Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    A new look at soil phenoforms – Definition, identification, mapping
    Rossiter, David ; Bouma, J. - \ 2018
    Geoderma 314 (2018). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 113 - 121.
    The soil genoform vs. soil phenoform distinction was suggested twenty years ago by Droogers and Bouma to recognize management-induced differences among pedons with the same long-term pedogenesis and included in the same soil map unit, these changes being sufficient to cause important and persistent differences in soil functions. To support the recent increased interest in soil change and soil health, we propose conceptual and operational definitions of soil genoforms and soil phenoforms, and suggest techniques to identify and map them. We define soil genoforms as soil classes as identified by the soil classification system used as the basis for detailed soil mapping in a given area. This avoids the difficulty of defining when human intervention has been sufficient to create new genoforms – by definition this is when new lowest-level classes are recognized in the classification system, based on diagnostic horizons and properties. We then define soil phenoforms as persistent variants of a genoform with sufficient physical or chemical differences to substantially affect soil functions. Soil phenoforms must be persistent enough that substantial management interventions are necessary to change them, thus seasonal and rotational variants are excluded from the concept. Soil phenoforms can be identified by measurements of indicator soil properties at locations within a soil genoform with different management and investigating if these are different enough to affect soil functions, notably soil hydrology and crop yield. Digital mapping of soil phenoforms will likely use maps of current and historical management as predictors. In areas with intensive or changed management, mapping should be repeated every few years to identify areas of changed soil phenoforms and new genoforms.
    Soil Capability: Exploring the Functional Potentials of Soils
    Bouma, J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Stoorvogel, J.J. ; Batjes, N.H. ; Droogers, P. ; Pulleman, M.M. - \ 2017
    In: Global Soil Security / Field, Damien J., Morgan, Christine L.S., McBratney, Alex B., Springer International Publishing (Progress in Soil Science ) - ISBN 9783319433936 - p. 27 - 44.
    Soil capability index (CPI) - Land evaluation - Soil functions - Potential yield - Water-limited yield
    Capability, a term that has been well defined in welfare economics, can be applied to soil by defining the intrinsic capacity of a soil to contribute to ecosystem services, including biomass production. Seven soil functions are used to define capabilities, and combining different functions in storylines provides integrated expressions for capability considering the different functions. Applied to biomass production in a sustainable production system, potential production (Yp) is defined as a function of radiation, temperature, CO2 and plant physiology. Yp is independent of soil and provides an absolute point of reference. Yw represents water-limited yield, reflecting actual water regimes and assuming that soil fertility is adequate and pests and diseases don’t occur. Ya represents actual yield. A soil capability index (SCI) is defined as SCI = (Ya/Yw) × 100 for a biomass production storyline for rainfed production systems. Some examples are presented. Using simulation modelling, Yp can be simulated for a given climate and Yw can be simulated for a given soil in a probabilistic manner using weather data for 30 years as a form of quantitative land evaluation. Ya can be measured. Not only capability, as such, is important, however, but also the way in which capability can be realized under practical conditions. Then, a management support system is needed to guide a farmer real time through the growing season, also taking into account long-term effects. Capability is defined for a given type of soil (the genoform), but sometimes management has had significant effects on soil properties, requiring a phenoform approach, as is illustrated.
    Green Water Credits – exploring its potential to enhance ecosystem services by reducing soil erosion in the Upper Tana basin, Kenya
    Kauffman, J.H. ; Droogers, P. ; Hunink, J. ; Mwaniki, B. ; Muchena, F. ; Gicheru, P. ; Bindraban, P. ; Onduru, D. ; Cleveringa, R. ; Bouma, J. - \ 2014
    International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 10 (2014)2. - ISSN 2151-3732 - p. 133 - 143.
    Food production, water availability and energy production are important ecosystem services of the Upper Tana basin (Kenya) and they decline due to upstream erosion affecting downstream water users. The effect of 11 soil conservation measures on soil erosion and the three ecosystem services was estimated by a modelling approach to assess agro-ecological processes and benefit/cost relations. Soil water available for evaporation and transpiration (‘green water’) functioned as a unifying concept to express the effects of erosion and the impacts of soil and water conservation measures that result in: (1) increased water availability for crops; (2) increased fluxes towards aquifers, thereby increasing water supply and regulating streamflow, and (3) a reduction of erosion and siltation of reservoirs used for hydroelectricity. Modelling indicated that the three ecosystem services could be improved, as compared with the base level, by up to 20% by introducing appropriate conservation measures with benefit/cost relations of around 7. However, farmers were unable to make the necessary investments and much effort and many institutional studies were needed to achieve progress towards implementation by initiating the Green Water Credits (GWC) programme intended to arrange payments by downstream businesses to upstream farmers. A timeline analysis is presented to illustrate the slow, but persistent, development of transdisciplinary activities as a function of time using connected value development as a guiding principle.
