Genetic Variability of Morphological, Flowering, and Biomass Quality Traits in Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
Petit, Jordi ; Salentijn, Elma M.J. ; Paulo, Maria João ; Thouminot, Claire ; Dinter, Bert Jan van; Magagnini, Gianmaria ; Gusovius, Hans Jörg ; Tang, Kailei ; Amaducci, Stefano ; Wang, Shaoliang ; Uhrlaub, Birgit ; Müssig, Jörg ; Trindade, Luisa M. - \ 2020
Frontiers in Plant Science 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-462X
Cannabis sativa - cell wall composition - fiber quality - flowering time - genetic variability - genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions - hemp - sex determination
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a bast-fiber crop well-known for the great potential to produce sustainable fibers. Nevertheless, hemp fiber quality is a complex trait, and little is known about the phenotypic variability and heritability of fiber quality traits in hemp. The aim of this study is to gain insights into the variability in fiber quality within the hemp germplasm and to estimate the genetic components, environmental components, and genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions on fiber quality traits in hemp. To investigate these parameters, a panel of 123 hemp accessions was phenotyped for 28 traits relevant to fiber quality at three locations in Europe, corresponding to climates of northern, central, and southern Europe. In general, hemp cultivated in northern latitudes showed a larger plant vigor while earlier flowering was characteristic of plants cultivated in southern latitudes. Extensive variability between accessions was observed for all traits. Most cell wall components (contents of monosaccharides derived from cellulose and hemicellulose; and lignin content), bast fiber content, and flowering traits revealed large genetic components with low G×E interactions and high broad-sense heritability values, making these traits suitable to maximize the genetic gains of fiber quality. In contrast, contents of pectin-related monosaccharides, most agronomic traits, and several fiber traits (fineness and decortication efficiency) showed low genetic components with large G×E interactions affecting the rankings across locations. These results suggest that pectin, agronomic traits, and fiber traits are unsuitable targets in breeding programs of hemp, as their large G×E interactions might lead to unexpected phenotypes in untested locations. Furthermore, all environmental effects on the 28 traits were statistically significant, suggesting a strong adaptive behavior of fiber quality in hemp to specific environments. The high variability in fiber quality observed in the hemp panel, the broad range in heritability, and adaptability among all traits prescribe positive prospects for the development of new hemp cultivars of excellent fiber quality.
Global-change effects on early-stage decomposition processes in tidal wetlands-implications from a global survey using standardized litter
Mueller, Peter ; Schile-Beers, Lisa M. ; Mozdzer, Thomas J. ; Chmura, Gail L. ; Dinter, Thomas ; Kuzyakov, Yakov ; Groot, Alma V. de; Esselink, Peter ; Smit, Christian ; Alpaos, Andrea D'; Ibáñez, Carles ; Lazarus, Magdalena ; Neumeier, Urs ; Johnson, Beverly J. ; Baldwin, Andrew H. ; Yarwood, Stephanie A. ; Montemayor, Diana I. ; Yang, Zaichao ; Wu, Jihua ; Jensen, Kai ; Nolte, Stefanie - \ 2018
Biogeosciences 15 (2018)10. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 3189 - 3202.
Tidal wetlands, such as tidal marshes and mangroves, are hotspots for carbon sequestration. The preservation of organic matter (OM) is a critical process by which tidal wetlands exert influence over the global carbon cycle and at the same time gain elevation to keep pace with sea-level rise (SLR). The present study assessed the effects of temperature and relative sea level on the decomposition rate and stabilization of OM in tidal wetlands worldwide, utilizing commercially available standardized litter. While effects on decomposition rate per se were minor, we show strong negative effects of temperature and relative sea level on stabilization, as based on the fraction of labile, rapidly hydrolyzable OM that becomes stabilized during deployment. Across study sites, OM stabilization was 29% lower in low, more frequently flooded vs. high, less frequently flooded zones. Stabilization declined by ∼ 75% over the studied temperature gradient from 10.9 to 28.5°C. Additionally, data from the Plum Island long-term ecological research site in Massachusetts, USA, show a pronounced reduction in OM stabilization by > 70% in response to simulated coastal eutrophication, confirming the potentially high sensitivity of OM stabilization to global change. We therefore provide evidence that rising temperature, accelerated SLR, and coastal eutrophication may decrease the future capacity of tidal wetlands to sequester carbon by affecting the initial transformations of recent OM inputs to soil OM.
