Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Effecten van stikstofdepositie op de natuur en de rol van de kritische depositiewaarde
    Dobben, H.F. van - \ 2020
    Tijdschrift Natuurbeschermingsrecht (NBR) 2020 (2020)2. - ISSN 1572-4719 - p. 44 - 51.
    Op 29 mei 2019 werd de Programmatische Aanpak Stikstof door de Raad van State naar de prullenbak verwezen. De systematiek van de PAS was er op gericht economische activiteiten die tot een verhoging van de stikstofuitstoot leiden mogelijk te maken, hoewel die stikstofuitstoot kan leiden tot schade aan onder
    de Europese Vogelrichtlijn en Habitatrichtlijn beschermde natuur. Aan de PAS lagen twee gedachten ten grondslag: de stikstofuitstoot heeft een autonoom dalende trend, die versterkt kan worden met gerichte beleidsmaatregelen; en verdere achteruitgang van onder de VHR beschermde natuur kan – ook bij hoge
    uitstoot – worden voorkomen met de inzet van herstelmaatregelen in het veld.
    Zo veel natuurgebiedjes, het houdt een keer op
    Rabbinge, Rudy ; Dobben, Han van; Kleijn, David - \ 2019
    Factsheet 'stikstofbronnen'
    Oenema, O. ; Vries, W. de; Dobben, H.F. van; Kros, J. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Reinds, G.J. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 17 p.
    Vegetation composition of Lolium perenne-dominated grasslands under organic and convential farming
    Dobben, H.F. van; Quik, C. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Lantinga, E.A. - \ 2019
    Basic and Applied Ecology 36 (2019). - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 45 - 53.
    Agricultural intensification has caused a decline of semi-natural grasslands and loss of botanical diversity, making Agricultural fields dominated by Lolium perenne the main grassland system in large areas of Europe. Increased insight into the factors determining their vegetation composition and plant species richness is needed to improve the effectiveness of agri-environment schemes and to substantiate the benefits of organic over conventional agriculture. Our aims were (1) to determine the difference in vegetation composition (including species richness) between Lolium perenne-dominated fields of conventional and organic farms in a case study region in The Netherlands, and (2) to identify the soil and management related drivers behind this difference.
    We collected vegetation, soil and management data in grasslands of dairy farms under conventional or organic management (45 fields in total), and used multivariate statistics to determine the effect of fertilisation rates, grazing and cutting regime, and soil properties on plant species composition. In a next step we determined to what extent these abiotic drivers differ between organic and conventional farms.
    On average the organic fields appeared to have a c. 30% higher plant species richness compared to the conventional ones. Vegetation composition was most strongly influenced by groundwater level and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation rates, and to a lesser extent by plant-available soil potassium, mowing date, total soil nitrogen, potassium fertilisation rate, age of each field, and livestock (cow or sheep). In general, a low fertilisation rate, high groundwater level, late mowing, low level of plant-available potassium, high level of total soil nitrogen, old fields and the presence of sheep promote a high species richness. However, of these variables only nitrogen fertilisation rate and groundwater level differ significantly between the organic and conventional farms and are therefore likely to be the abiotic drivers of the difference in species richness and vegetation composition between the farm types. Of these two, the difference in nitrogen fertilisation rate is a direct result of a difference in management philosophy, but the difference in groundwater level is not. We hypothesize that the latter difference is caused by economic drivers, whereby a less productive soil is an incentive for a changeover to organic farming. If this is the case indeed, the application of agri-environment schemes would be most effective in less productive (and naturally more species-rich) sites.
    The Role of Abiotic Soil Parameters as a Factor in the Success of Invasive Plant Species
    Wamelink, Wieger ; Dobben, H.F. Van; Goedhart, P.W. ; Jones-Walters, L.M. - \ 2018
    Emerging Science Journal 2 (2018)6. - ISSN 2610-9182 - p. 308 - 365.
