Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Bodem - Kringlooplandbouw
    Visser, Saskia ; Balen, Derk van; Balen, Derk van; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2020
    circular agriculture - soil management - soil organic matter - soil compaction - plant protection - soil water balance - nutrient management - arable farming - livestock farming
    Toetsing van Kritische Prestatie Indicatoren voor biodiversiteit op melkveebedrijven
    Eekeren, Nick van; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Bestman, Monique ; Blokland, Pieter Willem ; Polman, Nico ; Zijlstra, Jelle - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Rapport / Wageningen Economic Research 2020-107) - ISBN 9789463950671 - 62
    The ambition of the Sustainable Dairy Chain (DZK) is to map out and promote biodiversity on all dairy farms in the Netherlands by means of the ‘Biodiversity Monitor’. This report describes the results of an assessment of the selected Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) against biodiversity measurements on dairy farms. The percentage of grassland and the percentage of permanent grassland can be used as KPI for biodiversity at farm level. The KPI’s nitrogen soil surplus per ha and percentage of feed protein from own farms are related to a number of biodiversity measurements. Depending on the biodiversity target, these KPIs can be used to a greater or lesser extent as an indicator of biodiversity on a farm.
    Soil nitrogen supply of peat grasslands estimated by degree days and soil organic matter content
    Pijlman, J. ; Holshof, G. ; Berg, W. van den; Ros, G.H. ; Erisman, J.W. ; Eekeren, N. van - \ 2020
    Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 117 (2020). - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 351 - 365.
    Fertilisation - Histosols - Mineralisation - Nitrogen efficiency - pH - Weather

    Accurate estimates of the quantity and rate of soil nitrogen supply (SNS) are essential to increase soil and farm N use efficiencies, in particular for soils high in organic matter. The objective of this work was to enhance the empirical understanding of the SNS of dairy grasslands on peat soils, using soil properties and weather variables. Data were collected from studies on herbage N uptake carried out between 1992 and 2017 in the western peat district of the Netherlands. For the period between March to mid October, SNS was estimated from the sum of mean growing season daily temperatures, soil organic matter (SOM) and applied calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) N with a residual standard error of 25–27 kg ha−1. Each °C growing season temperature sum affected SNS by 78–90 g ha−1 and each g SOM per 100 g dry soil affected SNS by 3.6–3.9 kg ha−1, respectively. SNS was equally estimated for conditions with and without CAN fertilisation. Validation with data from independent field trials showed similar impacts of SOM and growing season temperature sum on SNS. The error of prediction of the presented models, however, was still too large for direct on-farm application and led to underestimations for a specific site. Nevertheless, the obtained models allow for an increased understanding of soil and farm N balances. The models can therefore be used for improved temporal and spatial SNS-adapted farming practice advice, which can potentially lead to reduced soil and farm N surpluses.

    Sward lifting in compacted grassland : Contrasting effects on two different soils
    Boer, H.C. De; Deru, J.G.C. ; Eekeren, N. Van - \ 2020
    Soil & Tillage Research 201 (2020). - ISSN 0167-1987
    Alleviation - Maintenance - Permanent grassland - Soil compaction - Sward lifting

    Soil compaction can affect the productivity of permanent grassland. The effectiveness of methods to alleviate compaction depends on compaction level and soil type. We applied sward lifting in compacted grassland on a sandy loam and a heavy clay soil and measured effects on soil characteristics, grass roots, and grass productivity for a period of up to 32 months. Our results show that sward lifting improved soil structure in the heavily compacted sandy loam for at least 31 months. This led to an improvement in water drainage; sward-lifted plots dried up an estimated 10 days earlier than control plots in spring 2017. A likely earlier start of root growth resulted in a higher grass herbage yield (+12% to +22%) and nitrogen (N) uptake (+13% to +22%) in three first growth periods but in only relatively small gains over the entire experimental period (+4% and +8%, respectively). The higher herbage N uptake on sward-lifted plots over the experimental period (+76 kg N ha−1) was offset by a small N loss (−67 kg N ha−1) from the 0–30 cm soil layer. On the heavy clay, sward lifting also improved soil structure and rooting, but effects were smaller and shorter-lived, and herbage yield and N uptake tended to be lower over the entire experimental period (−6% and −5%, respectively). Here, the lower N uptake on sward-lifted plots over the experimental period (−43 kg N ha−1) was accompanied by a large soil N loss (−613 kg N ha−1). Based on all results, we conclude that sward lifting has limited attractiveness to alleviate compaction in water-retaining sandy soils when average penetration resistance in the topsoil is below 2.8 MPa. Sward lifting should be avoided on smectic clay soils altogether, as these soils have a high natural restoration capacity and sward lifting has more negative than positive effects.

