A Mediterranean-like dietary pattern with Vitamin D3 (10 μg/d) supplements reduced the rate of bone loss in older Europeans with osteoporosis at baseline : Results of a 1-y randomized controlled trial
Jennings, Amy ; Cashman, Kevin D. ; Gillings, Rachel ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Tang, Jonathan ; Fraser, William ; Dowling, Kirsten G. ; Hull, George L.J. ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Wierzbicka, Elzbieta ; Ostan, Rita ; Bazzocchi, Alberto ; Battista, Giuseppe ; Caumon, Elodie ; Meunier, Nathalie ; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J. - \ 2018
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 108 (2018)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 633 - 640.
bone - Mediterranean diet - older adults - Osteoporosis - Vitamin D supplementation
Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is widely recommended for the prevention of chronic disease, but evidence for a beneficial effect on bone health is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern [NU-AGE (New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe)] on indexes of inflammation with a number of secondary endpoints, including bone mineral density (BMD) and biomarkers of bone and collagen degradation in a 1-y multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT; NU-AGE) in elderly Europeans. Design: An RCT was undertaken across 5 European centers. Subjects in the intervention group consumed the NU-AGE diet for 1 y by receiving individually tailored dietary advice, coupled with supplies of foods including whole-grain pasta, olive oil, and a vitamin D3 supplement (10 μg/d). Participants in the control group were provided with leaflets on healthy eating available in their country. Results: A total of 1294 participants (mean ± SD age: 70.9 ±4.0 y; 44% male) were recruited to the study and 1142 completed the 1-y trial. The Mediterranean-like dietary pattern had no effect on BMD (site-specific or whole-body); the inclusion of compliance to the intervention in the statistical model did not change the findings. There was also no effect of the intervention on the urinary biomarkers free pyridinoline or free deoxypyridinoline. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly increased and parathyroid hormone decreased (P < 0.001) in the MD compared with the control group. Subgroup analysis of individuals with osteoporosis at baseline (site-specific BMD T-score ≤ -2.5 SDs) showed that the MD attenuated the expected decline in femoral neck BMD (n = 24 and 30 in MD and control groups, respectively; P = 0.04) but had no effect on lumbar spine or whole-body BMD. Conclusions: A 1-y intervention of the Mediterranean-like diet together with vitamin D3 supplements (10 μg/d) had no effect on BMD in the normal age-related range, but it significantly reduced the rate of loss of bone at the femoral neck in individuals with osteoporosis. The NU-AGE trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754012.
The costs of being male: are there sex-specific effects of uniparental mitochondrial inheritance?
Beekman, M. ; Dowling, D.K. ; Aanen, D.K. - \ 2014
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 369 (2014)1646. - ISSN 0962-8436
cytoplasmic male-sterility - dna mutations - life-span - maternal inheritance - unisexual sterility - mussel mytilus - mothers curse - haldanes rule - seed beetle - evolution
Eukaryotic cells typically contain numerous mitochondria, each with multiple copies of their own genome, the mtDNA. Uniparental transmission of mitochondria, usually via the mother, prevents the mixing of mtDNA from different individuals. While on the one hand, this should resolve the potential for selection for fast-replicating mtDNA variants that reduce organismal fitness, maternal inheritance will, in theory, come with another set of problems that are specifically relevant to males. Maternal inheritance implies that the mitochondrial genome is never transmitted through males, and thus selection can target only the mtDNA sequence when carried by females. A consequence is that mtDNA mutations that confer male-biased phenotypic expression will be prone to evade selection, and accumulate. Here, we review the evidence from the ecological, evolutionary and medical literature for male specificity of mtDNA mutations affecting fertility, health and ageing. While such effects have been discovered experimentally in the laboratory, their relevance to natural populations—including the human population—remains unclear. We suggest that the existence of male expression-biased mtDNA mutations is likely to be a broad phenomenon, but that these mutations remain cryptic owing to the presence of counter-adapted nuclear compensatory modifier mutations, which offset their deleterious effects
Confirmatory analysis of malachite green, Leucomalachite green, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet in salmon by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Dowling, A.P.G. ; Mulder, P.P.J. ; Duffy, C. ; Regan, L. ; Smyth, M.R. - \ 2007
Analytica Chimica Acta 586 (2007)1-2. - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 411 - 419.
pressure chemical-ionization - catfish ictalurus-punctatus - gentian-violet - rainbow-trout - triphenylmethane dyes - oncorhynchus-mykiss - leuco metabolites - visible detection - cell-lines - tissue
A method has been developed to analyse for malachite green (MG), leucornalachite green (LMG), crystal violet (CV) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) residues in salmon. Salmon samples were extracted with acetonitrile:Mclllvain pH 3 buffer (90: 10 v/v), sample extracts were purified on a Bakerbond strong cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge. Aliquots of the extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS. The method was validated in salmon, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The decision limit (CC alpha) was 0.17, 0.15, 0.35 and 0.17 mu g kg(-1), respectively, for MG, LMG, CV and LCV and for the detection capability (CCO) values of 0.30, 0.35, 0.80 and 0.32 mu g ka(-1), respectively, were obtained. Fortifying salmon samples (n = 6) in three separate assays, show the accuracy to be between 77 and 113% for MG, LMG, LCV and CV. The precision of the method, expressed as RSD values for the within-laboratory reproducibility, for MG, LMG and LCV at the three levels of fortification (1, 1.5 and 2.0 mu g kg(-1)), was less than 13%. For CV a more variable precision was obtained, with RSD values ranging between 20 and 25%. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ending a decade of deception: a valiant failure, a not-so-valiant failure, and a success story
Brooks, D.R. ; Dowling, A.P.G. ; Veller, M.G.P. van; Hoberg, E.P. - \ 2004
Cladistics-The International Journal of the Willi Hennig Society 20 (2004)1. - ISSN 0748-3007 - p. 32 - 46.
