Innovating service delivery andaligning with the State : The co-creation of scaling mechanisms for cocoa extension in Africa
Muilerman, Sander - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C. Leeuwis; A.J. Dietz, co-promotor(en): S.R. Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463951197 - 196
This thesis focuses on how a public-private partnership (PPP) initiative attempted to innovate agricultural extension service provision and to achieve sector transformation to alternative training approaches, in order to tackle complex sustainability challenges among cocoa smallholder farmers. The purpose of this study is to fill a knowledge gap on why and how the processes of scaling and/or institutionalisation of FFS showed divergent outcomes in four different cocoa producing countries in Central and West Africa. The general objective of the thesis is to build a more complete understanding of the specific dynamics, dimensions, and interactions involved in going to scale.
The analysis in this thesis shows that transformation within an extension regime (in this case from one mode of top-down extension delivery (T&V) to the more participative learning-based farmer field schools) could indeed be confirmed and typologised with the chosen multilevel approach. However, this was not enough to truly understand what exactly happened between niche and regime and why. Literature from innovation studies could not bring out the context-specific mechanisms that led to divergence in scaling outcomes. Practitioners and scholars need to fully analyse and consider the specificity of the nature of the context.
Supplementary literature from sources other than innovation studies may have better explanatory value for understanding the niche interventions’ interaction with the context. This thesis supports a wider call in the literature for a re-appreciation of the State in innovation studies. Although capricious and bureaucratic, regime career professionals persevere in the practice of their unique insight, despite politicians, also in the face of substantial pressure to go to scale. A dominant socio-technical regime cannot be regarded merely as an impact domain. A regime faced with a promising niche innovation will ‘talk back’ and make judgement calls, often by employing contextual arguments rather than technical arguments. If the intervention fits the context, or if it changes course to fit the context, the dominant regime actors become indispensable co-creators, who will nevertheless continue to play by their own rules.
How landscape stewardship emerges out of landscape planning
Opdam, Paul - \ 2017
In: The Science and Practice of Landscape Stewardship / Bieling, Claudia, Plieninger, Tobias, Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9781107142268 - p. 331 - 346.
Introduction: Landscape Planning Versus Stewardship The landscape, here conceived as a social-ecological system resulting from the interaction between nature and humans, is a public and private domain at the same time. Many parts can be privately owned and used for earning an income, while other parts are public domain. Taken together public and private parts constitute a heterogeneous pattern of natural and human sites supporting natural and social processes. Where the community inhabiting the landscape area perceives its ecological functioning as beneficial, these benefits are called landscape services (Termorshuizen and Opdam 2009). These services may be of private interests e.g. farmers using the potential of the landscape to grow food, as well as of public interest e.g. people enjoying improved mental health by interacting with the natural assets of the landscape. People may have an explicit or hidden demand for these services, but their supply is not regulated by demand supply mechanisms only (Dietz et al. 2003). Therefore, to ascertain these values of public interest, governments have declared rules and legislation that limit the adaptation and use of landscapes, for example rules about the application of fertilisers. In case the central governments have the prime responsibility for common values such as biodiversity and water quality, public agencies initiate and organise the process of adapting landscapes in the face of new challenges, such as expanding cities or climate change impacts. In this process of what is called landscape or environmental planning (Linehan and Gross 1998, Steiner 2000, Hawkins and Selman 2002), conflicts of competing interests are solved in a formal procedure often embedded in legislation, in which stakeholders may be consulted. The government’s responsibilities also include providing knowledge, organising consultation workshops and financing implementation measures. In contrast, in landscape stewardship the organiser role of the government is limited or even not existing. Landscape stewardship is driven by the actions of people, based on their appreciation of the multiple landscape values that they perceive as crucial for their wellbeing (Nassauer 2011). In general terms, landscape stewardship is defined as the active shaping of pathways of social and ecological change for the benefits of ecosystems and society (Chapin III and Knapp 2015), interpreted in the context of sustainability.
Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition
Dietz, Christina ; Dekker, Matthijs - \ 2017
Current Pharmaceutical Design 23 (2017)19. - ISSN 1381-6128 - p. 2876 - 2905.
