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|Is a terrestrial cat parasite really reaching marine mammals?
Velde, N. van der; Devleesschauwer, B. ; Decraeye, S. ; Begeman, L. ; IJsseldijk, Lonneke ; Hiemstra, S. ; Ijzer, J. ; Brownlow, Andrew ; Davison, Nicholas ; Leopold, M.F. ; Jauniaux, T. ; Siebert, U. ; Dorny, P. - \ 2014
- 1 p.
Standardization of the egg hatch test for the detection of benzimidazole resistance in parasitic nematodes
Samson-Himmelstjerna, G. von; Coles, G. ; Jackson, F. ; Bauer, C. ; Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Cirak, V. ; Demeler, J. ; Donnan, A. ; Dorny, P. ; Epe, C. ; Harder, A. ; Hoglund, J. ; Kaminsky, R. ; Kerboeuf, D. ; Kuttler, U. ; Papadopoulos, E. ; Posedi, J. ; Small, J. ; Varady, M. ; Verscruysse, J. ; Wirtherle, N. - \ 2009
Parasitology Research 105 (2009)3. - ISSN 0932-0113 - p. 825 - 834.
in-vitro methods - count reduction test - anthelmintic resistance - veterinary importance - haemonchus-contortus - small strongyles - levamisole resistance - north-island - new-zealand - sheep
The ability to reliably detect anthelmintic resistance is a crucial part of resistance management. If data between countries are to be compared, the same test should give the same results in each laboratory. As the egg hatch test for benzimidazole resistance is used for both research and surveys, the ability of different laboratories to obtain similar results was studied through testing of known isolates of cyathostomins, Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia ostertagi, and Cooperia oncophora in programs supported by the EU (Cost B16 and FP6-PARASOL). Initial results showed difficulties in obtaining reproducible and similar data within and between laboratories. A series of ring tests, i.e., simultaneous and coordinated rounds of testing of nematode isolates in different laboratories was subsequently performed. By adopting identical protocols, especially the use of deionized water and making dilutions of thiabendazole in dimethyl sulfoxide in the final ring test, laboratories correctly identified both susceptible and resistant isolates. The protocols for the test and preparation of solutions of thiabendazole are described.
Reciprocal Antibody and Complement Responses of Two Chicken Breeds to Vaccine Strains of Newcastle Disease Virus, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and Infectious Bronchitis Virus
Baelmans, R. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Dorny, P. ; Demey, F. ; Berkvens, D. - \ 2006
Veterinary Research Communications 30 (2006)5. - ISSN 0165-7380 - p. 567 - 576.
mannan-binding lectin - red-blood-cells - indigenous chickens - viral-infections - serum-levels - evasion - lines - mbl
Serum antibody responses and haemolytic complement activity were evaluated in White Leghorn (WLH) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens that were vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccines of Newcastle disease virus, or infectious bronchitis virus, or infectious bursal disease virus by means of ocular challenge at 10 times the normal vaccination dose. Complement titres in non-vaccinated birds were significantly higher in WLH birds compared to RIR birds. The lentogenic viral infection resulted in an immediate stimulation of complement activity, followed by a decrease to initial complement levels within 2 weeks post vaccination, when the antibody response took over immune defence. As compared to WLH chickens, RIR birds mounted a faster and significantly higher antibody response to the vaccine viruses used. In WLH hens, significantly higher haemolytic complement activity post vaccination was found as compared to RIR hens. Possible consequences of the observed differences in immune responsiveness of the two breeds to viral vaccines are discussed.
|Standardising of in vitro tests for the detection of benzimidazole resistance in parasitic nematodes
Samsom-Himmelstjerna, G. von; Jackson, F. ; Bauer, C. ; Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Cirak, V. ; Coles, G. ; Donnan, A. ; Dorny, P. ; Epe, C. ; Harder, A. ; Höglund, J. ; Kaminsky, R. ; Kerboeuf, D. ; Küttler, U. ; Posedi, J. ; Small, J. - \ 2005
In: The 20th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) 2005: 16 Oct 2005 - 20 Oct 2005 Christchurch, New Zealand. - Christchurch, New Zealand : - p. 276 (Z1.3) - 276 (Z1.3).