    Economic concepts to address future water supply-demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia
    Hellegers, P.J.G.J. ; Immerzeel, W. ; Droogers, P. - \ 2013
    Journal of Hydrology 502 (2013). - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 62 - 67.
    irrigation water - groundwater - model
    In Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries, renewable groundwater and surface water supply are limited while demand for water is growing rapidly. Climate change is expected to increase water demand even further. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the water supply–demand imbalances in Iran, Morocco and Saudi Arabia in 2040–2050 under dry, average and wet climate change projections and to show on the basis of the marginal cost and marginal value of water the optimum mix of supply-side and demand-side adjustments to address the imbalance. A hydrological model has been used to estimate the water supply–demand imbalance. Water supply and demand curves have been used to explore for which (marginal value of) water usage the marginal cost of supply-enhancement becomes too expensive. The results indicate that in the future in all cases, except in Iran under the wet climate projection, the quantity of water demanded has to be reduced considerably to address the imbalance, which is indeed what is currently happening already
    ACER: developing Adaptive Capacity to Extreme events in the Rhine basin
    Linde, A.H. te; Moors, E.J. ; Droogers, P. ; Bisselink, B. ; Becker, G. ; Maat, H.W. ter; Aerts, J.C.J.H. - \ 2012
    Nieuwegein : Programme Office Climate changes Spatial Planning - ISBN 9789088150395 - 52
    hydrologie van stroomgebieden - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - rijn - scenario-analyse - waterbeheer - nederland - duitsland - frankrijk - catchment hydrology - climatic change - climate adaptation - river rhine - scenario analysis - water management - netherlands - germany - france
    Het algemene doel van het ACER project is om de gevolgen van klimaatverandering en adaptatie strategieën te onderzoeken voor het Rijnstroomgebied, zowel grensoverschrijdend in Duitsland en Frankrijk als voor het regionale waterbeheer in Nederland. ACER gebruikt een scenario analyse om effecten en oplossing te analyseren en vergelijken, onder de veronderstelling van verschillende klimaatverandering en sociaal-economische scenario’s voor 2050. Aan de basis van deze scenario aanpak staat een internationale groep van belanghebbenden en waterbeheerders uit verschillende bestuurslagen in het Rijnstroomgebied. Het is de vraag of de maatregelen die momenteel stroomopwaarts in Duitsland worden uitgevoerd positieve of negatieve effecten op de piekavoeren benedenstrooms hebben
    Quantitative simulation tools to analyze up- and downstream interactions of soil and water conservation measures: Supporting policy making in the Green Water Credits program of Kenya
    Hunink, J.E. ; Droogers, P. ; Kauffman, J.H. ; Mwaniki, B.M. ; Bouma, J. - \ 2012
    Journal of Environmental Management 111 (2012). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 187 - 194.
    land-use change - management-practices - sediment yield - model - swat - runoff - evapotranspiration - catchment - payments - services
    Upstream soil and water conservation measures in catchments can have positive impact both upstream in terms of less erosion and higher crop yields, but also downstream by less sediment flow into reservoirs and increased groundwater recharge. Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes are being developed to encourage upstream farmers to invest in soil and water conservation practices which will positively effect upstream and downstream water availability. Quantitative information on water and sediment fluxes is crucial as a basis for such financial schemes. A pilot design project in the large and strategically important Upper-Tana Basin in Kenya has the objective to develop a methodological framework for this purpose. The essence of the methodology is the integration and use of a collection of public domain tools and datasets: the so-called Green water and Blue water Assessment Toolkit (GBAT). This toolkit was applied in order to study different options to implement GWC in agricultural rainfed land for the pilot study. Impact of vegetative contour strips, mulching, and tied ridges were determined for: (i) three upstream key indicators: soil loss, crop transpiration and soil evaporation, and (ii) two downstream indicators: sediment inflow in reservoirs and groundwater recharge. All effects were compared with a baseline scenario of average conditions. Thus, not only actual land management was considered but also potential benefits of changed land use practices. Results of the simulations indicate that especially applying contour strips or tied ridges significantly reduces soil losses and increases groundwater recharge in the catchment. The model was used to build spatial expressions of the proposed management practices in order to assess their effectiveness. The developed procedure allows exploring the effects of soil conservation measures in a catchment to support the implementation of GWC.
