Rural tourism development : a network perspective
Caalders, J. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.G.J. Dietvorst; H. Hetsen. - Delft : Eburon - ISBN 9789058087706 - 300
toerisme - recreatie - plattelandstoerisme - economische ontwikkeling - regionale ontwikkeling - regionaal beleid - platteland - nederland - frankrijk - netwerken - tourism - recreation - rural tourism - economic development - regional development - regional policy - rural areas - netherlands - france - networks
How can economic development of tourism contribute to the presevation of qualities in rural areas? How can tourism innovations be generated? How can policy-makers effectively influence economic development? This book explores sense and non-sense of interactive approaches to rural tourism development. It confronts - often optimistic - theoretical ideas with pratices in four regions in the Netherlands and France.
De toerist op het spoor : onderzoek naar de tijd-ruimtelijke samenhang in toeristisch gedrag als expressie van een zoektocht naar betekenisvolle ervaringen
Elands, B. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.G.J. Dietvorst; S. de Vries. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058085382 - 210
toerisme - toeristisch onderzoek - toeristen - mensen - bezoekersgedrag - menselijk gedrag - tijd - roodbont maas-rijn-ijsselvee - west-europa - costa rica - ruimtelijke verdeling - tijdsbesteding - ruimte - tourism - tourism research - tourists - people - visitor behaviour - spatial distribution - time allocation - human behaviour - time - meuse-rhine-yssel - western europe - costa rica - space
Tourist behaviour is increasingly considered to be both erratic and unpredictable. This is due to, among other things, an enormous increase of leisure products and an expanding range in both the temporal-spatial reach and financial power of consumers. Traditional classifications of tourist types, based on demographic or socio-economic characteristics, are less and less able to explain actual holiday behaviour. Moreover, preferences of tourists seem to be changing at an ever greater speed. This unpredictability makes it increasingly difficult for tourist entrepreneurs to make product adjustments based on the market. In terms of product life cycle, a constant renewing of the product is necessary to keep it attractive and innovations need to follow one another more and more quickly. Eventually, due to this development products will be outdated as soon as they appear on the market. This is especially true when taking into account those physical elements of the tourist product that are relatively fixed (such as the landscape, roads, hotels). There is a need to find more stable or permanent elements in tourist preferences for them to be useful as a base for product development. These elements may serve as a point of departure for the development of a physically and economically sustainable tourist product.
|Het toeristisch landschap tussen illusie en werkelijkheid
Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 2001
Vrijetijdstudies 19 (2001)2/3. - ISSN 1384-2439 - p. 5 - 22.
landgebruik - recreatieonderzoek - vrije tijd - toegepast onderzoek - verbeelding - land use - leisure research - leisure - applied research - imagination
Landschappen zijn niet alleen onderwerp van onze verbeelding, ze worden ook meer en meer geproduceerd ten behoeve van onze verbeelding. Tekst van de afscheidsrede als hoogleraar aan de Universiteit van Wageningen
Het toeristisch landschap tussen illusie en werkelijkheid. Afscheidsrede als hoogleraar sociaal-ruimtelijke analyse van het landgebruik m.b.a.v. recreatie en toerisme op donderdag 22 maart 2001 in de Aula van Wageningen Universiteit, Wageningen
Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 46
landgebruik - recreatieonderzoek - toeristische wetenschap - verbeelding - openbare redes - land use - leisure research - tourism theory - imagination - public speeches
|Wonen tussen noodzaak en verwondering
Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 2000
Vrijetijdstudies 18 (2000)1. - ISSN 1384-2439 - p. 46 - 54.
|An alternative to standardisation and conservation in tourism development: a process approach of innovation
Caalders, J.D.A.D. ; Dietvorst, A.G.J. ; Philipsen, J.F.B. - \ 2000
In: Claiming rural identities : dynamics, contexts, policies / Haartsen, T., Groote, P., Rozario, G., - p. 108 - 119.
platteland - toerisme - ontwikkeling - innovaties - rural areas - tourism - development - innovations
Negotiating rural tourism development at the local level : a case study in Pisece, Slovenia
Verbole, A. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.G.J. Dietvorst; J. Lengkeek. - S.l. : Verbole - ISBN 9789054859840 - 265
plattelandstoerisme - beleid - toerismebeleid - ontwikkeling van toerisme - plattelandsontwikkeling - slovenië - plattelandssamenleving - rural tourism - policy - tourism policy - tourism development - rural development - slovenia - rural society
This study examines the policy and politics of the development of rural tourism at the local level in Slovenia. Its purpose was to increase our understanding of the socio-political dimensions of the rural tourism development process at the local community level by contributing to the current methods of investigating, describing and understanding of rural tourism.