    Plant species dispersal has been strongly enhanced by human activities. Introduced species have to cope with indigenous species and local conditions. They may avoid indigenous species by occupying new (abiotic) territory. Once a species is established it may become a pest, and may seriously threaten other species and ecosystems. In this paper we focus on invasive plant species of the Dutch flora. We make two comparisons: (1) Dutch neophytes (i.e. arrived in The Netherlands after 1825) vs. indigenous Dutch flora; and (2) species of the Dutch flora that have become invasive outside Europe vs. non-invasive species of the Dutch flora. We hypothesize that at least part of the success of the invasive or neophyte species is due to their ability to grow under a wider range of abiotic soil circumstances than other species. We regard an invasive species as successful if it is able to disperse from the introduction site(s) and remain present in the invaded vegetation.For ten out of the sixteen abiotic factors there isa wider range for the neophytes: chlorine, potassium, mean highest and lowest groundwater level, phosphorus (and total content) and pH H2O. We hypothesized that part of the success of invasive species may be the adaptation to a variety of abiotic soil parameters. This is indeed the case for a number of the examined parameters, mostly related to nutrient availability and soil pH. This indicates that the success of invasive species is at least partly caused by their ability to grow under a wide range of nutrient availability and soil pH. Their success may therefore be stimulated by the increasing pollution of natural areas by excessive nitrogen
    Millennial multi-proxy reconstruction of oasis dynamics in Jordan, by the Dead Sea
    Eggenberger, Sebastian ; Gobet, Erika ; Leeuwen, Jacqueline F.N. van; Schwörer, Christoph ; Knaap, Willem O. van der; Dobben, Han F. van; Vogel, Hendrik ; Tinner, Willy ; Rambeau, Claire M.C. - \ 2018
    Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 27 (2018)5. - ISSN 0939-6314 - p. 649 - 664.
    Fire history - Global change - Phoenix dactylifera - Pollen - Vegetation - XRF

    Vegetation reconstructions in the Dead Sea region based on sediment records are potentially biased, because the vast majority of them derive from the western side of the sea, and only focus on large areas and time spans, while little is known about extra-local (< 1,000 m radius) to local (< 20 m radius) changes. To fill this gap, we compared a vegetation survey with modern pollen assemblages from the “Palm Terrace” oasis ca. 300 m b.s.l. (below sea level), at the eastern edge of the Dead Sea. This revealed how the oasis vegetation is reflected in pollen assemblages. In addition, two sediment cores were collected from the centre and the edge of a mire at the oasis to reconstruct past vegetation dynamics. We analysed sedimentary pollen and microscopic charcoal, as well as the sediment chemistry by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and conductivity, focusing on the past ~ 1,000 years. Pollen results suggest that mesophilous Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) stands and wetland vegetation expanded there around ad 1300–1500 and 1700–1900. During the past ca. 100 years, drought-adapted Chenopodiaceae gained ground, partly replacing the palms. Results from elemental analysis, especially of elements such as chlorine, provide evidence of enhanced evaporative salinization. Increasing desertification and the associated decline of mesophilous date palm stands during the past ca. 50 years is probably related to a decrease in annual precipitation and also corresponds to decreasing water levels in the Dead Sea. These have mainly been caused by increasing extraction of fresh water from tributaries and wells, mainly for local agriculture and industry. In the future, with hotter and drier conditions as well as increased use of water, oasis vegetation along the Dead Sea might be at further risk of contraction or even extinction.

    6. Vegetatiedynamiek in duinen en duinvalleien op Oost-Ameland
    Kuiters, A.T. ; Vries, Daisy de; Brus, D.J. ; Heidema, A.H. ; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Slim, P.A. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Krol, J. - \ 2017
    In: Monitoring effecten van bodemdaling op Oost-Ameland / de Vlas, J., - p. 375 - 482.
    Areaaldynamiek habitattypen in duinvalleien op Oost-Ameland : Periode 2001-2016
    Kuiters, A.T. ; Vries, Daisy de; Heidema, A.H. ; Brus, D.J. ; Slim, P.A. ; Dobben, H.F. van - \ 2017
    Dynamiek van duinvegetaties op Oost-Ameland : Periode 1986-2013
    Kuiters, A.T. ; Vries, Daisy de; Slim, P.A. ; Dobben, H.F. van - \ 2017
    Is de rode Amerikaanse rivierkreeft een ernstige bedreiging voor het veenweidegebied?
    Dobben, H.F. van; Lamsma, Jelly ; Kampf, Hans - \ 2017
    De Levende Natuur 118 (2017)4. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 154 - 158.
