Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Data from: Landscape context and farm uptake limit effects of bird conservation in the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance
Josefsson, Jonas ; Pärt, Tomas ; Berg, Åke ; Lokhorst, A.M. ; Eggers, Sönke - \ 2018
agri-environment schemes - collaborative conservation - farmland birds - landscape composition - unsibsidised conservation - farmers - organic farming - biodiversity - AES - BACI
In Europe, agri-environmental schemes (AES) have been unsuccessful in halting biodiversity declines to any great extent. Two particular shortcomings of AES include the low farm uptake and the modest efficacy of many AES options. Partly in response to these shortcomings, initiatives encouraging farmers to take an active role in biodiversity conservation have gained in popularity. However, almost no evaluations of such initiatives exist. 2. We evaluated uptake of conservation advice on farms in the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance, a BirdLife Sweden-coordinated project aimed at farmland bird conservation, and the response of farmland birds to those actions using farm-level survey data, in a before-after implementation assessment. 3. Uptake was higher for unsubsidised (i.e. non-AES) measures than for AES options, and depended on farmers’ interest in nature, farm size (higher uptake on larger farms) and production type (higher on organic farms). 4. In general, abundances of non-crop nesting and field-nesting bird species declined between inventory years (median interval 3 years). Decreases were more marked in agriculturally marginal regions than in more arable-dominated regions, and declines were stronger on organic than conventional farms. 5. Negative abundance trends among non-crop nesting species were reduced by an increasing number of conservation measures at the farm, but only in the more arable-dominated landscapes. Changes in other non-crop species and in field-nesting species did not significantly relate to implemented measures, but the power to detect such effects was generally small due to the small sample size of high-uptake farms as well as high inter-farm variability. 6. Implications: Our results suggest that Volunteer Farmer Alliances and the addition of unsubsidised measures may be successful in changing the local number of non-crop nesting farmland birds at the farm level, and especially so in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. Thus, unsubsidised measures can be a useful addition to the set of agri-environment tools, although their effects on breeding bird numbers are (as with AES) dependent on landscape context, as well as on ensuring high on-farm uptake of different interventions.
Landscape context and farm uptake limit effects of bird conservation in the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance
Josefsson, Jonas ; Pärt, Tomas ; Berg, Åke ; Lokhorst, Anne Marike ; Eggers, Sönke - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (2018)6. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 2719 - 2730.
agri-environmental schemes - biodiversity - collaborative conservation - farmers - farmland birds - landscape composition - organic farming - unsubsidised conservation

In Europe, agri-environmental schemes (AES) have been unsuccessful in halting biodiversity declines to any great extent. Two shortcomings of AES include the low farm uptake and the modest efficacy of many AES options. Partly in response to these shortcomings, initiatives encouraging farmers to take an active role in biodiversity conservation have gained in popularity. However, almost no evaluations of such initiatives exist. We evaluated uptake of conservation advice on farms in the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance, a BirdLife Sweden-coordinated project aimed at farmland bird conservation, and the response of farmland birds to those actions using farm-level survey data, in a before-after implementation assessment. Uptake was higher for unsubsidised (i.e. non-AES) measures than for AES options, and depended mainly on farmers’ interest in nature, with farm size and production type having less importance. In general, abundances of non-crop nesting and field-nesting bird species declined between inventory years (median interval 3 years). Decreases were more marked in agriculturally marginal regions than in more arable-dominated regions, and declines were stronger on organic than on conventional farms. Negative abundance trends among non-crop nesting species were reduced by an increasing number of conservation measures at the farm, but only in the more arable-dominated landscapes. Changes in field-nesting species, or at species level, did not significantly relate to implemented measures, but the power to detect such effects was generally small due to the small sample size of high-uptake farms as well as high inter-farm variability. Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that volunteer farmer alliances and the addition of unsubsidised measures may be successful in changing the local number of non-crop nesting farmland birds, at the farm level, particularly in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. Thus, unsubsidised measures can be a useful addition to the set of agri-environment tools, although their effects on breeding bird numbers are (as with agri-environmental schemes) dependent on landscape context, as well as on ensuring high on-farm uptake of different interventions.