    De biodiversiteitsmonitor voor beloning van boeren voor biodiversiteitsverbetering
    Doorn, A.M. van; Melman, T.C.P. ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2020
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 17 (2020)164. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 34 - 36.
    nature-inclusive agriculture - biodiversity - biodiversity assessment - dairy farming
    Een van de oplossingsrichtingen voor herstel van biodiversiteit op het boerenland is het belonen van bijdragen van boeren aan biodiversiteit. De Biodiversiteitsmonitor Melkveehouderij kan daarvoor een belangrijk instrument zijn, ook omdat het een centrale rol speelt in het Deltaplan biodiversiteitsherstel. De biodiversiteitsmonitor maakt de prestaties van boeren voor biodiversiteit inzichtelijk aan de hand van zeven kritische prestatie indicatoren (KPI’s). De indicatoren sturen integraal naar biodiversiteitsverbetering en kunnen mogelijk gebruikt worden om boeren te belonen voor hun prestaties. Maar bij welke waarden van de KPI’s is sprake van herstel van biodiversiteit? En bij welke waarden kunnen we spreken over een ecologisch optimum? Het Wereld Natuurfonds en Rabobank vroegen Wageningen Environmental Research en het Louis Bolk Instituut om drempel- en streefwaarden te bepalen voor de KPI’s.
    Productivity and topsoil quality of young and old permanent grassland : An on-farm comparison
    Iepema, Goaitske ; Deru, Joachim G.C. ; Bloem, Jaap ; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Goede, Ron de; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)7. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Grassland productivity - Grassland renewal - Nitrogen - Production system - Soil functions - Soil organic matter - Sustainable land-use

    Renewing agricultural grasslands for improved yields and forage quality generally involves eliminating standing vegetation with herbicides, ploughing and reseeding. However, grassland renewal may negatively affect soil quality and related ecosystem services. On clay soil in the north of the Netherlands, we measured grass productivity and soil chemical parameters of 'young' (5-15 years since last grassland renewal) and 'old' (>20 years since last grassland renewal) permanent grasslands, located as pairs at 10 different dairy farms. We found no significant difference with old permanent grassland in herbage dry matter yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) response, whereas herbage N yield was lower in young permanent grassland. Moreover, the young grassland soil contained less soil organic matter (SOM), soil organic carbon (C) and soil organic N compared to the old grassland soil. Grass productivity was positively correlated with SOM and related parameters such as soil organic C, soil organic N and potentially mineralizable N. We conclude that on clay soils with 70% desirable grasses (i.e., Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense) or more, the presumed yield benefit of grassland renewal is offset by a loss of soil quality (SOM and N-total). The current practice of renewing grassland after 10 years without considering the botanical composition, is counter-productive and not sustainable.

    Do grazing systems and species composition affect root biomass and soil organic matter dynamics in temperate grassland swards?
    Hoogsteen, Martine J.J. ; Bakker, Evert Jan ; Eekeren, Nick van; Tittonell, Pablo A. ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Ittersum, Martin K. van; Lantinga, Egbert A. - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)3. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Carbon sequestration - Grassland species - Land-use change - Sampling depth

    Elevating soil organic matter (SOM) levels through changes in grassland management may contribute to lower greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and mitigate climate change. SOM dynamics of grassland soils may be affected by grazing systems and plant species composition. We analyzed the effects of simulated grazing systems (continuous (CG), rotational (RG), and lenient strip grazing (LG) and species composition (monocultures of perennial ryegrass fertilized (LP+) and unfertilized (LP), tall fescue (fertilized, FA+), and a mixture of these two species with white clover (fertilized, LFT+) on root biomass and SOM dynamics in field experiments on loamy and sandy soils in the Netherlands. Dried cattle manure was added to all fertilized treatments. We hypothesized that SOM accumulation would be highest under CG and LG, and FA+ and LFT+ as a consequence of greater belowground biomass production. SOM was monitored after conversion from arable land for a period of two years (loamy and sandy soil) and five years (sandy soil). We found that management practices to increase SOM storage were strongly influenced by sampling depth and length of the grassland period. SOM increased significantly in nearly all fertilized treatments in the 0-60 cm layer. No differences between species compositions were found. However, when only the 30-60 cm soil layer was considered, significantly higher SOM increases were found under FA+, which is consistent with its greater root biomass than the other species. SOM increases tended to be higher under LG than RG. The results of this study suggest that it seems possible to comply with the 4-thousandth initiative during a period of five years with fertilized perennial ryegrass or tall fescue in monoculture after conversion from arable land. It remains to be investigated to which extent this sequestration of carbon can be maintained after converting grassland back to arable land.