    Embryo dune development drivers: beach morphology, growing season precipitation, and storms
    Puijenbroek, M.E.B. van; Limpens, J. ; Groot, Alma de; Riksen, M.J.P.M. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Slim, P.A. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Berendse, F. - \ 2017
    Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 42 (2017)11. - ISSN 0197-9337 - p. 1733 - 1744.
    For development of embryo dunes on the highly dynamic land–sea boundary, summer growth and the absence of winter erosion are essential. Other than that, however, we know little about the specific conditions that favour embryo dune development. This study explores the boundary conditions for early dune development to enable better predictions of natural dune expansion. Using a 30 year time series of aerial photographs of 33 sites along the Dutch coast, we assessed the influence of beach morphology (beach width and tidal range), meteorological conditions (storm characteristics, wind speed, growing season precipitation, and temperature), and sand nourishment on early dune development. We examined the presence and area of embryo dunes in relation to beach width and tidal range, and compared changes in embryo dune area to meteorological conditions and whether sand nourishment had been applied. We found that the presence and area of embryo dunes increased with increasing beach width. Over time, embryo dune area was negatively correlated with storm intensity and frequency. Embryo dune area was positively correlated with precipitation in the growing season and sand nourishment. Embryo dune area increased in periods of low storm frequency and in wet summers, and decreased in periods of high storm frequency or intensity. We conclude that beach morphology is highly influential in determining the potential for new dune development, and wide beaches enable development of larger embryo dune fields. Sand nourishment stimulates dune development by increasing beach width. Finally, weather conditions and non-interrupted sequences of years without high-intensity storms determine whether progressive dune development will take place.
    The contribution of nitrogen deposition to the eutrophication signal in understorey plant communities of European forests
    Dobben, H.F. van; Vries, W. de - \ 2017
    Ecology and Evolution 7 (2017)1. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 214 - 227.
    We evaluated effects of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen on the composition of forest understorey vegetation both in space and time, using repeated data from the European wide monitoring program ICP-Forests, which focuses on normally managed forest. Our aim was to assess whether both spatial and temporal effects of deposition can be detected by a multiple regression approach using data from managed forests over a relatively short time interval, in which changes in the tree layer are limited. To characterize the vegetation, we used indicators derived from cover percentages per species using multivariate statistics and indicators derived from the presence/absence, that is, species numbers and Ellenberg's indicator values. As explanatory variables, we used climate, altitude, tree species, stand age, and soil chemistry, besides deposition of nitrate, ammonia and sulfate. We analyzed the effects of abiotic conditions at a single point in time by canonical correspondence analysis and multiple regression. The relation between the change in vegetation and abiotic conditions was analyzed using redundancy analysis and multiple regression, for a subset of the plots that had both abiotic data and enough species to compute a mean Ellenberg N value per plot using a minimum of three species. Results showed that the spatial variation in the vegetation is mainly due to “traditional” factors such as soil type and climate, but a statistically significant part of the variation could be ascribed to atmospheric deposition of nitrate. The change in the vegetation over the past c. 10 years was also significantly correlated to nitrate deposition. Although the effect of deposition on the individual species could not be clearly defined, the effect on the vegetation as a whole was a shift toward nitrophytic species as witnessed by an increase in mean Ellenberg's indicator value.
    Species-rich grassland can persist under nitrogen-rich but phosphorus-limited conditions
    Dobben, Han F. van; Wamelink, Wieger ; Slim, Pieter A. ; Kamiński, Jan ; Piórkowski, Hubert - \ 2017
    Plant and Soil 411 (2017)1. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 451 - 466.
    Biomass production - Co-limitation - Drained peat - Grassland - Mowing - Nutrient limitation - Poland - Species richness

    Aim: Deposition of nitrogen is assumed to cause loss of botanical diversity, probably through increased production and exclusion of less competitive species. However, if production is (co-)limited by phosphorus, acceleration of the phosphorus cycle may be responsible for the diversity loss and, where that is the case, nitrogen emission reduction may turn out to be an ineffective mitigation strategy. Here we study the feasibility of this mechanism through adding potassium and phosphorus to grassland where nitrogen limitation is absent. Methods: We made vegetation relevés in a long-term agricultural fertilisation experiment where potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen were being added to grassland on drained peat where nitrogen availability was high, even in unfertilised plots. We applied a multivariate analysis to investigate the effect of additions of K, K + P and K + P + N on the species composition. Results: Unfertilised plots had a very low biomass production and were rich in plant species despite their high nitrogen availability. Addition of potassium led to a strongly increased production but did not result in a reduction of species numbers. Phosphorus in addition to potassium increased production still further and decreased species numbers, most notably the number of endangered species. Conclusions: Even under nitrogen rich conditions species richness may be high in grasslands where phosphorous provides a limitation to plant growth. Phosphorus limitation and phosphorus enrichment are both common in grassland, at least in north-western Europe. Part of the general decrease in species numbers that is commonly ascribed to nitrogen enrichment may therefore be due to phosphorus enrichment. If phosphorus and nitrogen are co-limiting (which is often the case) the current nitrogen emission reduction policies may be effective, but not sufficient to restore grassland diversity to its pre-industrial level.