Effects of a coordinated farmland bird conservation project on farmers' intentions to implement nature conservation practices – Evidence from the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance
Josefsson, Jonas ; Lokhorst, Anne Marike ; Pärt, Tomas ; Berg, Åke ; Eggers, Sönke - \ 2017
Journal of Environmental Management 187 (2017). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 8 - 15.
Advisory visits - Common agricultural policy - Evidence-based conservation - Landscape-scale conservation - Nature-friendly farming - Sustainable farming

To increase the efficacy of agri-environmental schemes (AES), as well as farmers' environmental engagement, practitioners are increasingly turning to collective forms of agri-environmental management. As yet, empirical evidence from such approaches is relatively scarce. Here, we examined a farmland bird conservation project coordinated by BirdLife Sweden, the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance (SVFA). The key features of the SVFA were farmland bird inventories from volunteering birdwatchers and on-farm visits to individual farmers from conservation advisors for guidance on AES as well as unsubsidised practices. Using an ex-post application of the theory of planned behaviour across project participants and a randomly sampled control group of farmers we assessed how SVFA affected behavioural intentions relating to AES and unsubsidised conservation, and how the behaviour was affected by attitudes, perceived social norms and perceived behavioural control. We also included a measure of self-identity as a conservationist to assess its importance for behavioural intentions, and if SVFA stimulated this self-identity. SVFA farmers reported greater commitment to implementing AES and unsubsidised conservation, as compared to the control group. However, greater commitment was associated with more positive attitudes for unsubsidised conservation only and not for AES, underlining the inability of existing AES to prompt intrinsic motivation. There were also differences between farmers within SVFA, where farmers applying to the project were motivated by social influences, while farmers recruited by project managers were motivated by their personal beliefs regarding nature conservation. Finally, farmers' self-perceived ability to perform practices (i.e. perceived behavioural control) was important for their commitment to implementing AES as well as unsubsidised practices. Therefore, increasing farmers' awareness regarding the availability and, not least, practicability of available conservation options may be the key to successful biodiversity conservation in agricultural systems.

Evaporation of water : Evaporation rate and collective effects
Carrier, Odile ; Shahidzadeh-Bonn, Noushine ; Zargar, Rojman ; Aytouna, Mounir ; Habibi, Mehdi ; Eggers, Jens ; Bonn, Daniel - \ 2016
Journal of Fluid Mechanics 798 (2016). - ISSN 0022-1120 - p. 774 - 786.
Condensation/evaporation - drops - phase change

We study the evaporation rate from single drops as well as collections of drops on a solid substrate, both experimentally and theoretically. For a single isolated drop of water, in general the evaporative flux is limited by diffusion of water through the air, leading to an evaporation rate that is proportional to the linear dimension of the drop. Here, we test the limitations of this scaling law for several small drops and for very large drops. We find that both for simple arrangements of drops, as well as for complex drop size distributions found in sprays, cooperative effects between drops are significant. For large drops, we find that the onset of convection introduces a length scale of approximately 20 mm in radius, below which linear scaling is found. Above this length scale, the evaporation rate is proportional to the surface area.

How Agricultural Intensification Affects Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services
Emmerson, M. ; Morales, M.B. ; Oñate, J.J. ; Batáry, P. ; Berendse, F. ; Liira, J. ; Aavik, T. ; Guerrero, I. ; Bommarco, R. ; Eggers, S. ; Pärt, T. ; Tscharntke, T. ; Weisser, W. ; Clement, L. ; Bengtsson, J. - \ 2016
Advances in Ecological Research 55 (2016). - ISSN 0065-2504 - p. 43 - 97.