Oats in healthy gluten-free and regular diets : A perspective
Smulders, Marinus J.M. ; Wiel, Clemens C.M. van de; Broeck, Hetty C. van den; Meer, Ingrid M. van der; Israel-Hoevelaken, T.P.M. ; Timmer, Ruud D. ; Dinter, Bert Jan van; Braun, Susanne ; Gilissen, Luud J.W.J. - \ 2018
Food Research International 110 (2018). - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 3 - 10.
Approved health claim - Avena - Avenin - Beta-glucan - Coeliac disease - Healthy food - Prevention - Production chain
During the 20th century, the economic position of oats (Avena sativa L.) decreased strongly in favour of higher yielding crops including winter wheat and maize. Presently, oat represents only ∼. 1.3% of the total world grain production, and its production system is fragmented. Nonetheless, current interest is growing because of recent knowledge on its potential benefits in food, feed and agriculture. This perspective will serve as a further impetus, with special focus on the recently valued advantages of oats in human food and health.Five approved European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) health claims apply to oats. Four relate to the oat-specific soluble fibres, the beta-glucans, and concern the maintenance and reduction of blood cholesterol, better blood glucose balance and increased faecal bulk. The fifth claim concerns the high content of unsaturated fatty acids, especially present in the endosperm, which reduces the risks of heart and vascular diseases. Furthermore, oat starch has a low glycemic index, which is favourable for weight control. Oat-specific polyphenols and avenanthramides have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, oats can contribute significantly to the presently recommended whole-grain diet.Next to globulins, oats contain a small fraction of prolamin storage proteins, called 'avenins', but at a much lower quantity than gluten proteins in wheat, barley and rye. Oat avenins do not contain any of the known coeliac disease epitopes from gluten of wheat, barley and rye. Long-term food studies confirm the safety of oats for coeliac disease patients and the positive health effects of oat products in a gluten-free diet. These effects are general and independent of oat varieties. In the EU (since 2009), the USA (since 2013) and Canada (since 2015) oat products may be sold as gluten-free provided that any gluten contamination level is below 20. ppm. Oats are, however, generally not gluten-free when produced in a conventional production chain, because of regular contamination with wheat, barley or rye. Therefore, establishing a separate gluten-free oat production chain requires controlling all steps in the chain; the strict conditions will be discussed.Genomic tools, including a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker array and a dense genetic map, have recently been developed and will support marker-assisted breeding. In 2015, the Oat Global initiative emerged enabling a world-wide cooperation starting with a data sharing facility on genotypic, metabolic and phenotypic characteristics. Further, the EU project TRAFOON (Traditional Food Networks) facilitated the transfer of knowledge to small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to stimulate innovations in oat production, processing, products and marketing, among others with regard to gluten-free. Finally, with focus on counteracting market fragmentation of the global oat market and production chains, interactive innovation strategies between customers (consumers) and companies through co-creation are discussed.
A monitoring study to assess the acute mortality effects of indoxacarb on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in flowering apple orchards
Steen, J.J.M. van der; Dinter, A. - \ 2007
Pest Management Science 63 (2007)11. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 1095 - 1099.
To evaluate the effect of the indoxacarb 300 g kg-1 WG, Steward 30WDGTM, on the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in apple orchards, a monitoring study was conducted in Dutch apple orchards in April/May 2004. Before apple flowering began, two honey bee colonies were placed in each orchard to investigate honey bee mortality. Each hive was provided with a Münster dead bee trap to collect dead honey bees. The numbers of dead bees found in these Münster dead traps were counted every 3-4 days for about 2 weeks before and after the period of the insecticide treatment. In nine flowering orchards no indoxacarb was applied during the flowering period, which served as control sites. In 30 flowering orchards indoxacarb was sprayed by the fruit growers according to local practice at 170-260 g formulated product ha-1 (51-78 g AI ha-1). In the control orchards the average mortality was 8 honey bees colony-1 day-1. The average daily honey bee mortality before and after indoxacarb application was 8 and 10 honey bees colony-1 day-1 respectively. At one test site, indoxacarb was mixed with other plant protection products plus plant nutrients, and in this orchard a slight but biologically non-significant increase in acute honey bee mortality was recorded. It was concluded that the application of indoxacarb caused no effects on honey bee mortality, and that the number of dead honey bees counted in the Münster traps in the orchard treated with indoxacarb was comparable with those determined in control orchards
|The use of single species spatially explicit models
Topping, C.J. ; Booij, K. ; Daamen, R.A. ; Dinter, A. ; Heimbach, U. ; Kennedy, P.J. ; Langeret, V. ; Perry, J.N. ; Powell, W. ; Skirvin, D. ; Stilmant, D. ; Thomas, C.F.G. ; Winstone, L. - \ 1998
In: Arthropod Natural Enemies in Arable Land III / Powell, W., - p. 171 - 191.