to a reduced macrophage content within these lesions, plasma MCP-1 levels decreased upon WTD feeding. Deletion of hematopoietic Dectin-2 did not influence atherosclerosis development in hyperlipidemic mice. The absence of CARD9 unexpectedly increased atherosclerotic lesion size and severity, suggesting that the presence of CARD9 may protect against initiation of atherosclerosis development.

    The European crop monitoring and yield forecasting system : Celebrating 25 years of JRC MARS Bulletins
    Velde, M. van der; Diepen, C.A. van; Baruth, B. - \ 2019
    Agricultural Systems 168 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 56 - 57.
    25 years of the WOFOST cropping systems model
    Wit, Allard de; Boogaard, Hendrik ; Fumagalli, Davide ; Janssen, Sander ; Knapen, Rob ; Kraalingen, Daniel van; Supit, Iwan ; Wijngaart, Raymond van der; Diepen, Kees van - \ 2019
    Agricultural Systems 168 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 154 - 167.
    open source - Regional scale - Simulation Model - yield forecasting

    The WOFOST cropping systems model has been applied operationally over the last 25 years as part of the MARS crop yield forecasting system. In this paper we provide an updated description of the model and reflect on the lessons learned over the last 25 years. The latter includes issues like system performance, model sensitivity, spatial model setup, parameterization and calibration approaches as well as software implementation and version management. Particularly for spatial model calibrations we provide experience and guidelines on how to execute calibrations and how to evaluate WOFOST model simulation results, particularly under conditions of limited field data availability. As an open source model WOFOST has been a success with at least 10 different implementations of the same concept. An overview is provided for those implementations which are managed by MARS or Wageningen groups. However, the proliferation of WOFOST implementations has also led to questions on the reproducibility of results from different implementations as is demonstrated with an example from MARS. In order to certify that the different WOFOST implementations and versions available can reproduce basic sets of inputs and outputs we make available a large set of test cases as appendix to this publication. Finally, new methodological extensions have been added to WOFOST in simulating the impact of nutrients limitations, extreme events and climate variability. Also, a difference is made in the operational and scientific versions of WOFOST with different licensing models and possible revenue generation. Capitalizing both on academic development as well as model testing in real-world situations will help to enable new applications of the WOFOST model in precision agriculture and smart farming.

    Interaction and imbalance between indispensable amino acids in young piglets
    Jansman, A.J.M. ; Cirot, O. ; Corrent, E. ; Lambert, W. ; Ensink, J. ; Diepen, J.T.M. van - \ 2019
    Animal 13 (2019)5. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 941 - 949.
    branched-chain amino acids - low-protein diets - tryptophan - valine

    Lowering protein level in diets for piglets urge to have knowledge on the piglet's requirements for essential amino acids (AA) and their interactions. The present studies aimed to determine the interaction between the dietary level of valine (Val) and tryptophan (Trp) and the effect of AA imbalance at two levels of dietary Val on the growth performance of post-weaning piglets. In Experiment 1 (duration 4 weeks), the effects of supplementation of free l-Val (1.0 g/kg) and/or l-Trp (0.5 g/kg) in a low-CP diet (CP 17.7%), marginal in Trp and Val, was studied in a 2×2 factorial design and using an additional reference treatment (CP 19.5%). In Experiment 2 (duration 5 weeks), the influence of a stepwise increase in excess supply of isoleucine (Ile), histidine (His) and leucine (Leu), up to 10, 10% and 30% relative to their requirement values respectively, was evaluated at 60% or 70% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val relative to SID lysine, using a 3×2 factorial design. In Experiment 1, over the whole experimental period, feed intake (FI) was affected by dietary Trp level (P<0.05) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) by both the level of Trp and Val in the diet (both P<0.05). Increasing Trp level increased FI and decreased FCR while increasing dietary Val level reduced FI and increased FCR. For BW gain (BWG), there was an interaction between dietary level of Trp and Val (P<0.05). Valine supplementation decreased BWG using a diet marginal in Trp, whereas it increased BWG when using a Trp sufficient diet. Piglets fed the low-CP diet with adequate levels of Val and Trp showed at least same performance compared to piglets fed the high CP reference diet. In Experiment 2, increasing dietary Val improved FI and BWG (P<0.001) and tended to improve FCR. Dietary AA excess for Ile, His and Leu reduced FI and BWG (P<0.05) and only affected FCR (P<0.01) in the 1st week of the study. Dietary level of Val and AA excess did not show interactive effects, except for FCR over the final 2 weeks of the study (P<0.05). In conclusion, an interaction exists between dietary supply of Val and Trp on the zootechnical performance of post-weaning piglets and dietary AA excess for Ile, Leu and His, reduces growth performance of piglets in low-protein diets, independent of the dietary level of Val.