Agricultural intensification - Agriculture - Agroecology - Biodiversity - Ecosystem services - Europe - Landscape diversity - Pesticide - Scale

As the world's population continues to grow, the demand for food, fodder, fibre and bioenergy will increase. In Europe, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has driven the intensification of agriculture, promoting the simplification and specialization of agroecosystems through the decline in landscape heterogeneity, the increased use of chemicals per unit area, and the abandonment of less fertile areas. In combination, these processes have eroded the quantity and quality of habitat for many plants and animals, and hence decreased biodiversity and the abundance of species across a hierarchy of trophic levels and spatial scales within Europe. This biodiversity loss has led to profound changes in the functioning of European agroecosystems over the last 50 years. Here, we synthesize the findings from a large-scale pan-European investigation of the combined effects of agricultural intensification on a range of agroecosystem services. These include (1) the persistence of high conservation value species; (2) the level of biological control of agricultural pests and (3) the functional diversity of a number of taxonomic groups, including birds, beetles and arable weeds. The study encompasses a gradient of geography-bioclimate and agricultural intensification that enables the large-scale measurement of ecological impacts of agricultural intensification across European agroecosystems. We provide an overview of the role of the CAP as a driver of agricultural intensification in the European Union, and we demonstrate compelling negative relationships between the application of pesticides and the various components of biodiversity studied on a pan-European scale.

Climate change and European forests: What do we know, what are the uncertainties, and what are the implications for forest management?
Lindner, M. ; Fitzgerald, J.B. ; Zimmermann, N.E. ; Reyer, C. ; Delzon, S. ; Maaten, E. van der; Schelhaas, M. ; Lasch, P. ; Eggers, J. ; Maaten-Theunissen, M. van der; Suckow, F. ; Psomas, A. ; Pouler, B. ; Hanewinkel, M. - \ 2014
Journal of Environmental Management 146 (2014). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 69 - 83.
water-use efficiency - change impacts - elevated co2 - change risks - face sites - scots pine - drought - carbon - shift - trees
The knowledge about potential climate change impacts on forests is continuously expanding and some changes in growth, drought induced mortality and species distribution have been observed. However despite a significant body of research, a knowledge and communication gap exists between scientists and non-scientists as to how climate change impact scenarios can be interpreted and what they imply for European forests. It is still challenging to advise forest decision makers on how best to plan for climate change as many uncertainties and unknowns remain and it is difficult to communicate these to practitioners and other decision makers while retaining emphasis on the importance of planning for adaptation. In this paper, recent developments in climate change observations and projections, observed and projected impacts on European forests and the associated uncertainties are reviewed and synthesised with a view to understanding the implications for forest management. Current impact assessments with simulation models contain several simplifications, which explain the discrepancy between results of many simulation studies and the rapidly increasing body of evidence about already observed changes in forest productivity and species distribution. In simulation models uncertainties tend to cascade onto one another; from estimating what future societies will be like and general circulation models (GCMs) at the global level, down to forest models and forest management at the local level. Individual climate change impact studies should not be uncritically used for decision-making without reflection on possible shortcomings in system understanding, model accuracy and other assumptions made. It is important for decision makers in forest management to realise that they have to take long-lasting management decisions while uncertainty about climate change impacts are still large. We discuss how to communicate about uncertainty - which is imperative for decision making - without diluting the overall message. Considering the range of possible trends and uncertainties in adaptive forest management requires expert knowledge and enhanced efforts for providing science-based decision support.
Delayed capillary breakup of falling viscous jets
Javadi, A. ; Eggers, J. ; Bonn, D. ; Habibi, M. ; Ribe, N.M. - \ 2013
Physical Review Letters 110 (2013)14. - ISSN 0031-9007

Thin jets of viscous fluid like honey falling from capillary nozzles can attain lengths exceeding 10 m before breaking up into droplets via the Rayleigh-Plateau (surface tension) instability. Using a combination of laboratory experiments and WKB analysis of the growth of shape perturbations on a jet being stretched by gravity, we determine how the jet's intact length lb depends on the flow rate Q, the viscosity η, and the surface tension coefficient γ. In the asymptotic limit of a high-viscosity jet, lb∼(gQ2η4/γ4)1/3, where g is the gravitational acceleration. The agreement between theory and experiment is good, except for very long jets.