Caffeine - Cognition - EGCG - Green tea - L-theanine - Mood
Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on tea constituents caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on mood and cognitive performance. These effects were observed when these phytochemicals were consumed separately and in combination. Methods: A review was conducted on 49 human intervention studies to summarize the research on acute psy-choactive effects of caffeine, L-theanine, and EGCG on different dimensions of mood and cognitive performance. Conclusion: Caffeine was found to mainly improve performance on demanding long-duration cognitive tasks and self-reported alertness, arousal, and vigor. Significant effects already occurred at low doses of 40 mg. L-theanine alone improved self-reported relaxation, tension, and calmness starting at 200 mg. L-theanine and caffeine combined were found to particularly improve performance in attention-switching tasks and alertness, but to a lesser extent than caffeine alone. No conclusive evidence relating to effects induced by EGCG could be given since the amount of intervention studies was limited. These studies provided reliable evidence showing that L-theanine and caffeine have clear beneficial effects on sustained attention, memory, and suppression of distraction. Moreover, L-theanine was found to lead to relaxation by reducing caffeine induced arousal.
An intervention study on the effect of matcha tea, in drink and snack bar formats, on mood and cognitive performance
Dietz, Christina ; Dekker, Matthijs ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina - \ 2017
Food Research International 99 (2017)1. - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 72 - 83.
Attention - Caffeine - EGCG - l-theanine - Matcha tea - Memory
Matcha tea is gaining popularity throughout the world in recent years and is frequently referred to as a mood-and-brain food. Previous research has demonstrated that three constituents present in matcha tea, l-theanine, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and caffeine, affect mood and cognitive performance. However, to date there are no studies assessing the effect of matcha tea itself. The present study investigates these effects by means of a human intervention study administering matcha tea and a matcha containing product. Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study, 23 consumers participated in four test sessions. In each session, participants consumed one of the four test products: matcha tea, matcha tea bar (each containing 4. g matcha tea powder), placebo tea, or placebo bar. The assessment was performed at baseline and 60. min post-treatment. The participants performed the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) test battery. The mood state was measured by means of a Profile of Mood States (POMS). After consuming the matcha products compared to placebo versions, there were mainly significant improvements in tasks measuring basic attention abilities and psychomotor speed in response to stimuli over a defined period of time. In contrast to expectations, the effect was barely present in other tasks of the CDR test battery. The POMS results revealed no significant changes in mood. The influence of the food matrix was demonstrated by the fact that on most cognitive performance measures the drink format outperformed the bar format, particularly in tasks measuring speed of spatial working memory and delayed picture recognition. This study suggests that matcha tea consumed in a realistic dose can induce slight effects on speed of attention and episodic secondary memory to a low degree. Further studies are required to elucidate the influences of the food matrix.
Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates : Project introduction and first results
Liebschner, Alexander ; Seibel, Henrike ; Teilmann, Jonas ; Wittekind, Dietrich ; Parmentier, Eric ; Dähne, Michael ; Dietz, Rune ; Driver, Jörg ; Elk, Cornelis van; Everaarts, Eligius ; Findeisen, Henning ; Kristensen, Jacob ; Lehnert, Kristina ; Lucke, Klaus ; Merck, Thomas ; Müller, Sabine ; Pawliczka, Iwona ; Ronnenberg, Katrin ; Rosenberger, Tanja ; Ruser, Andreas ; Tougaard, Jakob ; Schuster, Max ; Sundermeyer, Janne ; Sveegaard, Signe ; Siebert, Ursula - \ 2016
In: The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II Springer New York LLC (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ) - ISBN 9781493929801 - p. 631 - 636.
Auditory evoked potential - Noise logger - Stress - Tagging - Temporary threshold
The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise from pile driving and stress reactions caused by anthropogenic noise is investigated. Animals are equipped with DTAGs capable of recording the actual surrounding noise field of free-swimming harbor porpoises and seals. Acoustic noise mapping including porpoise detectors in the Natura 2000 sites of the North and Baltic Seas will help to fully understand current noise impacts.