    Evaluation of chitotriosidase as a biomarker for adipose tissue inflammation in overweight individuals and type 2 diabetic patients
    Tans, Roel ; Diepen, Janna A. van; Bijlsma, Sabina ; Verschuren, Lars ; Suppers, Anouk ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Wevers, Ron A. ; Tack, Cees J. ; Gloerich, Jolein ; Gool, Alain J. van - \ 2018
    International Journal of Obesity 43 (2018). - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 1712 - 1723.

    Background: Overweight and obesity can lead to adipose tissue inflammation, which causes insulin resistance and on the long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The inflammatory changes of obese-adipose tissue are characterized by macrophage infiltration and activation, but validated circulating biomarkers for adipose tissue inflammation for clinical use are still lacking. One of the most secreted enzymes by activated macrophages is chitotriosidase (CHIT1). Objective: To test whether circulating CHIT1 enzymatic activity levels reflect adipose tissue inflammation. Methods: Plasma and adipose tissue samples of 105 subjects (35 lean, 37 overweight, and 33 T2D patients) were investigated. CHIT1 mRNA levels were determined in adipose tissue-resident innate immune cells. CHIT1 mRNA levels, protein abundance, and plasma enzymatic activity were subsequently measured in adipose tissue biopsies and plasma of control subjects with varying levels of obesity and adipose tissue inflammation as well as in T2D patients. Results: In adipose tissue, CHIT1 mRNA levels were higher in stromal vascular cells compared to adipocytes, and higher in adipose tissue-residing macrophages compared to circulating monocytes (p < 0.001). CHIT1 mRNA levels in adipose tissue were enhanced in overweightcompared to lean subjects and even more in T2D patients (p < 0.05). In contrast, plasma CHIT1 enzymatic activity did not differ between lean, overweight subjects and T2D patients. A mutation of the CHIT1 gene decreases plasma CHIT1 activity. Conclusions: CHIT1 is expressed by adipose tissue macrophages and expression is higher in overweight subjects and T2D patients, indicating its potential as tissue biomarker for adipose tissue inflammation. However, these differences do not translate into different plasma CHIT1 activity levels. Moreover, a common CHIT1 gene mutation causing loss of plasma CHIT1 activity interferes with its use as a biomarker of adipose tissue inflammation. These results indicate that plasma CHIT1 activity is of limited value as a circulating biomarker for adipose tissue inflammation in human subjects.

    Interleukin-37 treatment of mice with metabolic syndrome improves insulin sensitivity and reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production in adipose tissue
    Ballak, Dov B. ; Li, Suzhao ; Cavalli, Giulio ; Stahl, Jonathan L. ; Tengesdal, Isak W. ; Diepen, Janna A. van; Klück, Viola ; Swartzwelter, Benjamin ; Azam, Tania ; Tack, Cees J. ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas ; Seals, Douglas R. ; Dinarello, Charles A. - \ 2018
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 293 (2018)37. - ISSN 0021-9258 - p. 14224 - 14236.