Erratum to "Persistent negative effects of pesticides on biodiversity and biological control potential on European farmland"
Geiger, Flavia ; Bengtsson, Jan ; Berendse, Frank ; Weisser, Wolfgang W. ; Emmerson, Mark ; Morales, Manuel B. ; Ceryngier, Piotr ; Liira, Jaan ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Winqvist, Camilla ; Eggers, Sönke ; Bommarco, Riccardo ; Pärt, Tomas ; Bretagnolle, Vincent ; Plantegenest, Manuel ; Clement, Lars W. ; Dennis, Christopher ; Palmer, Catherine ; Oñate, Juan J. ; Guerrero, Irene ; Hawro, Violetta ; Aavik, Tsipe ; Thies, Carsten ; Flohre, Andreas ; Hänke, Sebastian ; Fischer, Christina ; Goedhart, Paul W. ; Inchausti, Pablo - \ 2011
Basic and Applied Ecology 12 (2011)4. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 386 - 387.
Mixed effects of organic farming and landscape compexity on farmland biodiversity and biological control potential across Europe
Winqvist, C. ; Bengtsson, J. ; Aavik, T. ; Berendse, F. ; Clement, L.W. ; Eggers, S. ; Fischer, C. ; Flohre, A. ; Geiger, F. ; Liira, J. - \ 2011
Journal of Applied Ecology 48 (2011)3. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 570 - 579.
agricultural intensification - conventional farms - ecosystem service - diversity - context - habitat - agroecosystems - abundance - birds - pest
1. Organic farming in Europe has been shown to enhance biodiversity locally, but potential interactions with the surrounding landscape and the potential effects on ecosystem services are less well known. 2. In cereal fields on 153 farms in five European regions, we examined how the species richness and abundance of wild plants, ground beetles and breeding birds, and the biological control potential of the area, were affected by organic and conventional farming, and how these effects were modified by landscape complexity (percentage of arable crops within 1000 m of the study plots). Information on biodiversity was gathered from vegetation plots, pitfall traps and by bird territory mapping. The biological control potential was measured as the percentage of glued, live aphids removed from plastic labels exposed in cereal fields for 24 h. 3. Predation on aphids was highest in organic fields in complex landscapes, and declined with increasing landscape homogeneity. The biological control potential in conventional fields was not affected by landscape complexity, and in homogenous landscapes it was higher in conventional fields than in organic fields, as indicated by an interaction between farming practice and landscape complexity. 4. A simplification of the landscape, from 20% to 100% arable land, reduced plant species richness by about 16% and cover by 14% in organic fields, and 33% and 5·5% in conventional fields. For birds, landscape simplification reduced species richness and abundance by 34% and 32% in organic fields and by 45·5% and 39% in conventional fields. Ground beetles were more abundant in simple landscapes, but were unaffected by farming practice. 5. Synthesis and applications. This Europe-wide study shows that organic farming enhanced the biodiversity of plants and birds in all landscapes, but only improved the potential for biological control in heterogeneous landscapes. These mixed results stress the importance of taking both local management and regional landscape complexity into consideration when developing future agri-environment schemes, and suggest that local-regional interactions may affect other ecosystem services and functions. This study also shows that it is not enough to design and monitor agri-environment schemes on the basis of biodiversity, but that ecosystem services should be considered too.