    Green Water Management Options in the Sebou Basin: Analysing the Costs and Benefits using WEAP
    Droogers, P. ; Terink, W. ; Hunink, J.E. ; Kauffman, J.H. ; Lynden, G.W.J. van - \ 2011
    Wageningen : ISRIC - World Soil Information (Green Water Credits Report M2b) - 38 p.
    Options de gestion de l'eau verte dans le bassin du Sebou, Maroc - Analyse avantages-coûts utilisant le modèle WEAP
    Droogers, P. ; Terink, W. ; Hunink, J. ; Kauffman, J.H. ; Lynden, G.W.J. van - \ 2011
    Wageningen : ISRIC - World Soil Information (Green Water Credits Report M2a) - 38 p.
    Impacts of Land Management Options in the Sebou Basin: Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool - SWAT
    Terink, W. ; Hunink, J.E. ; Droogers, P. ; Reuter, H.I. ; Lynden, G.W.J. van; Kauffman, J.H. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : ISRIC - World Soil Information (Green Water Credits Report M1) - 92 p.
    Impacts of Land Management Options in the Upper Tana, Kenya using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool - SWAT
    Hunink, J.E. ; Immerzeel, W.W. ; Droogers, P. ; Kauffman, J.H. ; Lynden, G.W.J. van - \ 2011
    Wageningen : ISRIC - World Soil Information (Green Water Credits Report 10) - 136 p.
    Costs and Benefits of Land Management Options in the Upper Tana, Kenya; Using the Water Evaluation and Planning system - WEAP
    Droogers, P. ; Hunink, J.E. ; Kauffman, J.H. ; Lynden, G.W.J. van - \ 2011
    Wageningen : ISRIC - World Soil Information (Green Water Credits Report 14) - 50 p.
    Hydropedological insights when considering catchment classification
    Bouma, J. ; Droogers, P. ; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Hunink, J.E. ; Immerzeel, W.W. ; Kauffman, S. - \ 2011
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 8 (2011). - ISSN 1812-2108 - p. 2145 - 2173.
    Soil classification systems are analysed in relation to the functioning and characterisation of catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to soils elsewhere with identical classifications. However, such classifications are based on permanent characteristics as formed by the soil forming factors over often very long periods of time and this does not necessarily match with characteristics and parameters needed for functional soil characterization focusing, for example, on catchment hydrology. Hydropedology has made contributions towards functional characterization of soils as is illustrated for recent hydrological catchment studies. However, much still needs to be learned about the physical behaviour of anisotropic, heterogeneous field soils with varying soil structures during the year and the suggestion is made to first focus on improving simulation of catchment hydrology, incorporating hydropedological expertise, before embarking on a classification effort which involves major input of time and involves the risk of distraction. In doing so, we advise to also define other characteristics for catchment performance than the traditionally measured discharge rates.
    Hydropedological insights when considering catchment classification
    Bouma, J. ; Droogers, P. ; Sonneveld, M.P.W. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Hunink, J.E. ; Immerzeel, W.W. ; Kauffman, S. - \ 2011
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15 (2011). - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 1909 - 1919.
    simulate preferential flow - repellent porous-media - remotely-sensed data - land-use history - sandy soil - modeling approach - water repellency - loess plateau - clay soil - infiltration
    Soil classification systems are analysed to explore the potential of developing classification systems for catchments. Soil classifications are useful to create systematic order in the overwhelming quantity of different soils in the world and to extrapolate data available for a given soil type to soils elsewhere with identical classifications. This principle also applies to catchments. However, to be useful, soil classifications have to be based on permanent characteristics as formed by the soil forming factors over often very long periods of time. When defining permanent catchment characteristics, discharge data would therefore appear to be less suitable. But permanent soil characteristics do not necessarily match with characteristics and parameters needed for functional soil characterization focusing, for example, on catchment hydrology. Hydropedology has made contributions towards the required functional characterization of soils as is illustrated for three recent hydrological catchment studies. However, much still needs to be learned about the physical behaviour of anisotropic, heterogeneous soils with varying soil structures during the year and about spatial and temporal variability. The suggestion is made therefore to first focus on improving simulation of catchment hydrology, possibly incorporating hydropedological expertise, before embarking on a catchment classification effort which involves major input of time and involves the risk of distraction. In doing so, we suggest to also define other characteristics for catchment performance than the traditionally measured discharge rates. Such characteristics may well be derived from societal issues being studied, as is illustrated for the Green Water Credits program.