    Monitoring habitat types by the mixed multinomial logit model using panel data
    Brus, D.J. ; Slim, P.A. ; Gort, G. ; Heidema, A.H. ; Dobben, H.F. van - \ 2016
    Ecological Indicators 67 (2016). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 108 - 116.
    Habitats in the Wadden Sea, a world heritage area, are affected by land subsidence resulting from naturalgas extraction and by sea level rise. Here we describe a method to monitor changes in habitat types byproducing sequential maps based on point information followed by mapping using a multinomial logitregression model with abiotic variables of which maps are available as predictors.In a 70 ha study area a total of 904 vegetation samples has been collected in seven sampling roundswith an interval of 2–3 years. Half of the vegetation plots was permanent, violating the assumptionof independent data in multinomial logistic regression. This paper shows how this dependency can beaccounted for by adding a random effect to the multinomial logit (MLN) model, thus becoming a mixedmultinomial logit (MMNL) model. In principle all regression coefficients can be taken as random, butin this study only the intercepts are treated as location-specific random variables (random interceptsmodel). With six habitat types we have five intercepts, so that the number of extra model parametersbecomes 15, 5 variances and 10 covariances.The likelihood ratio test showed that the MMNL model fitted significantly better than the MNL modelwith the same fixed effects. McFadden-R2for the MMNL model was 0.467, versus 0.395 for the MNL model.The estimated coefficients of the MMNL and MNL model were comparable; those of altitude, the mostimportant predictor, differed most. The MMNL model accounts for pseudo-replication at the permanentplots, which explains the larger standard errors of the MMNL coefficients. The habitat type at a givenlocation-year combination was predicted by the habitat type with the largest predicted probability. Theseries of maps shows local trends in habitat types most likely driven by sea-level rise, soil subsidence,and a restoration project.We conclude that in environmental modeling of categorical variables using panel data, dependencyof repeated observations at permanent plots should be accounted for. This will affect the estimatedprobabilities of the categories, and even stronger the standard errors of the regression coefficients.
    Een (be)leefbare stad : openbare ruimte in eigen beheer - De Eilandenboulevard
    Kruit, J. ; Broek, L. van den; Dobben, Emma van; Muntjewerf, Sam ; Nieuwland, Wessel ; Reitsema, Rosanna ; Mahbubi, Zohal ; Johannes, Dino ; Simons, A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 327) - 38
    boten - openbaar groen - stedelijke gebieden - hellingen - stedelijke ecologie - amsterdam - boats - public green areas - urban areas - slopes - urban ecology - amsterdam
    Derivation of critical loads for nitrogen for habitat types and their exceedances in The Netherlands
    Dobben, H.F. van; Hinsberg, A. van; Bal, D. ; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P. ; Wieggers, H.J.J. ; Kros, J. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
    In: Critical Loads and Dynamic Risk Assessments: Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Environmental Pollution / de Vries, W., Hettelingh, J.P., Posch, M., Springer Verlag - ISBN 9789401795081 - p. 547 - 572.
    A method is presented to simulate nitrogen (N) critical load values per vegetation type in the Netherlands following the method outlined in Chap. 3 and to integrate these simulated critical loads with empirical values to unique values per habitat type as defined in the European Habitats Directive. In this way critical loads are generated that (a) can be used as local deposition targets to comply with the Habitats Directive, and (b) have a broad international support.
    Plant species diversity indicators for use in the computation of critical loads and dynamic risk assessments
    Dobben, H.F. van; Posch, M. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Hettelingh, J.P. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
    In: Critical Loads and Dynamic Risk Assessments: Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Environmental Pollution / de Vries, W., Hettelingh, J.P., Posch, M., Springer Verlag - ISBN 9789401795081 - p. 59 - 81.