Persistent negative effects of pesticides on biodiversity and biological control potential on European farmland
Geiger, F. ; Bengtsson, J. ; Berendse, F. ; Weisser, W.W. ; Emmerson, M. ; Morales, M.B. ; Ceryngier, P. ; Liira, J. ; Tscharntke, T. ; Winqvist, C. ; Eggers, S. ; Bommarco, R. ; Pärt, T. ; Bretagnolle, V. ; Plantegenest, M. ; Clement, L.W. ; Dennis, C. ; Palmer, C. ; Oñate, J.J. ; Guerrero, I. ; Hawro, V. ; Aavik, T. ; Thies, C. ; Flohre, A. ; Hänke, S. ; Fischer, C. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Inchausti, P. - \ 2010
Basic and Applied Ecology 11 (2010)2. - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 97 - 105.
agri-environment schemes - agricultural landscapes - intensification - diversity - abundance - heterogeneity - management - britain
During the last 50 years, agricultural intensification has caused many wild plant and animal species to go extinct regionally or nationally and has profoundly changed the functioning of agro-ecosystems. Agricultural intensification has many components, such as loss of landscape elements, enlarged farm and field sizes and larger inputs of fertilizer and pesticides. However, very little is known about the relative contribution of these variables to the large-scale negative effects on biodiversity. In this study, we disentangled the impacts of various components of agricultural intensification on species diversity of wild plants, carabids and ground-nesting farmland birds and on the biological control of aphids. In a Europe-wide study in eight West and East European countries, we found important negative effects of agricultural intensification on wild plant, carabid and bird species diversity and on the potential for biological pest control, as estimated from the number of aphids taken by predators. Of the 13 components of intensification we measured, use of insecticides and fungicides had consistent negative effects on biodiversity. Insecticides also reduced the biological control potential. Organic farming and other agri-environment schemes aiming to mitigate the negative effects of intensive farming on biodiversity did increase the diversity of wild plant and carabid species, but – contrary to our expectations – not the diversity of breeding birds. We conclude that despite decades of European policy to ban harmful pesticides, the negative effects of pesticides on wild plant and animal species persist, at the same time reducing the opportunities for biological pest control. If biodiversity is to be restored in Europe and opportunities are to be created for crop production utilizing biodiversity-based ecosystem services such as biological pest control, there must be a Europe-wide shift towards farming with minimal use of pesticides over large areas.
BioScore - Cost-effective assessment of policy impact on biodiversity using species sensitivity scores
Louette, G. ; Maes, D. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Boitani, L. ; Eggers, J. ; Falcucci, A. ; Framstad, E. ; Hagemeijer, W. ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Maiorano, L. ; Nagy, S. ; Nieto Serradilla, A. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Tsiaousi, V. ; Tol, S. van; Delbaere, B. - \ 2010
Journal for Nature Conservation 18 (2010)2. - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 142 - 148.
land-use change - climate-change - species sensitivity - improve prediction - indicator values - taxonomic groups - habitat - scenarios - europe - diversity
Human-induced pressures are known to be one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. In order to readily assess policy impacts on biodiversity, a cost-effective evaluation tool is developed, using species sensitivity scores. We demonstrate the potential effects of a selected policy option, being woody bioenergy crop production, on a wide range of species groups in Europe. Large-scale expansions of woody biofuel plantations would have a net negative effect on the species set covered in our study, with little variation among biogeographical regions, but with considerable differences among species groups. The evaluation tool enables policy makers to assess the potential impact of decisions on future biodiversity.
BioScore: A tool to assess the impacts of European Community policies on Europe's biodiversity
Delbaere, B. ; Nieto Serradilla, A. ; Snethlage, M. ; Alkemade, R. ; Boitani, L. ; Eggers, J. ; Falcucci, A. ; Framstad, E. ; Heer, M. de; Hennekens, S.M. ; Kemitzoglou, D. ; Knegt, B. de; Knijf, G. de; Louette, G. ; Maes, D. ; Maiorano, L. ; Nagy, S. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Tol, S. van; Tröltzsch, K. - \ 2009
Tilburg : ECNC - ISBN 9789076762289 - 92
biodiversiteit - flora - fauna - impact - beleid - beoordeling - europa - menselijke invloed - ecologische beoordeling - biodiversity - flora - fauna - impact - policy - assessment - european union countries - human impact - ecological assessment
BioScore offers a European biodiversity impact assessment tool. The tool contains indicator values on the ecological preferences of more than 1000 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish, butterflies, dragonflies, aquatic macro-invertebrates and vascular plants. These values are linked to policy-related pressures and environmental variables.