brooks parsimony analysis - host-parasite coevolution - a-posteriori methods - historical biogeography - vicariance biogeography - cladistic biogeography - phylogenetic biogeography - associations - assumptions - speciation
Prior studies involving two methods, Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA) and TreeMap, have found BPA to be the more reliable method. Recent criticisms leveled at these studies argue that the tests were unfairly created and biased in favor of BPA. The authors of a recent critique offered new exemplars to demonstrate flaws in BPA, plus a simple fix to correct the flaws found in TreeMap. A re-evaluation of their exemplars clearly shows that the authors' calculations are incorrect, their understanding of the methods is lacking, and that their simple fix does not work. Additional analyses using TreeMap 2.02 are run to show that TreeMap 2.02, like TreeMap 1.0, cannot adequately deal with widespread parasites, contrary to the claims of its supporters. Furthermore, the exemplars corroborate previous findings that BPA, when calculated correctly, is more reliable than TreeMap1.0 and TreeMap 2.02 and therefore the method of choice in coevolutionary and biogeographic studies
A priori and a posteriori methods in comparative evolutionary studies of host-parasite associations
Dowling, A.P.G. ; Veller, M.G.P. van; Hoberg, E.P. ; Brooks, D.R. - \ 2003
Cladistics-The International Journal of the Willi Hennig Society 19 (2003). - ISSN 0748-3007 - p. 240 - 253.
historical biogeography - vicariance biogeography - cladistic biogeography - parsimony analysis - area cladograms - phylogenetic systematics - component analysis - coevolution - speciation - statements
Brooks parsimony analysis (BPA) and reconciliation methods in studies of host-parasite associations differ fundamentally, despite using the same null hypothesis. Reconciliation methods may eliminate or modify input data to maximize fit of single parasite clades to a null hypothesis of cospeciation, by invoking different a priori assumptions, including a known host phylogeny. By examining the degree of phylogenetic congruence among multiple parasite clades, using hosts as analogs of taxa but not presuming a host phylogeny or any degree of cospeciation a priori, BPA modifies the null hypothesis of cospeciation if necessary to maintain the integrity of the input data. Two exemplars illustrate critical empirical differences between reconciliation methods and BPA: (1) reconciliation methods rather than BPA may select the incorrect general host cladogram for a set of data from different clades of parasites, (2) BPA rather than reconciliation methods provides the most parsimonious interpretation of all available data, and (3) secondary BPA, proposed in 1990, when applied to data sets in which host-switching produces hosts with reticulate histories, provides the most parsimonious and biologically realistic interpretations of general host cladograms. The extent to which these general host cladograms, based on cospeciation among different parasite clades inhabiting the same hosts, correspond to host phylogeny can be tested, a posteriori, by comparison with a host phylogeny generated from nonparasite data. These observations lead to the conclusion that BPA and reconciliation methods are designed to implement different research programs based on different epistemologies. BPA is an a posteriori method that is designed to assess the host context of parasite speciation events, whereas reconciliation methods are a priori methods that are designed to fit parasite phylogenies to a host phylogeny. Host-switching events are essential for explaining complex histories of host-parasite associations. BPA assumes coevolutionary complexity (historical contingency), relying on parsimony as an a posteriori explanatory tool to summarize complex results, whereas reconciliation methods, which embody formalized assumptions of maximum cospeciation, are based on a priori conceptual parsimony. Modifications of basic reconciliation methods, embodied in TreeMap 1.0 and TreeMap 2.02, represent the addition of weighting schemes in which the researcher specifies allowed departures from cospeciation a priori, with the result that TreeMap results more closely agree with BPA results than do reconciled tree analysis results. (C) 2003 The Willi Hennig Society. Published by Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
|American Thoracic Society: respiratory health hazards in agriculture.
Schenker, M.B. ; Christiani, D. ; Cormier, Y. ; Dimich-Ward, H. ; Doekes, G. ; Dosman, J. ; Douwes, J. ; Dowling, K. ; Enarson, D. ; Green, F. ; Heederik, D. ; Husman, K. - \ 1998
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 158 (1998). - ISSN 1073-449X - p. S1 - S76.
|Securing the future of intensive rice systems: a knowledge intensive approach.
Price, L.L. ; Balasubramanian, V. - \ 1998
In: Sustainability of rice in the global food system / Dowling, N.G., Greenfield, S.M., Fischer, K.S.,