Haemolytic Complement Activity and Humoral Immune Responses to Sheep Red Blood Cells in Indigenous Chickens and in Eight German Dahlem Red Chicken Lines with Different Combinations of Major Genes (dwarf, naked neck and frizzled) of Tropical Interest
Baelmans, R. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Nieuwland, M.G.B. ; Dorny, P. ; Demey, F. ; Berkvens, D. - \ 2005
Tropical Animal Health and Production 37 (2005)3. - ISSN 0049-4747 - p. 173 - 186.
low antibody-production - white leghorn chickens - histocompatibility complex - divergent selection - laying hens - immunocompetence - erythrocytes - multitrait - antigens - serum
A total of 376 chickens from different ecotypes were immunized with the non-pathogenic multideterminant antigen sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The ecotypes included indigenous chickens from various locations in Tanzania (n = 102), India (n = 86) and Bolivia (n = 89). In addition, eight German Dahlem Red (GDR) chicken lines with different major genes (dwarf, naked neck and frizzled) of tropical interest were also immunized with SRBC. Immune competence of the breeds was assessed by measuring complement haemolytic activity, both from the classical calcium-dependent complement pathway (CPW) and alternative calcium-independent complement pathway (APW), alongside IgTotal, IgG and IgM antibody responses to SRBC at 7 days post immunization. Large variations in complement activity and antibody responses to SRBC were observed within and between the indigenous breeds. Many indigenous chickens, especially from Bolivia, showed decreased complement activity (APW) following immunization with SRBC. Breeds from India showed the highest CPW activity and humoral (especially IgM) responses to SRBC, suggesting high immune competence. In contrast, Bolivian chickens were characterized by low CPW activity, low APW activity and low antibody levels to SRBC suggesting an overall low immune competence. In the GDR chickens, characterized by high CPW activity and high IgG antibody responses to SRBC, the major genes for naked neck, frizzling and dwarfism had no significant effect on the antibody responses and complement activity to SRBC.
Serum Haemolytic Complement Levels in German Dahlem Red Chickens Are Affected by Three Major Genes (Naked, Neck, Dwarf, Frizzled) of Tropical Interest
Dorny, P. ; Baelmans, R. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Nieuwland, M.G.B. ; Demey, F. ; Berkvens, D. - \ 2005
Tropical Animal Health and Production 37 (2005)1. - ISSN 0049-4747 - p. 1 - 9.
mareks-disease vaccines - b-haplotype influence - relative efficacy - growth-rate - local chickens - laying hens - heat-stress - body-weight - temperature - resistance
German Dahlem Red chickens with three different major genes of tropical interest: Nana ¿ (naked neck), Ff ¿ (frizzled) and dw ¿ (dwarf), respectively, were tested for serum haemolytic complement, which is essential in innate host defence against infectious agents. Eight different combinations of genes for body size and feather coverage were evaluated. Significant differences both for both the calcium-dependent (classical, CPW) and the calcium-independent (alternative, APW) complement titres were found between the phenotypes. Phenotype nanaffDw¿ showed the highest complement status. The frizzled (Ff ¿) gene had a negative influence on APW titres, whereas the dwarf (dw ¿) gene had a negative influence on CPW titres. The naked neck (Nana ¿) gene had various influences on the haemolytic complement status. All tested hens had MHC (B) 21 haplotypes, whereas the gene for dwarfism appeared to be linked with the B19 haplotype. It was concluded that introducing major genes (Nana ¿, dw ¿, Ff ¿) to conquer environmental stress in hot climates can have a negative impact on certain aspects of the innate immunity of poultry.