    Green Water Credits for the Upper Tana Basin, Kenya. Phase II - Pilot Operations: Biophysical assessment using SWAT
    Hunink, J.E. ; Immerzeel, W.W. ; Droogers, P. ; Kauffman, S. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : ISRIC - World Soil Information (Green Water Credits Report 10 / ISRIC Report 2010/04 )
    Introduction
    Ludwig, F. ; Kabat, P. ; Schaik, H. van; Valk, M. van der; Droogers, P. - \ 2009
    In: Climate Change Adaptation in the Water Sector / Ludwig, F., Kabat, P., van Schaik, H., van der Valk, M., London : Earthscan - ISBN 9781844076529 - 304 p.
    Modelling climate change in a Dutch polder system using the FutureViewR modelling suite
    Immerzeel, W.W. ; Heerwaarden, C.C. van; Droogers, P. - \ 2009
    Computers and Geosciences 35 (2009)3. - ISSN 0098-3004 - p. 446 - 458.
    klimaatverandering - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - modellen - polders - land van maas en waal - gelderland - climatic change - catchment hydrology - models - polders - land van maas en waal - gelderland - state - zone - soil - art
    This paper describes the development of a hydrological modelling suite, FutureViewR, which enables spatial quantification of the complex interaction between climate change, land use and soil in the Quarles van Ufford (QvU) polder entangled in and under influence of the Dutch river delta. The soil¿water¿atmosphere¿plant (SWAP) model is used in a grid-based mode. A river module was developed to take into account seepage and percolation in the polder as an effect of the interaction with the main rivers. A simple surface water model was linked to the grid-based SWAP models. The model suite is managed from a Visual Basic (VB) interface which links the different modules. The interface uses a mainstream database management system (MS SQLServer), structured query language (SQL) and open database connectivity (ODBC) to store, transfer, manipulate and analyse model inputs and outputs. The functionality of the FutureViewR modeling suite is demonstrated by modeling a climate change scenario for 2050. The preliminary analysis showed that it is likely that the dryer summers in combination with low water levels in the Rhine and Meuse will yield a decrease in agricultural production. The wetter winters do not necessarily result in an increase in discharge, since the initial soil moisture storage at the winter onset is lower due to the dryer summers. It is concluded that the effects of climate change on polder hydrology is more intense caused by the dependence on local climate conditions and water levels on the Rhine and Meuse rivers, which are mutually reinforcing
    Quantifying the impact of model inaccuracy in climate change impact assessment studies using an agro-hydrological model
    Droogers, P. ; Loon, A.F. van; Immerzeel, W.W. - \ 2008
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 12 (2008)2. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 669 - 678.
    klimaatverandering - agrohydrologie - bodemwater - ecohydrologie - modellen - climatic change - agrohydrology - soil water - ecohydrology - models - uncertainty assessment - basin - prediction - parameters - simulation - equation - future - soils
    Numerical simulation models are frequently applied to assess the impact of climate change on hydrology and agriculture. A common hypothesis is that unavoidable model errors are reflected in the reference situation as well as in the climate change situation so that by comparing reference to scenario model errors will level out. For a polder in The Netherlands an innovative procedure has been introduced, referred to as the Model-Scenario-Ratio (MSR), to express model inaccuracy on climate change impact assessment studies based on simulation models comparing a reference situation to a climate change situation. The SWAP (Soil Water Atmosphere Plant) model was used for the case study and the reference situation was compared to two climate change scenarios. MSR values close to 1, indicating that impact assessment is mainly a function of the scenario itself rather than of the quality of the model, were found for most indicators evaluated. A climate change scenario with enhanced drought conditions and indicators based on threshold values showed lower MSR values, indicating that model accuracy is an important component of the climate change impact assessment. It was concluded that the MSR approach can be applied easily and will lead to more robust impact assessment analyses.