Agricultural intensification and dispersal ability affect beta diversity of plants, carabids and birds
Flohre, A. ; Fischer, C. ; Aavik, T. ; Ameixa, O. ; Bengtsson, J. ; Berendse, F. ; Bommarco, R. ; Ceryngier, P. ; Clement, L.W. ; Dennis, C. ; Hänke, S. ; Eggers, S. ; Emmerson, M. ; Geiger, F. ; Guerrero, I. ; Hawro, V. ; Inchausti, P. ; Kindlmann, P. ; Liira, J. ; Morales, M.B. ; Pärt, T. ; Weisser, W.W. ; Winqvist, C. ; Thies, C. ; Tscharntke, T. - \ 2009
In: Book of abstracts 2nd European Congress of Conservation Biology, Prague, Czech Republic, 1-5 September 2009. - Prague : Czech University of Life Sciences - ISBN 9788021319615 - p. 68 - 68.
Europe-wide negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity and biological pest control on farmland
Geiger, F. ; Bengtsson, J. ; Berendse, F. ; Inchausti, P. ; Weisser, W.W. ; Emmerson, M. ; Morales, M.B. ; Ceryngier, P. ; Kindlmann, P. ; Tscharntke, T. ; Liira, J. ; Winqvist, C. ; Eggers, S. ; Bommarco, R. ; Pärt, T. ; Boisteau, B. ; Clement, L.W. ; Dennis, C. ; Palmer, C. ; Guerrero, I. ; Hawro, V. ; Ameixa, O. ; Aavik, T. ; Thies, C. ; Flohre, A. ; Hänke, S. ; Fischer, C. - \ 2009
In: Book of abstracts 2nd European Congress of Conservation Biology, Prague, Czech Republic, 1-5 September 2009. - Prague : Czech University of Life Sciences - ISBN 9788021319615 - p. 56 (200) - 56 (200).
Europe-wide negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity and biological pest control on farmland
Berendse, F. ; Geiger, F. ; Bengtsson, J. ; Inchausti, P. ; Weisser, W.W. ; Emmerson, M. ; Morales, M.B. ; Ceryngier, P. ; Kindlmann, P. ; Liira, J. ; Tscharntke, T. ; Winqvist, C. ; Eggers, S. ; Bommarco, R. ; Pärt, T. ; Boisteau, B. ; Clement, L.W. ; Dennis, C. ; Palmer, C. ; Guerrero, I. ; Hawro, V. ; Ameixa, O. ; Aavik, T. ; Thies, C. ; Flohre, A. ; Hänke, S. ; Fischer, C. - \ 2009
Is biofuel policy harming biodiversity in Europe?
Eggers, J. ; Tröltzsch, K. ; Falcucci, A. ; Verburg, P.H. ; Ozinga, W.A. - \ 2009
Global change biology Bioenergy 1 (2009)1. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 18 - 34.
land-use - energy - bioenergy - climate - future - conservation - challenge - scenarios - ethanol - crops
We assessed the potential impacts of land-use changes resulting from a change in the current biofuel policy on biodiversity in Europe. We evaluated the possible impact of both arable and woody biofuel crops on changes in distribution of 313 species pertaining to different taxonomic groups. Using species-specific information on habitat suitability as well as land use simulations for three different biofuel policy options, we downscaled available species distribution data from the original resolution of 50 to 1 km. The downscaled maps were then applied to analyse potential changes in habitat size and species composition at different spatial levels. Our results indicate that more species might suffer from habitat losses rather than benefit from a doubled biofuel target, while abolishing the biofuel target would mainly have positive effects. However, the possible impacts vary spatially and depend on the biofuel crop choice, with woody crops being less detrimental than arable crops. Our results give an indication for policy and decision makers of what might happen to biodiversity under a changed biofuel policy in the European Union. The presented approach is considered to be innovative as to date no comparable policy impact assessment has been applied to such a large set of key species at the European scale
Forestry in Europe under changing climate and land use
Eggers, J. ; Lindner, M. ; Zudin, S. ; Zaehle, S. ; Liski, J. ; Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2007
In: Forestry and Climate Change / Freer-Smith, P.H., Broadmeadow, M.S.J., Lynch, J.M., Oxfordshire (UK) : CABI - ISBN 9781845932947 - p. 112 - 118.