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are characterized by chronic, low-grade inflammation mainly originating from expanding adipose tissue and resulting in inhibition of insulin signaling and disruption of glycemic control.Transgenic mice expressing human interleukin 37 (IL-37),an anti-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family,are protected against metabolic syndrome when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 45% fat. Here, we examined whether treatment with recombinant IL-37 ameliorates established insulin resistance and obesity-induced inflammation. WT mice were fed a HFD for 22 weeks and then treated daily with IL-37 (1 ug/mouse) during the last 2 weeks. Compared with vehicle only-treated mice, IL-37-treated mice exhibited reduced insulin in the plasma and had significant improvements in glucose tolerance and in insulin content of the islets.The IL-37 treatment also increased the levels of circulating IL-1 receptor antagonist. Cultured adipose tissues revealed that IL-37 treatment significantly decreases spontaneous secretions of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and CXC motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL-1). We also fed mice a 60% fat diet with concomitant daily IL-37 for 2 weeks and observed decreased secretion of IL-1β, TNFα, and IL-6 and reduced intracellular levels of IL-1β in the liver and adipose tissue, along with improved plasma glucose clearance. Compared with vehicle treatment, these IL-37-treated mice had no apparent weight gain. In human adipose tissue cultures, the presence of 50 pM IL-37 reduced spontaneous release of TNF and 50% of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα. These findings indicate that IL-37's anti-inflammatory effects can ameliorate established metabolic disturbances during obesity.

    IL-37 expression reduces lean body mass in mice by reducing food intake
    Kuipers, Eline N. ; Dam, Andrea D. van; Ballak, Dov B. ; Wit, Ellemiek A. de; Dinarello, Charles A. ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Diepen, Janna A. van; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Boon, Mariëtte R. - \ 2018
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19 (2018)8. - ISSN 1661-6596
    Energy metabolism - Food intake - High fat diet - IL-37

    The human cytokine interleukin (IL)-37 is an anti-inflammatory member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Transgenic expression of IL-37 in mice protects them from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic complications including dyslipidemia, inflammation and insulin resistance. The precise mechanism of action leading to these beneficial metabolic effects is not entirely known. Therefore, we aimed to assess in detail the effect of transgenic IL-37 expression on energy balance, including food intake and energy expenditure. Feeding homozygous IL-37 transgenic mice and wild-type (WT) control mice a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal palm fat) for 6 weeks showed that IL-37 reduced body weight related to a marked decrease in food intake. Subsequent mechanistic studies in mice with heterozygous IL-37 expression versus WT littermates, fed the HFD for 18 weeks, confirmed that IL-37 reduces food intake, which led to a decrease in lean body mass, but did not reduce fat mass and plasma lipid levels or alterations in energy expenditure independent of lean body mass. Taken together, this suggests that IL-37 reduces lean body mass by reducing food intake.