    Aandacht voor veiligheid
    Aerts, J. ; Sprong, T. ; Bannink, B. ; Bessembinder, J. ; Koomen, E. ; Jacobs, Ch ; Hoeven, N. van der; Huitema, D. ; Klooster, S. van 't; Veraart, J.A. ; Walraven, A. ; Jonkman, S.N. ; Maaskant, B. ; Bouwer, L.M. ; Bruijn, K. de; Oosterveld, E. ; Schuurman, H. ; Peters, K. ; Ottevanger, W. ; Immerzeel, W. ; Droogers, P. ; Kwadijk, J. ; Kind, J. ; Voogt, L. ; Klis, H. van der; Dellink, R. ; Affolter, F. ; Bubeck, Ph. ; Meulen, M. van der; Lange, G. de; Bregman, B. ; Brink, H. van den; Buiteveld, H. ; Drijfhout, S. ; Feijt, A. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Katsman, C. ; Kattenberg, A. ; Lenderink, G. ; Meijgaard, E. van; Siegmund, P. ; Wit, M. de; Naples, M. - \ 2008
    rotterdam : AVV (Rapport / Leven met Water 009/2008) - ISBN 9789088150043 - 196
    waterbeheer - klimaatverandering - veiligheid - kustgebieden - inundatie - infrastructuur - beleid - nederland - water management - climatic change - safety - coastal areas - flooding - infrastructure - policy - netherlands
    De komende decennia worden er tussen de 500.000 en 1.500.000 woningen gebouwd waarvan een groot deel in laag Nederland. Deze studie laat zien dat door deze woningen overstromingsbestendig te bouwen schadereductie mogelijk is. Het schaderisico wordt dan nog eens een factor 2 minder als naast een Business as Usual variant nieuwbouwwoningen worden opgehoogd tot +5 m NAP. De kosten van opgehoogde nieuwbouwhuizen zijn hoger en variëren tussen de 0,4 en 1.7 miljard euro/jaar, hetgeen overeenkomt met 0,1-0,5% van het BNP. Dijkversterking levert de hoogste reductie op in het schaderisico bij de gehanteerde scenario’s. Gevolgbeperkende maatregelen in de ruimtelijk ordening als additionele oplossingsrichting zijn echter goed mogelijk als er ook een economische perspectief is bijvoorbeeld door middel van multifunctioneel ruimtegebruik.
    Translating soil science into environmental policy: A case study on implementing the EU soil protection strategy in The Netherlands
    Bouma, J. ; Droogers, P. - \ 2007
    Environmental Science & Policy 10 (2007)5. - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 454 - 463.
    land quality indicators - use history - management - models - world
    The EU Commission has proposed a way forward towards a Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection based on the distinction of seven soil functions and eight threats. A Technical Working Group on Research defined some 200 general priority research areas in the context of the dynamic DPSIR approach considering drivers, pressures, states, impacts and responses. Though quite valuable as a source document, this may be too generic and academic to be a starting point for new, effective soil research in different regions of the EU. A six-step storyline procedure is therefore proposed aimed at deriving effective operational procedures for a water management unit in a given region, using available soil expertise and defining new research only where needed. The procedure, that was illustrated for a Dutch case study, consists of defining: (i) water management units (wmu's) in a landscape context; (ii) land-use, area hydrology and soil functions (iii) soil threats and relevant soil qualities; (iv) drivers of land-use change and their future impact; (v) improvement of relevant soil qualities; (vi) possibilities to institutionalize soil quality improvement as part of the EU soil protection strategy. A focus on regional wmu's is likely to result in a strong commitment of local stakeholders and governmental officials, allowing a more specific DPSIR approach. But this will only work if local officials also receive legal powers to develop and enforce codified `good practices¿, to be developed in the context of communities of practice. Innovative research topics can be derived from a combined analysis of experiences within different communities of practice in different wmu's and should not be left to researchers to define.
    Water use and demand in the Tana Basin: analysis using the Water Evaluation and Planning tool (WEAP)
    Hoff, H. ; Noel, S. ; Droogers, P. ; Dent, D.L. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : ISRIC - World Soil Information (Green Water Credits Report 4) - 38 p.
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