Not the Usual Suspects: Environmental Impacts of Migration in Ghana’s Forest-Savanna Transition Zone
Geest, K. van der; Burger, Kees ; Yelfaanibe, A. ; Dietz, T. - \ 2016
In: Land Restoration: Reclaiming Landscapes for a Sustainable Future / Chabay, I., Frick, M., Helgeson, J., Elsevier Inc. Academic Press - ISBN 9780128012314 - p. 463 - 481.
LANDSAT images published by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) reveal large-scale land degradation in Ghana’s forest-savanna transition zone, most of which has allegedly occurred in a prime settlement area for migrant farmers from Northwest Ghana—the “usual suspects.” Several studies attribute environmental degradation in this region to the unsustainable farm practices of immigrants, most of whom belong to the Dagaba ethnic group. This section uses several lines of evidence at different scale levels to challenge these studies. First, UNEP’s LANDSAT images overstate the extent of the degradation. Second, most land degradation took place before the arrival of migrants from northwest Ghana. Third, previous studies blaming migrants for land degradation neglect key drivers of land cover change in the region. And fourth, primary data show that migrants’ farm practices are different, but not more degrading than those of native farmers.
Response to habitat modification by foraging Dark-chanting Goshawks Melierax metabates in a West African savanna
Buij, Ralph ; Dorst, Nikie Van; Salomons, Henriëtte F. ; Croes, Barbara M. ; Dietz, Maurine W. ; Komdeur, Jan - \ 2015
Bird Conservation International 25 (2015)3. - ISSN 0959-2709 - p. 335 - 352.
Anthropogenic habitat alteration has probably contributed significantly to the decrease of raptor populations in West African savannas. To evaluate the impact of habitat degradation on foraging by sedentary Afrotropical raptors, we investigated the differences in microhabitat selection, foraging effort and energy returns between Dark-chanting Goshawks Melierax metabates inhabiting natural and transformed savannas in Cameroon. We expected that the agro-ecosystems in the transformed savannas have become unprofitable for Dark-chanting Goshawks due to scarcity of food resources. In both savanna types we radio-tracked six mated, adult males during the non-breeding season and determined foraging effort, by time spent at each perch and distance covered between perches, and energy intake through estimation of the energy value of prey items. Goshawks in natural habitats had smaller home-ranges and exploited their range more intensively than Goshawks in transformed habitats. In both natural and transformed habitats, Goshawks selected foraging patches with comparatively tall trees, underlining their importance to foraging Goshawks. The extent of shrub and herbaceous layer cover, agriculture cover, and tree density were other important predictors of foraging patch use, but their importance differed between habitats. The extent of shrub, herbaceous layer and agriculture cover were positively associated with foraging patch use in transformed habitats, suggesting that cultivated fields and ground vegetation support important prey resources for Goshawks in agro-ecosystems. The composition of broad prey categories to the diet, foraging effort and returns were comparable between habitats. However, we found indications that the proportion of heavy-bodied lizard species among reptile prey items was higher in natural than transformed habitats, whereas on average smaller lizards were more commonly caught in the latter. Mean herbaceous layer height and tree density within home ranges, both higher in natural habitat, were negatively related to prey capture rates. Tree clearance and livestock grazing thus favored greater prey capture rates in transformed habitat, offsetting a lower meal energy value compared to natural habitat. We conclude that foraging Dark-chanting Goshawks may cope with moderate land transformation, but practices focused on conservation of tall trees and ground vegetation cover would be beneficial by maintaining important prey resources and their exploitability under growing land pressure.
A fine mess: Bricolaged forest governance in Cameroon
Ingram, V.J. ; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F. ; Dietz, T. - \ 2015
International Journal of the Commons 9 (2015)1. - ISSN 1875-0281 - p. 41 - 64.