    Evaluation de l’impact de d´es´equilibres en acides amin´es sur les performances de porcelets en post-sevrage
    Jansman, A.J.M. ; Corrent, E. ; Lambert, J. ; Ensink, J. ; Diepen, J.T.M. van - \ 2018
    D4.11 User guide for the S2BIOM integrated toolset : Version: 0.2
    Elbersen, B.S. ; Groot, H.L.E. de; Staritsky, I.G. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Diepen, C.A. van; Annevelink, E. ; Elbersen, H.W. ; Dees, Matthias ; Datta, Pawan ; Leduc, Sylvain ; Forsell, Nicklas ; Lammens, T.M. ; Vis, Martijn ; Berg, Douwe van den; Iriarte, Leire ; Fritsche, Uwe R. ; Londo, Marc ; Stralen, Joost van; Uslu, Ayla - \ 2017
    S2Biom - 54 p.
    D1.6 A spatial data base on sustainable biomass cost-supply of lignocellulosic biomass in Europe - methods & data sources : Issue: 1.2
    Dees, Matthias ; Hohl, Markus ; Datta, Pawan ; Forsell, Nicklas ; Leduc, Sylvain ; Fitzgerald, Joanne ; Verkerk, Hans ; Zudin, Sergey ; Lindner, Marcus ; Elbersen, B.S. ; Staritsky, I.G. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Diepen, C.A. van; Anttila, Perttu ; Prinz, Robert ; Ramirez Almeyda, Jacqueline ; Monti, Andrea ; Vis, Martijn ; Galindo, Daniel García ; Glavonjic, Branko - \ 2017
    S2Biom - 177 p.
    D1.1 Roadmap for regional end-users on how to collect, process, store and maintain biomass supply data : version: 1.1
    Dees, Matthias ; Datta, Pawan ; Fitzgerald, Joanne ; Verkerk, Hans ; Lindner, Marcus ; Elbersen, B.S. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Staritsky, I.G. ; Diepen, C.A. van; Ramirez Almeyda, Jacqueline ; Vis, Martijn ; Glavonjic, Branko - \ 2017
    S2Biom - 81 p.
    Variability of Effective Micro-organisms (EM) in bokashi and soil and effects on soil-borne plant pathogens
    Shin, Keumchul ; Diepen, G. van; Blok, W. ; Bruggen, A.H.C. van - \ 2017
    Crop Protection 99 (2017). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 168 - 176.
    The microbial inoculant ‘Effective Microorganisms’ (EM) has been used to promote soil fertility and plant growth in agriculture. We tested effects of commercial EM products on suppression of soil-borne diseases, microbial activity and bacterial composition in organically managed sandy soils. EM was supplied as microbial stock suspension and fermented organic matter (EM-bokashi). Bioassays for soil-borne disease incidence were conducted with a naturally infested soil and inoculated disease-free organically managed nonamended soils or the same soils amended with EM-bokashi or sterilized EM-bokashi. Soil respiration analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were performed to determine microbial activity, and bacterial composition and diversity. Disease incidence of cucumber plants was not affected by EM-bokashi but reduced by sterilized bokashi compared to the control in naturally infested soil. Pythium ultimum damping-off of cucumber in inoculated soil was enhanced by EM-bokashi and sterilized bokashi compared to the control. In one of three soils, infection of carrot by Rhizoctonia solani was reduced by EM-bokashi compared with sterilized bokashi. Soil respiration increased one week after soil amendment with EM-bokashi and sterilized EM-bokashi compared to the control, but not seven weeks later. DGGE showed that two batches of EM products had different microbial communities and soil amendment with EM-bokashi or sterilized EM-bokashi did not change the bacterial community and diversity in two soils. The added microorganisms in EM were possibly outcompeted and did not affect the existing bacterial community. We conclude that EM did not consistently suppress soil-borne diseases or change microbial activity and bacterial composition and diversity.
    Blockchain for agriculture and food : Findings from the pilot study
    Ge, Lan ; Brewster, Christopher ; Spek, Jacco ; Smeenk, Anton ; Top, Jan ; Diepen, Frans van; Klaase, Bob ; Graumans, Conny ; Ruyter de Wildt, Marieke de - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research report 2017-112) - ISBN 9789463438179 - 33
    This report documents experiences and findings from the public private partnership (PPP) project ‘Blockchain for Agrifood’ that was started in March 2017. The project aims to contribute to a better understanding of the blockchain technology (BCT) and its implications for agrifood, especially how it can impact specific aspects of supply chains and what is needed to apply BCT in agrifood chains. A second aim of this project is to conceptualise and develop a proof of concept in an application based on a use case concerning table grapes from South Africa where BCT could be applied. This has been done by building a demonstrator that keeps track of different certificates involved in the table grapes supply chain. The code of this demonstrator is published at Github. Furthermore, the project explored issues regarding the relevance, applicability and implications of BCT for the agrifood sector through literature study and stakeholder consultation.
    The effects of selective hematopoietic expression of human IL-37 on systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis in LDLr-deficient mice
    Hoeke, Geerte ; Khedoe, P.P.S.J. ; Diepen, Janna A. Van; Pike-Overzet, Karin ; Ven, Britt van de; Vazirpanah, Nadia ; Mol, Isabel ; Hiemstra, Pieter S. ; Staal, Frank J.T. ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Dinarello, Charles A. ; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Berbée, Jimmy F.P. - \ 2017
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18 (2017)8. - ISSN 1661-6596
    Atherosclerosis - Hyperlipidemia - Inflammation - Interleukin-37