Serological Screening for MHC (B)-Polymorphism in Indigenous Chickens
Baelmans, R. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Nieuwland, M.G.B. ; Dorny, P. ; Demey, F. - \ 2005
Tropical Animal Health and Production 37 (2005)2. - ISSN 0049-4747 - p. 93 - 102.
major histocompatibility complex - mareks-disease vaccines - b-haplotype influence - relative efficacy - class-i - resistance - identification - genes - herpesvirus - lines
As part of a series of studies to characterize innate and specific immune responses of indigenous chicken lines, birds from Bolivia and India were screened serologically for MHC class IV (BG) polymorphism by direct haemagglutination using haplotype-specific antisera (B2, B4, B12, B13, B14, B15, B19, B21). The sample consisted of 95 Bolivian indigenous chickens and 119 hens from the four most common North Indian back-yard chicken lines: Yellow Aseel (AP), Kadaknath (KN), frizzled typed (Ff¿) and naked neck (NN). Of all chickens tested, the majority were haplotyped as B2, B15, B19 and B21. Of the Bolivian chickens, 89.5% could be haplotyped: 54.9% were homozygous (including 43.3% B15), and 34.6% were heterozygous (including 15.7% B15). B2-like haplotypes were not found among the Bolivian hens, and only 3.2% of these birds showed homozygous B21-like proteins. Of the Indian hens, MHC (BG)-like proteins could be detected in 60.0% of the AP birds, 6.7% of the KN birds; 40.0% of the Ff¿ birds; and 10.3% of the NN birds. In these lines, a total of 40.1% (AP), 6.7% (KN), 30.1% (Ff¿) and 10.3% (NN) were homozygous for the B-haplotype. Only in the AP line (19.9%), and the Ff¿ line (9.9%) were heterozygous B-haplotypes types found. The B2 haplotype was found in all Indian chicken lines. Most Indian birds have completely unknown haplotypes, indicating a potentially interesting genetic pool. Subgrouping the Bolivian and Indian indigenous hens into monomorphic BG populations revealed individual differences based on the B-types.
Different Serum Haemolytic Complement Levels in Indigenous Chickens from Benin, Bolivia, Cameroon, India and Tanzania
Baelmans, R. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Udo, H.M.J. ; Dorny, P. ; Demey, F. ; Berkvens, D. - \ 2004
Tropical Animal Health and Production 36 (2004)8. - ISSN 0049-4747 - p. 731 - 742.
mareks-disease vaccines - b-haplotype influence - red-blood-cells - relative efficacy - antibody-responses - resistance
Titres of classical (CPW) and alternative (APW) complement pathways were measured in clinically healthy local chicken populations (ecotypes) from Africa (Benin, n = 78; Cameroon, n = 299; Tanzania, n = 101), Asia (India, n = 96) and South America (Bolivia, n = 64). A wide variation was found in haemolytic complement levels between the various ecotypes. Distributions of the classical and alternative complement titres were not normal but were skewed to the right. Differences in complement were found both within and between ecotypes. Furthermore, CPW titres of the indigenous chickens were lower than those determined in commercial layer chickens. This suggests that complement levels in indigenous hens are not solely dependent on local antigenic pressure but may also depend on genetic background and husbandry. The relationships between complement levels, the chicken MHC(B) complex, environmental antigenic pressure, and survival of the scavenging local chickens are discussed.
Serum haemolytic complement activities in 11 different MHC (B) typed chicken lines
Parmentier, H.K. ; Baelmans, R. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Dorny, P. ; Demey, F. ; Berkvens, D. - \ 2004
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 100 (2004)1-2. - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 25 - 32.