    The effect of grazing system and level of concentrate protein feeding on milk production and N use efficiency of dairy cows on peat meadows
    Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Holshof, Gertjan ; Zom, Ronald ; Philipsen, Bert ; Schils, René ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2020
    Sustainability 12 (2020)3. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Fat and protein corrected milk yield - FPCM - Kurzrasen - Milk urea - Strip-grazing

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of two contrasting grazing systems, strip-grazing and kurzrasen, at a high stocking rate on herbage intake and milk production and quality on a peat meadow. Additionally, we assessed the effect of the level of crude protein (CP) fed in concentrate on milk production and N use efficiency. Even at the relatively high stocking rates, cows still achieved substantial fresh grass intake (on average >6 kg dry matter cow-1 day-1) from both systems. Despite the lower level of gross grass production under kurzrasen management, the difference in milk production between kurzrasen and strip-grazing was small and non-significant. Feeding concentrate with a lower CP level, had no negative impact on milk yield, provided that the CP content of the total ration remained above ~150 g kg-1 DM and milk urea content was above ~18 mg 100 g-1 milk. Reducing the CP content in the concentrate significantly increased the N use efficiency, and both were strongly related to the milk urea content. Therefore, optimising the use of milk urea as a management tool on dairy farms, also during the grazing season, could reduce N losses to the environment, while maintaining productivity.

    Can the presence of plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) improve nitrogen cycling of dairy grassland systems on peat soils?
    Pijlman, Jeroen ; Berger, Stijn J. ; Lexmond, Fay ; Bloem, Jaap ; Groenigen, Jan Willem van; Visser, Eric J.W. ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2020
    New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 63 (2020)1. - ISSN 0028-8233 - p. 102 - 122.
    grassland - nitrification - nitrogen - nitrous oxide - peat - Plantain

    Reactive nitrogen (N) losses, and in particular nitrous oxide losses, from dairy grasslands on peat soils are generally high as a result of relative high soil organic matter contents, potential N mineralisation rates and shallow groundwater levels. Effects of the inclusion of the temperate forage species plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) (PL), which produces secondary compounds with biological nitrification inhibition capacity, on the fate of soil mineral N were studied in a combined mesocosm and field experiment. The experiments comprised four treatments differing in intentional herbage share of plantain versus perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) (100%PL, 66%PL, 33%PL and 0%PL). Potential nitrification in the mesocosm experiment was significantly lower at 100%PL versus 0%PL (p = 0.018), but soil nitrate concentrations were not. Nitrous oxide fluxes reduced by 39% (p = 0.021) in the presence of plantain in the field experiment, without an obvious link to the quantity of plantain. N use efficiency of plantain tended to increase with the quantity of plantain in the sward in the mesocosm experiment (p = 0.098), but not in the field experiment. Our results suggest that the presence of plantain can affect the fate of soil mineral N of dairy grasslands on peat soils.

    Drempel-en streefwaarden voor de KPI’s van de Biodiversiteitsmonitor melkveehouderij : Normeren vanuit de ecologie
    Doorn, Anne van; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Melman, Dick ; Eekeren, Nick van; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Visser, Tim ; Blanken, Harm - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2968) - ISBN 9789463951883 - 75
    Memo: Invulling Kruidenrijk grasland : Definitie, randvoorwaarden en borging
    Eekeren, N. van; Visser, T. - \ 2019
    Bunnik : Louis Bolk Instituut (Publicatie Louis Bolk Instituut 2019-018) - 38
    Doelwaarden op bedrijfsniveau voor de KPI’s binnen de Biodiversiteitsmonitor Melkveehouderij
    Zijlstra, J. ; Timmerman, M. ; Reijs, J. ; Plomp, M. ; Haan, M. de; Sebek, L. ; Eekeren, N. van - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1151) - 101
    The aim of this study was to convert the DZK sector goals - for the themes covered by the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) within the biodiversity monitor for dairy farms - into target values at farm level. Within the study, criteria were first identified and selected to determine whether generic target values can be applied for all farms or whether target values should be aligned with farm-specific characteristics. These criteria were applied to the KPIs involved. As a result, for 2 KPIs (share of protein from own farm and share of permanent grassland) it is recommended to apply generic target values. For the other three KPIs (CO2-eq emission per kg of fat and protein corrected milk, nitrogen soil surplus per ha and ammonia emission per ha) it is recommended to work with farm-specific target values that depend on farm characteristics.
    The effect of Kurzrasen and strip-grazing on grassland performance and soil quality of a Peat Meadow
    Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Holshof, Gertjan ; Schils, René ; Philipsen, Bert ; Reenen, Kees van; Houwelingen, Karel van; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2019
    Sustainability 11 (2019)22. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Grazing systems - Load bearing capacity - Nutritional value - Root density - Swards