    The human cytokine interleukin (IL)-37 has potent anti-inflammatory capacities, and hematopoietic cell-specific transgenic overexpression of IL-37 in mice protects against septic shock and colitis. In the present study we investigated the effect of hematopoietic expression of IL-37 on atherosclerosis development under low-grade inflammatory conditions. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-deficient mice were lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow from IL-37-transgenic or control wild-type mice and fed a Western-type diet (WTD; 1% cholesterol) for eight weeks. Metabolic and inflammatory parameters were monitored and atherosclerosis was assessed in the aortic valve area. Hematopoietic IL-37 expression did not influence body weight, food intake and plasma cholesterol levels during the study. Plasma soluble E-selectin levels were increased with WTD-feeding as compared to chow-feeding, but were not influenced by IL-37 expression. IL-37 expression reduced the inflammatory state as indicated by reduced white blood cell counts and by reduced basal and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine response by peritoneal macrophages ex vivo. IL-37 expression did not influence the atherosclerotic lesion area. Lesion composition was marginally affected. Smooth muscle cell content was decreased, but macrophage and collagen content were not different. We conclude that under low-grade inflammatory conditions, hematopoietic IL-37 expression reduces the inflammatory state, but does not influence atherosclerosis development in hyperlipidemic LDLr-deficient mice.

    SUCNR1-mediated chemotaxis of macrophages aggravates obesity-induced inflammation and diabetes.
    Diepen, Janna A. van; Hooiveld, Guido ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Deen, Peter M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University
    Mus musculus - GSE64104 - Mus musculus - GSE64104 - PRJNA270170
    Obesity induces macrophages to drive inflammation in adipose tissue, a crucial step towards the development of type 2 diabetes. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate succinate is released from cells under metabolic stress and has recently emerged as a metabolic signal induced by proinflammatory stimuli. We therefore investigated whether succinate receptor 1 (SUCNR1) could play a role in the development of adipose tissue inflammation and type 2 diabetes. Succinate levels were determined in human plasma samples from individuals with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic participants. Succinate release from adipose tissue explants was studied. Sucnr1 -/- and wild-type (WT) littermate mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) for 16 weeks. Serum metabolic variables, adipose tissue inflammation, macrophage migration and glucose tolerance were determined. We show that hypoxia and hyperglycaemia independently drive the release of succinate from mouse adipose tissue (17-fold and up to 18-fold, respectively) and that plasma levels of succinate were higher in participants with type 2 diabetes compared with non-diabetic individuals (+53%; p < 0.01). Sucnr1 -/- mice had significantly reduced numbers of macrophages (0.56 ± 0.07 vs 0.92 ± 0.15 F4/80 cells/adipocytes, p < 0.05) and crown-like structures (0.06 ± 0.02 vs 0.14 ± 0.02, CLS/adipocytes p < 0.01) in adipose tissue and significantly improved glucose tolerance (p < 0.001) compared with WT mice fed an HFD, despite similarly increased body weights. Consistently, macrophages from Sucnr1 -/- mice showed reduced chemotaxis towards medium collected from apoptotic and hypoxic adipocytes (-59%; p < 0.05). Our results reveal that activation of SUCNR1 in macrophages is important for both infiltration and inflammation of adipose tissue in obesity, and suggest that SUCNR1 is a promising therapeutic target in obesity-induced type 2 diabetes.
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