This dissertation argues that sustainable rural tourism development cannot be achieved without the full support of the rural community that it will affect. Such communities are not homogeneous entities, thus it is necessary to critically investigate the various social realities of rural tourism transformation and negotiation processes.
Pisece, a small community of some 1200 inhabitants in the southeast of Slovenia, that requested assistance in developing their local community, was used for this case study.
The main focus was on the various social actors who tried to ` transform ' rural tourism development, as well as on the gap between the rhetoric of national planning and policy concerning the development of tourism (in rural areas), and on what actually happens `on the ground'. Further, this dissertation addresses the gap found between researcher's and the locals' perceptions of rural development.
This dissertation approached rural tourism development at the local level from an actor-oriented perspective. It conceptualized rural tourism development as a dynamic ongoing process, with various actors negotiating and struggling to obtain the most benefits. The actor-oriented approach makes it possible to analyze rural tourism development within a wider social, economic and political context. Meaning, that it was possible to get an account of the new political and policy reality in Slovenia, in which the old hierarchies and structures were very much still present.
The actor-oriented approach further made it possible to understand the strategies of the various local and external social actors who were involved in rural tourism development. The case study from Pisece shows that various actors had genuinely different perspectives of rural development, based on their various vested interests, values and opinions. This means that in Slovenia (as everywhere else) the rural tourism development process at the local level was a negotiated process, and was influenced by various social realities.
This line of thinking called for a more ethnographic exploration of different actors' social realities when collecting data. The author of this dissertation collected data during three years of qualitative field research (1994 - 1997) from extended, mainly unstructured interviews, life-histories, extended case-studies, interface and situational analyses.
The results show that rural tourism development in Slovenia is the domain of both local as well as external actors. This dissertation shows that a large segment of the population of Pisece was indirectly involved in rural tourism development at the local level. Only a few local actors had direct influence over the ongoing development process. The local social groups such as family clans, networks, and cliques were very important in obtaining and controlling access to the decision-making process for development. It is through these family clans, networks and cliques that various local actors become involved in various strategies to promote, control, reshape and make most of the internal and external interventions. The family clans in Pisece were, by definition, social groups based explicitly on kinship ties, while the local networks and cliques were built using other resources, such as religious orientation, political affiliation, value systems, and links to actors in positions of power in the local community and to external actors. These factors, importantly, influenced the exclusion and inclusion of actors from certain networks and cliques.
Social divisions in Pisece made it very difficult for actors to shift between the networks and cliques. This is not true, however, of the younger generation. The youth of Pisece appeared to have fewer social and political biases than the older generations, and were more willing to cooperate.
The local power structure and dynamics of social interactions in Pisece influenced the success of individual and more collective `projects'. Local power struggles finally ended in a stalemate, which could be only resolved by an outside intervention into Pisece's social reality. The intervention, when it occurred, gave the needed impetus to help proceed in the rural (tourism) development process. Intervention is never neutral, and soon after it took place, the negative impacts became apparent. Some external actors became enrolled in local `projects' by local brokers, while others started to pursue their own interests.
This dissertation suggests that both local organizing practices and local dynamics are vital to future planning for sustainable rural tourism development. The development and implementation of policies, and options for sustainable development of rural tourism should not only identify which tourism assets must be sustained and how, but more importantly how they should identify the various interests of the social actors, and the allocation of power at the various levels of decision-making. Finally, any discussion of sustainable development should take into account the political dimension of rural tourism development. These findings apply to all other forms of tourism development whether it be rural or urban.
This dissertation is one of very few to address the social and political dimensions of rural tourism development in Slovenia. It challenges contemporary methods and theories of investigating, describing and understanding the rural tourism transformation process at community level. The points raised will facilitate and improve rural tourism planning by increasing the understanding of the decision-making process that occurs at the local level. They will also contribute to maintaining the long-term viability of local, rural tourist destinations by helping us to strike a balance between local and external needs and interests, and to facilitate cooperation between different actors.