Value chains of Cameroonian non-timber forest products move through harvesters, processors and traders, to consumers locally and worldwide. This paper characterises six governance arrangements governing eight such chains: statutory and customary regulations, voluntary market-based systems, international conventions, project-based systems and corruption. Governance is messy with overlapping, multiple layers of institutions and actors. There are voids where no institutions govern access to resources and markets; some actors fulfil roles normally the reserve of the state. In some chains the state performs its duties, in others not, and other institutions fill the gaps. To negotiate this complexity, many actors have become adept ‘bricoleurs'. They make the best of the arrangements in which they find themselves, and creatively use capitals available, building on natural capital to construct new governance arrangements and/or remould existing ones to meet their current objectives, circumstances and livelihoods. This ‘fine mess’ makes examining the impacts on the livelihoods of participants and their sustainability challenging. A measure of governance intensity and extensive fieldwork was thus used. It indicates strong trade-offs between natural, social and economic capital, creating winners and losers. Trade-offs between livelihoods and sustainability are most acute either when there are no governance arrangements; when arrangements do not take account of the susceptibility of a species to harvesting; or when they do not balance supply and demand. Policy challenges and opportunities include recognising and dealing with pluralism; reconciling conflicting rules; hearing the voices of silent actors; learning from failures and raising chain visibility by recognising natural and socio-economic values.
Keywords: Forest governance, livelihoods, institutions, value chains, non-timber forest products, Cameroon, bricolage
Dietz, F. ; Marks, P. ; Heijman, W.J.M. - \ 2015
Bussum : Uitgeverij Coutinho - ISBN 9789046903841 - 410
Evaluating a non-destructive method for calibrating tree biomass equations derived from tree branching architecture
MacFarlane, D.W. ; Kuyah, S. ; Mulia, R. ; Dietz, J. ; Muthuri, C. ; Noordwijk, M. van - \ 2014
Trees-Structure and Function 28 (2014)3. - ISSN 0931-1890 - p. 807 - 817.
aboveground biomass - root architecture - fractal analysis - model - agroforestry - allometry - systems - forest - size
Functional branch analysis (FBA) is a promising non-destructive alternative to the standard destructive method of tree biomass equation development. In FBA, a theoretical model of tree branching architecture is calibrated with measurements of tree stems and branches to estimate the coefficients of the biomass equation. In this study, species-specific and mixed-species tree biomass equations were derived from destructive sampling of trees in Western Kenya and compared to tree biomass equations derived non-destructively from FBA. The results indicated that the non-destructive FBA method can produce biomass equations that are similar to, but less accurate than, those derived from standard methods. FBA biomass prediction bias was attributed to the fact that real trees diverged from fractal branching architecture due to highly variable length–diameter relationships of stems and branches and inaccurate scaling relationships for the lengths of tree crowns and trunks assumed under the FBA model.
|Conflict and cooperation on natural resources: Justifying the CoCooN programme
Frerks, G.E. ; Dietz, T. ; Zaag, P. van der - \ 2014
In: Conflict over Natural resources in the Global South. Conceptual Approaches / Bavinck, M., Pellegrini, L., Mostert, E., Boca Raton / London / New York/ Leiden : CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group - ISBN 9781138020405 - p. 13 - 43.
A fine mess: Bricolaged forest governance in Cameroon, Capturing Critical Institutionalism
Ingram, V.J. ; Tonen, M.R. ; Dietz, T. - \ 2013
Alcohol consumption before and after breast cancer diagnosis: associations with survival from breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes
Newcomb, P.A. ; Kampman, E. ; Trentham-Dietz, A. ; Egan, K.M. ; Titus, L.J. ; Baron, J.A. ; Hampton, J.M. ; Passarelli, M.N. ; Willett, W.C. - \ 2013
Journal of Clinical Oncology 31 (2013)16. - ISSN 0732-183X - p. 1939 - 1946.
