Pay to walk away: Prevention buyers prefer to avoid negotiation
Shalvi, S. ; Reijseger, G. ; Handgraaf, M.J.J. ; Appelt, K.C. ; Velden, F.S. ten; Giacomantonio, M. ; Dreu, C.K.W. de - \ 2013
Journal of Economic Psychology 38 (2013). - ISSN 0167-4870 - p. 40 - 49.
regulatory focus - integrative negotiation - aversive competition - expected feedback - bargaining table - promotion pride - decision-making - stepping back - regret - consequences
In bargaining, buyers aim to spend as little money as they can on the items they seek to purchase. Compared to promotion-oriented people, prevention-oriented people seek to avoid losses rather than to secure gains. Employing different negotiation scenarios, three lab experiments tested the prediction that prevention-oriented buyers would thus display higher negotiation aversion than promotion-oriented buyers. Results showed that prevention-oriented people in the role of a potential buyer were willing to accept lower monetary compensation to refrain from entering the negotiation and were more likely to exit the negotiation when such an opportunity was presented to them. We discuss these findings and their contribution to our understanding of how regulatory focus influences consumers’ economic decisions.
Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members
Dreu, C.K.W. de; Shalvi, S. ; Greer, L.L. ; Kleef, G.A. van; Handgraaf, M.J.J. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)11. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 7 p.
intranasal oxytocin - parochial altruism - social behaviors - neural circuitry - humans - vasopressin - increases - trust - war - eusociality
Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual’s motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i) immediate self-interest, (ii) vulnerable in-group members, or (iii) both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled) and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that noncooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability), and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability). When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake.
The danger of unrealistic optimism - linking cargivers' perceived ability to help victims of terror with their own secondary trauma
Shalvi, S. ; Shenkman, G. ; Handgraaf, M.J.J. ; Dreu, C.K.W. De - \ 2011
Journal of Applied Social Psychology 41 (2011)11. - ISSN 0021-9029 - p. 2656 - 2672.
positive illusions - mental-health - self - depression - perspective - prevalence - relevant - behavior - workers - future
This study examined how caregivers' biased perceptions of ability to help traumatized patients relates to the caregivers' secondary traumatic stress (STS). There is reason to believe that caregivers overestimate their ability to help and underestimate their vulnerability to develop STS, but it is unclear how such unrealistic optimism relates to STS. The results show that Israeli caregivers working with terror victims believed that their ability to help traumatic patients is superior to their peers' while their likelihood to be negatively affected by such treatment is lower. Beyond the impact of the number of patients treated and caregivers' experience, unrealistic optimism was positively correlated to caregivers' STS. Theoretical and practical implications for those working with traumatized patients are discussed. In a world filled with conflict and terror, an increasing number of individuals are traumatized and both seek and need help to cope with their gruesome experiences. Unfortunately, the impact of a traumatic experience goes beyond those who experience it themselves. Helping traumatic patients bear their pain and reconstruct their shattered reality comes at considerable costs for treating caregivers. Caregivers working with traumatized patients often experience compassion fatigue or, more generally, secondary traumatic stress (STS). STS is manifested in symptoms similar to those of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) including fear, difficulty sleeping, recurringimages of traumatic experience, and cognitive and behavioral avoidance of trauma reminders (Boscarino, Figley, & Adams, 2004; Figley, 1995). Listening to the stories of traumatized patients, helping them bear their pain, and attempting to reconstruct their shattered reality extracts a personal price from caregivers (Pearlman & Saakvitne, 1995). The transfer of trauma from victims to their immediate social environment creates what Basham (2008) referred to as a new front, calling for special awareness to these exposed groups. Therapists working with survivors of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center attack (Boscarino et al., 2004; Creamer & Liddle, 2005; Eidelson, D'Alessio, & Eidelson, 2003), as well as the 1995 Oklahoma City Federal Building bombing (Wee & Myers, 2002) suffered from high levels of STS. High STS levels were also found among social workers working in Israeli hospitals sharing the patients' war reality (Lev-Wiesel, Goldblatt, Eizikovits, & Admi, 2008). In recent years, awareness of the impact of trauma treatment on caregivers is growing rapidly. Social workers engaged in direct practice with traumatic patients of domestic and politically related violence have experienced symptoms of STS (Bride, 2007). Caregivers who tend not to work thoroughly through the traumatic events with their patients and advocate that perspective have been found to demonstrate high STS levels (Deighton, Gurris, & Traue, 2007). Among the situational characteristics that (negatively) correlate with lay trauma counselors' STS are the level of their program coordination, perceived social support, and the program director's commitment. On the chronic personality level, self-efficacy and sense of coherence have been negatively correlated with STS levels (Ortlepp & Friedman, 2002). Exploring factors that correlate with STS manifestation is of high importance, as it may contribute to mapping potential STS risk factors. The current study focuses on one prominent factor: the extent to which the caregiver's perceived ability to help is accurate or, instead, is biased in an optimistic, self-serving manner. As far as we know, ours is the first study to look directly at this relationship between unrealistic optimism and STS. It addresses questions such as the following: Do caregivers who treat traumatized patients perceive their ability to help patients recover as superior to the ability of peers with similar experience? Do they feel less vulnerable than their peers to suffering from the negative consequences of trauma treatment? Are these biased perceptions associated with lower levels of STS, as positive illusions theories might suggest? Or are these biased perceptions associated with higher levels of STS, as suggested by theories considering the individual as a naïve scientist? To answer these and related questions, we used a cross-sectional design to survey Israeli caregivers working with traumatized victims of war and terror. These caregivers are typically called to hospitals in a mass-casualty event to provide psychological first aid (Gagin, Cohen, & Peled-Avram, 2005). Many of these caregivers work with multiple helping systems (e.g., social security, welfare) simultaneously (Woodrow & Ginsberg, 1997), and face difficulties creating a sense of safe environment for their patients (Shalvi & Luzzatto, 2006). Thus, apart from a theoretical contribution concerning the relationship between unrealistic optimism and STS, the current study also highlights practical implications for a particularly important and vulnerable group of caregivers.
|Fundamentele sociale psychologie, deel 12.
Knippenberg, D. van; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Martijn, C. ; Rutte, C. - \ 1998
Tilburg : Tilburg University Press
Studies on extraction of pectins from citrus peels, apple marks and sugar-beet pulps with arabinanase and galactanase.
Thibault, J.F. ; Dreu, R. de; Geraeds, C.C.J.M. ; Rombouts, F.M. - \ 1988
Carbohydrate Polymers 9 (1988). - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 119 - 131.
|Ecology of controlled soyabean acidification for tempeh manufacture.
Nout, M.J.R. ; Dreu, M.A. de; Zuurbier, A.M. ; Bonants-van Laarhoven, T.M.G. - \ 1987
Food Microbiology 4 (1987). - ISSN 0740-0020 - p. 165 - 172.
|Influence of some process variables and storage conditions on the quality and shelf-life of soybean tempeh
Nout, M.J.R. ; Bonants-van Laarhoven, T.M.G. ; Dreu, J. de; Gerats, I.A.G.M. - \ 1985
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek: : Nederlandsch tijdschrift voor hygiëne, microbiologie en serologie 51 (1985). - ISSN 0003-6072 - p. 532 - 534.
Studies on the multiplication of Salmonellae in various enrichment media at different incubation temperatures
Schothorst, M. van; Leusden, F.M. van; Jeunink, J. ; Dreu, J. de - \ 1977
journal of applied bacteriology 42 (1977). - ISSN 0021-8847 - p. 157 - 163.