The challenge for further research will be to investigate, in more detail, how the above findings combined with expanded accounts of different actor strategies, can be articulated into more structuralist and functionalist interpretations. The hope is that if policy makers can understand findings easily, they will be more ready to apply them, thereby creating better links between local social realities and State policy realities.
Cattle marketing in Zambia, 1965-1995 : Policies, Institutions and Cattle Owners in Western Province
Moll, H.A.J. ; Dietvorst, C.E. - \ 1999
In: Agricultural Marketing in Tropical Africa / Laurens van der Laan, H., Dijkstra, Tjalling, van Tilburg, Aad, Aldershot : Ashgate - ISBN 9781138624986 - p. 185 - 203.
Increasing the offtake from cattle grazed on natural rangelands has been the policy of many African governments for reasons of (a) natural resource management, (b) improving farmers’ welfare, and (c) increasing overall productivity. This chapter focuses on (a) the Zambian government’s policies in cattle marketing over the period from independence in 1965 to 1995 and (b) the marketing behaviour of cattle owners in Western Province. In this period the policies shifted from supporting monopolistic public marketing institutions to allowing private traders to take over all marketing functions with the discontinuation of the ailing public institutions. Attention is also paid to other factors affecting cattle marketing, such as infrastructural development and outbreaks of disease.
Marketing policies and other factors are compared with Western Province data on (a) registered offtake, i.e. the sale of animals for the urban consumers’ market, and (b) herd growth. The analysis shows a fluctuating, but significantly rising annual registered offtake rate, reaching 4.4 per cent in 1995. The provincial or macro perspective on cattle marketing is complemented by a study of the cattle owners’ views on the sale of cattle. Data collection through a survey of 122 households took place in 1991. The analysis shows that people are only selling cattle if they have urgent requirements for substantial amounts of cash. One variable affects the propensity to sell: household self-sufficiency in crop production. The herd size does not affect the cattle owner’s propensity to sell.
Finally, conclusions are drawn regarding the long-term effects of government policies on cattle marketing at a provincial level and on the sales behaviour of cattle owners. The combination of the two research perspectives provides an illuminating comparison. Apparently, the time horizon of the research affects the conclusions: micro data, collected at a certain point in time, suggest a widespread reluctance to sell cattle among cattle owners, while macro data, covering a period of thirty years, show an increasing propensity to sell.
|Tourist landscapes: accelerating transformations
Dietvorst, A. - \ 1998
In: Leisure, time and space: meanings and values in people's lives / Scraton, Sheila, - p. 13 - 24.
|Waar zijn de roze olifanten? De natuur als vakantiefolder.
Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 1998
In: Oorden van onthouding: nieuwe natuur in verstedelijkend Nederland / Feddes, F., Herngreen, R., Kansen, S., van Leeuwen, R., Sijmons, D., - p. 127 - 129.
|Camping and caravanning and the place of cultural meaning in leisure practices.
Dietvorst, A. ; Crouch, D. ; Kloeze, J. te - \ 1998
In: Leisure, time and space: meanings and values in people's lives / Scraton, S., - p. 37 - 58.
|The societal relevance of recreation.
Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 1997
|Leeg groen en druk rood.
Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 1997
Groen : vakblad voor groen in stad en landschap 53 (1997)4. - ISSN 0166-3534 - p. 9 - 9.
recreatie - planning - openluchtrecreatie - onderzoek - tijd - accommodatie - recreation - outdoor recreation - research - time - accommodation
Een inleidend artikel over recreatie en openbare ruimte, tegen de achtergrond van dynamiek en onthaasting
|De tijd-ruimtelijke onteigening van het toeristische landschap.
Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 1997
Vrijetijdstudies 15 (1997)2. - ISSN 1384-2439 - p. 5 - 14.