food frequency questionnaire - progesterone-receptor status - hormone replacement therapy - national death index - womens health - risk-factors - postmenopausal women - mammographic density - prognostic-factors - physical-activity
Purpose Alcohol intake is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. In contrast, the relation between alcohol consumption and breast cancer survival is less clear. Patients and Methods We assessed pre- and postdiagnostic alcohol intake in a cohort of 22,890 women with incident invasive breast cancer who were residents of Wisconsin, Massachusetts, or New Hampshire and diagnosed from 198 to 200 at ages 20 to 79 years. All women reported on prediagnostic intake; a subsample of 4,881 reported on postdiagnostic intake. Results During a median follow-up of 11.3 years from diagnosis, 7,780 deaths occurred, including 3,484 resulting from breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were estimated. Based on a quadratic analysis, moderate alcohol consumption before diagnosis was modestly associated with disease-specific survival (compared with nondrinkers, HR = 0.93 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.02], 0.85 [95% CI, 0.75 to 0.95], 0.88 [95% CI, 0.75 to 1.02], and 0.89 [95% CI, 0.77 to 1.04] for two or more, three to six, seven to nine, and = 10 drinks/wk, respectively). Alcohol consumption after diagnosis was not associated with disease-specific survival (compared with nondrinkers, HR = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.61 to 1.27], 0.80 [95% CI, 0.49 to 1.32], 1.01 [95% CI, 0.55 to 1.87], and 0.83 [95% CI, 0.45 to 1.54] for two or more, three to six, seven to nine, and = 10 drinks/wk, respectively). Results did not vary by beverage type. Women consuming moderate levels of alcohol, either before or after diagnosis, experienced better cardiovascular and overall survival than nondrinkers. Conclusion Overall alcohol consumption before diagnosis was not associated with disease-specific survival, but we found a suggestion favoring moderate consumption. There was no evidence for an association with postdiagnosis alcohol intake and breast cancer survival. This study, however, does provide support for a benefit of limited alcohol intake for cardiovascular and overall survival in women with breast cancer.
Win-wins in NTFP market chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on Congo Basin forest products
Ingram, V.J. - \ 2012
University of Amsterdam. Promotor(en): A.J. Dietz, co-promotor(en): M.A.F. Ros-Tonen; S. Shackleton. - Amsterdam : Universiteit van Amsterdam - 362 p.
Exploring the interrelationships between governance, poverty alleviation and sustainability impacts in the framework of market chains for non-timber forest products originating from the Congo Basin. The research focuses on how governance arrangements help or hinder access to forest resources and their exploitation, and the implications for poverty alleviation and sustainable livelihoods. The value chains of nine NTFPs are investigated: (Apiculture products: honey, wax and propolis), pygeum ( Prunus africana ) and eru ( Gnetum spp.) in detail, with reference to bush mango ( Irvingia spp.), wild plum ( Dacryodes edulis ), bamboo, cola, raphia and gum arabic chains. Value chain analysis, sustainable livelihoods approach, governance concepts and economic concepts inspire and guide the research
TEEB voor Fysiek Nederland : voorstudie
Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Braat, L.C. ; Ruijs, A.J.W. ; Egmond, P. van; Melman, T.C.P. ; Heide, M. van der; Klok, T.C. ; Gaaff, A. ; Dietz, F.J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2358)
ecosysteemdiensten - biodiversiteit - ecosystemen - taxatie - natuur - nederland - methodologie - ecosystem services - biodiversity - ecosystems - valuation - nature - netherlands - methodology
In opdracht van de staatssecretaris van het ministerie van EL&I wordt een TEEB-studie voor Nederland uitgevoerd. Deze studie bestaat uit zes deelstudies: TEEB voor Fysiek Nederland, TEEB voor handelsketens, TEEB voor het Nederlandse bedrijfsleven, TEEB Natuur en Gezondheid, TEEB voor de stad en TEEB voor de BES-eilanden. In deze studies wordt de waarde van ecosystemen, biodiversiteit en ecosysteemdiensten in beeld gebracht volgens de door TEEB voorgestane aanpak. Onderhavige studie is de voorstudie voor het project TEEB voor Fysiek Nederland waarin bouwstenen verzameld worden voor een in de hoofdstudie uit te voeren waarderingsstudie om de waarde van ecosystemen en biodiversiteit te illustreren
Multivitamin supplement use and risk of invasive breast cancer
Meulepas, J.M. ; Newcomb, P.A. ; Burnett-Hartman, A.N. ; Hampton, J.M. ; Trentham-Dietz, A. - \ 2010
Public Health Nutrition 13 (2010)10. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 1540 - 1545.