    Soil models can be used to derive critical loads by computing the deposition that leads to critical limits for abiotic conditions, i.e. conditions that are just tolerated by an ecosystem. In this chapter various approaches are discussed to assess these critical limits for plant communities and plant species. Species diversity indicators have an important role in many of these approaches and such indicators may be based on species numbers, intrinsic values of species or the desirability of certain species or communities to be present in certain locations. Such desired or ‘target’ species or communities are often derived from concepts regarding the ‘pristine’ or ‘natural’ state of an ecosystem. For a diversity indicator the similarity of the actual or modelled state and the ‘target’ state has to be quantified, and various methods for quantification are discussed. Finally, a step-by-step approach is discussed to arrive at critical limits using niche models, based on various concepts regarding plant species diversity.
    Field survey based models for exploring nitrogen and acidity effects on plant species diversity and assessing long-term critical loads
    Rowe, E.C. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Smart, S.M. ; Butler, A. ; Henrys, P.A. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Reinds, G.J. ; Evans, C. ; Kros, J. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
    In: Critical Loads and Dynamic Risk Assessments: Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Environmental Pollution / de Vries, W., Hettelingh, J.P., Posch, M., Springer Verlag - ISBN 9789401795081 - p. 297 - 326.
    Empirical critical loads are based on current evidence for relationships between the rate of pollutant deposition and changes to ecosystems observed in experiments and surveys. When considering longer-term change and effects of changes in deposition rate after periods of deposition in excess of the critical load, dynamic modelling approaches are useful. This chapter describes two soil-vegetation-floristics model chains, similar in concept, that are being applied in the Netherlands and the UK to explore pollution scenarios and calculate long-term critical loads for acidity and nutrient-N. These model chains consist of dynamic models of soil and vegetation biogeochemistry, combined with environmental suitability models that define the realised niche for the species or assemblage. The environmental suitability models described in this chapter are based on empirical relationships between species (MOVE, PROPS, MultiMOVE) or assemblage (NTM3) occurrence and environmental conditions, defined on multiple axes. They are driven by different biogeochemical models, forming the model chains SMART2-(SUMO2)-PROPS/NTM3 and MADOC-MultiMOVE. In this chapter these model chains are described in detail, and applications to scenario exploration and setting critical loads are demonstrated.
    Does vegetation in restored salt marshes equal naturally developed vegetation
    Loon-Steensma, J.M. van; Dobben, H.F. van; Slim, P.A. ; Huiskes, H.P.J. ; Dirkse, G.M. - \ 2015
    Applied Vegetation Science 18 (2015)4. - ISSN 1402-2001 - p. 674 - 682.
    Question: Do low stone dams built to prevent erosion and to restore salt marshes through increased sedimentation affect plant species composition? Location: Dutch Wadden Sea area (ca. 53°N 5°E). Methods: Relevés (N = 170) were made of the vegetation of two restored salt marsh sites on the barrier islands Terschelling (Grië) and Ameland (Neerlands Reid). Existing relevés of salt-marsh vegetation (N = 6198) made along the entire Dutch Wadden Sea coast (both the mainland and the barrier islands) were used as a reference. The vegetation of the two restored sites (Grië NLR data) was compared with the reference by (1) simple species-by-species analysis based on frequencies in both data sets, and by (2) ordination, where relevés of the restored sites were projected into a multivariate space defined by the species' abundances in the reference relevés. Results: Out of the 37 species that are common (i.e. have a frequency >5%) in either the Grië NLR data or the reference data, 31 have frequencies that differ by less than a factor of five, and 23 differ by less than a factor of two. Furthermore, the Grië NLR data occupy a space that is well in the centre of the ordination space defined by the reference data. Conclusions: There are no conspicuous differences between salt-marsh vegetation behind low dams and the vegetation that has naturally developed on unprotected mudflats. We conclude that measures targeting salt marsh development in view of flood protection do not interfere with nature conservation.
    Nieuwe modelberekeningen ten behoeve van het actualiseren van kritische depositiewaarden voor stikstof
    Dobben, H.F. van; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Adrichem, M.H.C. van; Bonten, L.T.C. ; Reinds, G.J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR - 41 p.
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