The tourist's drives : GIS oriented methods for analysing tourist recreation complexes
Knaap, W. van der - \ 1997
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A.G.J. Dietvorst; R.J.A. van Lammeren. - S.l. : Van der Knaap - ISBN 9789054857181 - 198
vrijetijdsactiviteiten - vrije tijd - oorsprong - geografische informatiesystemen - onderzoek - tijd - accommodatie - leisure activities - leisure - origin - geographical information systems - research - time - accommodation
See also theweb sitebased on this thesis
Tourism is a product of diverse composition. An increasing number of people pursue their own specific wishes and combine various products which may or may not be intended for tourists; they create their own individual holiday package. In order to determine how this trend of combining elements influences the use of (tourist) products in a region, it is necessary to gain insight into tourist time-space behaviour. Time, space and context are important domains for describing tourist time-space behaviour. People differ, situations constantly change and a particular interaction depends on the circumstances (personal and topological) in which it takes place. The analysis of tourist time-space behaviour might provide an explanation for this combinatory behaviour. This type of analysis requires specific personal data about time spent, places visited, routes chosen, information used, perception and motivation. Not only the visible tourist time-space pattern is important, but also the process involved.
To date, most researchers have attempted to analyse spatially related tourism data using statistical methods. The data structure needed for such a statistical analysis requires data for each period considered and for each possible location and road in a region. However, a maximum of only 1% of these data is likely to be significantly related to one person. Furthermore, the enormous size of the data set makes it difficult to uncover spatial relations. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are capable of handling spatial relationships. Four main data groups can be distinguished:
The constructed tourist recreation complex can be understood as an interwoven structure of several different network s. None of these networks prevails or determines tourist behaviours exclusively. A methodology consisting of two steps is proposed for the analysis of tourist time-space behaviour:
Data visualization is used to make patterns in scientific data visible. The application of dynamic cartography adds a new dimension to the visualization process: data can be interactively explored for errors and patterns. The Cartographic Data Visualizer for Time-Space data (CDV-TS) can be used to make a coherent analysis of the use of space, the time distribution and the context of time- space behaviour. GIS is an instrument which is particularly suited to the analysis of clearly limited physical elements. Current GIS software can be applied to obtain a static overview and to perform spatial analyses of the use of a region at a certain moment in a specific context. The storage of time-space data within the GIS data structure is more efficient than the data storage for a statistical application. However, the statistical uses of current GIS are limited to descriptive forms. A linkage between GIS and statistical software creates a powerful instrument. The current generation of commercial GIS software is not capable of dealing with time. Applications were developed to approximate this. A GIS has few network capabilities for supporting tourist time-space behaviour analyses. Network pattern recognition and comparison is not possible at all, and network indices cannot be calculated within a GIS. A newly developed morphologic pattern describer seems appropriate for comparing different constructed network patterns.
Two data sets were used to illustrate how the applications and approaches developed can describe a tourist recreation complex in a tourist region. The applications otter a wealth of opportunities for the interactive examination of time- space oriented data, and to search for different tourist combinations of products supplied. A main drawback of the applications is the amount of data that has to be processed.
|Landschap: traagheid als vorm van overleven.
Dietvorst, A. - \ 1996
Noorderbreedte 20 (1996)6a. - ISSN 0166-4948 - p. 11 - 17.
|Zes waarnemingen over de maatschappelijke betekenis van recreatie.
Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 1996
In: Verslag Symp. Recreatie de moeite waard?. De maatschappelijke betekenis van recreatie. Raad voor de Openluchtrecreatie, Amersfoort - p. 52 - 54.
|Over uniek en standaard in het toeristisch produkt.
Dietvorst, A.G.J. - \ 1996
In: Congresverslag Amsterdam Unlimited. Hogeschool Holland, Diemen - p. 18 - 24.
|The landscape of Leisure.
Dietvorst, A.G.J. ; Philipsen, J.F.B. - \ 1996
Geografie 5 (1996)5. - ISSN 0926-3837 - p. 28 - 31.
openluchtrecreatie - recreatie op het platteland - landbouwgrond - landschap - nederland - outdoor recreation - rural recreation - agricultural land - landscape - netherlands
|Landelijke gebieden en economische ontwikkeling: een netwerkbenadering.
Dietvorst, A.G.J. ; Hetsen, H. - \ 1996
Stedebouw en Ruimtelijke Ordening 77 (1996)2. - ISSN 1384-6531 - p. 39 - 45.
landgebruik - bedrijfsvoering - nederland - ruimtelijke ordening - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandsplanning - sociale economie - zonering - economische planning - land use - management - netherlands - physical planning - rural development - rural planning - socioeconomics - zoning - economic planning