multimineral supplements - nutrient intake - national-health - united-states - folate intake - vitamin - fortification - determinants - population - prostate
Objective: Multivitamin supplements are used by nearly half of middle-aged women in the USA. Despite this high prevalence of multivitamin use, little is known about the effects of multivitamins on health outcomes, including cancer risk. Our main objective was to determine the association between multivitamin use and the risk of breast cancer in women. Design: We conducted a population-based case-control study among 2968 incident breast cancer cases (aged 20-69 years), diagnosed between 2004 and 2007, and 2982 control women from Wisconsin, USA. All participants completed a structured telephone interview which ascertained supplement use prior to diagnosis, demographics and risk factor information. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Compared with never users of multivitamins, the OR for breast cancer was 1.02 (95% CI 0.87, 1.19) for current users and 0.99 (95% CI 0.74, 1.33) for former users. Further, neither duration of use (for >= 10 years: OR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.93, 1.38, P for trend 0.25) nor frequency (> 7 times/week: OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.77, 1.28, P for trend 0.97) was related to risk in current users. Stratification by menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, age, alcohol, tumour staging and postmenopausal hormone use did not significantly modify the association between multivitamin use and breast cancer. Conclusions: The current study found no association between multivitamin supplement use and breast cancer risk in women.
|Land and Agrarian reform in South Africa: Caught by Continuities
Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Fay, D. ; Kondlo, K. - \ 2010
In: Governance and Development in Southern Africa / Dietz, T., Habib, A., Wels, H., Amsterdam : Rozenberg Publishers - p. 61 - 79.
In search of virus carriers of the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus outbreaks in European harbour seals
Kreutzer, M. ; Kreutzer, R. ; Siebert, U. ; Muller, G. ; Reijnders, P.J.H. ; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Harkonen, T. ; Dietz, R. ; Sonne, C. ; Born, E.W. ; Baumgartner, W. - \ 2008
Archives of Virology 153 (2008)1. - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 187 - 192.
canine-distemper - morbillivirus infection - whole-blood - polar bears - gray seals - antibodies - identification - epizootiology - vitulina - waters
European harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations decreased substantially during the phocine distemper virus (PDV) outbreaks of 1988 and 2002. Different hypotheses have stated that various seals and terrestrial carnivore species might be the source of infection. To further analyse these hypotheses, grey (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed (Phoca hispida) seals, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and minks (Mustela lutreola) were sampled from the North Sea and East Greenland coasts between 1988 and 2004 and investigated by RT-PCR using a panmorbillivirus primer pair. However, all samples were negative for morbillivirus nucleic acid.
|Hoe natuurlijk zijn natuurrampen?
Hilhorst, D.J.M. - \ 2008
In: Van natuurlandschap tot risicomaatschappij: De georgrafie van de relatie tussen mens en milieu / Dietz, T., den Hertog, F., van der Wusten, H., Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press - ISBN 9789053567982 - p. 233 - 238.
Coping with Extreme Events: Institutional Flocking
Koppen, C.S.A. van; Mol, A.P.J. ; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van - \ 2008
In: What if......abrupt and extreme climate change? / van den Bergh, J.C.J.M., Dietz, A.J., Jepma, C.J., Langeweg, F., Den Haag : NWO - ISBN 9789077875292 - p. 45 - 64.
klimaatverandering - overheidsbeleid - besluitvorming - risicoschatting - governance - climatic change - government policy - decision making - risk assessment - governance
Recent measurements in the North Atlantic confirm that the thermohaline circulation driving the Gulf Stream has come to a stand. Oceanographic monitoring over the last 50 years already showed that the circulation was weakening. Under the influence of the large inflow of melting water in Northern Atlantic waters during last summer, it has now virtually stopped. Consequently, the KNMI and the RIVM estimate the average . In this essay we will explore how such a new risk profile affects the distribution of risks among societal groups, and the way in which governing institutions need to adapt in order to be prepared for situations of rapid but unknown change. The next section will first introduce an analytical perspective, building upon the Risk Society thesis and a proposed model of ‘institutional flocking’.temperature to decrease by 3°C in the next 15 years.