    Due to the increased herd size in the Netherlands, there is need to assess the performance of different grazing systems at high stocking densities. The objective of the current experiment was to assess the effect of two extreme grazing systems, kurzrasen (continuous grazing at 3-5 cm sward height) and strip-grazing at a high stocking rate, on grass production and quality, grass morphology and sward density, root development and load bearing capacity on peat soil. To this end, a two-year grazing trial with four herds of 15 cows on 2 ha each was conducted. Kurzrasen showed 18% lower herbage dry matter production on average compared to strip-grazing. The yield penalty of using a shorter regrowth period under kurzrasen was limited due to the strong response in grass morphology, resulting in a dense and lamina-rich sward. There was a small decline in root density at 10 cm soil depth, but no evidence of a lower root density at 20 cm soil depth for kurzrasen compared to strip-grazing. Sward density was higher for kurzrasen compared to strip-grazing, which had a positive impact on load bearing capacity. This is an important feature on peat soils, where load bearing capacity is often limited.

    WP3 Bodem, teelt en plantbodem-management interacties grasland
    Boer, Herman de; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Schoot, Jan Rinze van der; Janssen, Pedro ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2019
    Weidegang en draagkracht
    Hoekstra, Nienke ; Eekeren, Nick van; Schoot, J.R. van der - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Plant Research,Business unit Open Teelten (Factsheet Ruwvoer & Bodem 5) - 1 p.
    Invloed minerale stikstof uit voorvrucht op slagingskans herinzaai grasklaver
    Janssen, Pedro ; Eekeren, Nick van; Schoot, J.R. van der - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Plant Research,Business unit Open Teelten (Factsheet Ruwvoer & Bodem 10) - 2 p.
    Grasland woelen tegen bodemverdichting
    Boer, H.C. de; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2019
    Wageningen Plant Research,Business unit Open Teelten (Factsheet Ruwvoer & Bodem 8) - 2 p.
    Diepere beworteling grasland voor droogtetolerantie
    Schoot, J.R. van der; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2019
    Wageningen Plant Research,Business unit Open Teelten (Factsheet Ruwvoer & Bodem 6) - 1 p.
    Belang van penwortel van witte klaver voor persistentie
    Janssen, Pedro ; Eekeren, Nick van; Schoot, J.R. van der - \ 2019
    Wageningen Plant Research,Business unit Open Teelten (Factsheet Ruwvoer & Bodem 7) - 2 p.
    Amazing grazing: A public and private partnership to stimulate grazing practices in intensive dairy systems
    Schils, René ; Philipsen, Bert ; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Holshof, Gertjan ; Zom, Ronald ; Hoving, Idse ; Reenen, Kees van; Stienezen, Marcia ; Klootwijk, Cindy ; Werf, Joop van der; Sebek, Léon ; Eekeren, Nick van; Dixhoorn, Ingrid van; Pol-van Dasselaar, Agnes van den - \ 2019
    Sustainability 11 (2019)20. - ISSN 2071-1050
    Agricultural innovation system - Dairy sector - Grassland - Interdisciplinary research - Stakeholders

    In many intensive dairy regions in northwest Europe, a decline in grazing is observed. In the Netherlands, the proportion of dairy cows with access to pasture is declining, as well as the time spent grazing per cow. The decline in grazing is seen as an unwanted trend by many stakeholders and is, thus, under debate amongst dairy farmers, the dairy chain, and society. Therefore, a public-private partnership was initiated to encourage grazing by providing farmers with usable means of improving their grazing systems. The partnership involved stakeholders from the dairy farming community, dairy and feed industry, agrotechnical industries, advisory services, and research. The objective of this partnership was to develop and stimulate technological innovations and management measures that increase fresh grass intake at pasture. The innovation network combined an integrated research approach with farmer working groups and broader stakeholder interactive meetings. The project started with a comprehensive grass intake framework, which was the foundation for exploration of innovations. The framework consisted of six interlinked components: soil, grass growth, grass supply, grass intake, feed supplementation, and cow behavior. In a continuous interactive cycle, strategic choices were made to focus on potentially effective innovations. The use of a public-private partnership to develop usable innovations that encourage grazing practices proven to be a good approach to develop a shared vision among stakeholders. It provided a basis to work together toward innovative practices and to disseminate the outcomes to the foreseen users. The approach succeeded in design concepts for two specific innovations, i.e., weekly grass growth predictions and daily fresh grass intake tracking. We demonstrated that meaningful grazing and fresh grass intake are possible in intensive dairy systems with high stocking rates and high levels of supplementary feeding.

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