major histocompatibility complex - red-blood-cells - mareks-disease vaccines - white leghorn chickens - b-haplotype influence - antibody-responses - immune responsiveness - divergent selection - relative efficacy - inbred lines
To study the relation between serum complement levels and the chicken MHC (B) complex, complement haemolytic activity was measured in sera from hens from seven pure-bred B-typed White and one Brown Leghorn lines, and three ISA-Warren lines that had been divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Significant differences occurred in the serum haemolytic complement activities, both belonging to the classic (CPW) and the alternative (APW) pathways, among the 11 different haplotyped chicken lines. Hens with high CPW and high APW titres predominantly displayed the B2 or B21 haplotypes. Chickens with low CPW and APW were found in B14 and B15 haplotypes. Haplotype B14 appears to be different in complement levels when present into the pure-bred lines or into the ISA-Warren line selected for low antibody responses to SRBC. Otherwise, the presence of B21 in ISA-Warren line selected for high antibody responses to SRBC does not differ with the B21 in the inbred lines (except in the NL-line for CPW values). In general the haplotypes B2 and B21 are found in chicken lines with enhanced disease resistance, and the B15 haplotype has been connected with enhanced disease susceptibility. Our results suggest that levels of haemolytic complement activity, either from the classical or from the alternative pathways, may underlie part of the immunocompetence ascribed to the MHC (B) complex in chickens. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Haemolytic complement activity, C3 and FactorB consumption in serum from chickens divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells
Parmentier, H.K. ; Baelmans, R. ; Nieuwland, M.G.B. ; Dorny, P. ; Demey, F. - \ 2002
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 90 (2002). - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 91 - 100.
Antibody responses, serum complement haemolytic activity, and complement component C3 and Factor B consumption were studied in chickens divergently selected for high and low antibody responses to sheep red blood cells, and in a randombred control line. Significantly higher total and IgG antibody responses to SRBC were found after intramuscular immunisation in the high antibody responder (H) line versus the low antibody responder (L) line and the control (C) line. Also significantly higher antibody titres were found in the C line as compared to the L line. Ca-dependent (classical) and Ca-independent (alternative) complement haemolytic activity was significantly higher in the H line than in the L line. Also initial complement haemolytic activity and C3 levels prior to immunisation with SRBC were significantly higher in the H than in the L line. The L line, on the other hand, showed numerically higher Factor B levels. Immunisation with SRBC was followed by a different consumption of C3 in serum of the H line than the L line. The results indicated that divergent selection of chickens for specific antibody responses to SRBC affected complement levels and C3 consumption in these chickens. This suggests a genetic linkage between these two immune traits.
Nematode parasitism in adult dairy cows in Belgium
Agneessens, J. ; Claerebout, E. ; Dorny, P. ; Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Vercruysse, J. - \ 2000
Veterinary Parasitology 90 (2000)1-2. - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 83 - 92.
Over a period of 1 year, from November 1997 to October 1998, the abomasa, blood and faecal samples of 121 dairy cows in Belgium were collected and examined for nematode infections. Nematodes were present in the abomasa of 110 animals. Ostertagia was found in all 110, Trichostrongylus was seen in 65 and Haemonchus in 14 abomasa. Overall, 91% of all trichostrongyles recovered were Ostertagia. The geometric mean total number of Ostertagia was 2750, with an average of 74% inhibited early fourth stage larvae (EL4). Between November and February >90% of the Ostertagia worm burden were EL4 stages. The majority of the animals (56%) harboured a low Ostertagia burden (100-5000) and 15% had a high burden (>10,000). Sixty-four percent of the coprocultures were positive and the genera recovered were Ostertagia sp. (100%), Trichostrongylus sp. (42%), Oesophagostomum (32%), Haemonchus sp. (29%) and Cooperia sp. (16%). A seasonal pattern was evident for serum Ostertagia-specific antibodies and for serum pepsinogen concentration, with the highest levels during the summer, and low values during the winter. Dictyocaulus viviparus specific antibodies were detected in the serum of eight (7%) animals. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
|The use of an oxfendazole pulse release bolus in the control of gastro-intestinal nematodiasis and parasitic bronchitis in first season grazing calves.
Vercruysse, J. ; Berghen, P. ; Dorny, P. ; Hilderson, H.M. ; Frankena, K. - \ 1987
In: Abstract 12th Conf. WAAVP, Montreal, Canada (1987)
|Use of an oxfendazole pulse release bolus in the control of parasitic gastro-enteritis and parasitic bronchitis in first-season grazing calves.
Vercruijsse, J. ; Dorny, P. ; Berghen, P. ; Frankena, K. - \ 1987
Veterinary Record 121 (1987). - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 297 - 300.