Model documentation for the European Forest Information Scenario model (EFISCEN 3.1.3)
Schelhaas, M.J. ; Eggers, J. ; Lindner, M. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Pussinen, A. ; Paivinen, R. ; Schuck, A. ; Verkerk, P.J. ; Werf, D.C. van der; Zudin, S. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Alterra (EFI technical report 26) - 118
bossen - modellen - bosbedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - klimaatverandering - forests - models - forest management - sustainability - climatic change
EFISCEN is a forest resource projection model, used to gain insight into the future development of European forests. It has been used widely to study issues such as sustainable management regimes, wood production possibilities, nature oriented management, climate change impacts, natural disturbances and carbon balance issues. This report describes the history of EFISCEN and the current state of the model, version 3.1.3. It contains a user guide as well as a description of past validations and an uncertainty analysis
Scenario analysis of the impacts of forest management and climate change on the European forest sector carbon budget
Karjalainen, T. ; Pusinen, A. ; Liski, J. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Eggers, T. ; Lapveteläinen, T. ; Kaipainen, T. - \ 2003
Forest Policy and Economics (2003)2. - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 141 - 155.
atmospheric co2 - ecosystems - cycle - flux
Analysis of the impacts of forest management and climate change on the European forest sector carbon budget between 1990 and 2050 are presented in this article. Forest inventory based carbon budgeting with large scale scenario modelling was used. Altogether 27 countries and 128.5 million hectare of forests are included in the analysis. Two forest management and climate scenarios were applied. In Business as Usual (BaU) scenario national fellings remained at the 1990 level while in Multifunctional (MultiF) scenario fellings increased 0.5¿1% per year until 2020, 4 million hectare afforestation program took place between 1990 and 2020 and forest management paid more attention to current trends towards more nature oriented management. Mean annual temperature increased 2.5 °C and annual precipitation 5¿15% between 1990 and 2050 in changing climate scenario. Total amount of carbon in 1990 was 12 869 Tg, of which 94% in tree biomass and forest soil, and 6% in wood products in use. In 1995¿2000, when BaU scenario was applied under current climatic conditions, net primary production was 409 Tg C year¿1, net ecosystem production 164 Tg C year¿1, net biome production 84.5 Tg C year¿1, and net sequestration of the whole system 87.4 Tg C year¿1 which was equal to 7¿8% of carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion in 1990. Carbon stocks in tree biomass, soil and wood products increased in all applied management and climate scenarios, but slower after 2010¿2020 than that before. This was due to ageing of forests and higher carbon densities per unit of forest land. Differences in carbon sequestration were very small between applied management scenarios, implying that forest management should be changed more than in this study if aim is to influence carbon sequestration. Applied climate scenarios increased carbon stocks and net carbon sequestration compared to current climatic conditions.
Landschapshistorische studie West-Brabantse Waterlinie; enkele bouwstenen naar een cultuurhistorisch streefbeeld
Weijschedé, T.J. ; Groot, R. ; Mulder, J.R. ; Snep, R.P.H. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 875) - 48
landschap - geschiedenis - landschapsarchitectuur - ruimtelijke ordening - nederland - cultuurlandschap - verdedigingswerken - noord-brabant - landscape - history - landscape architecture - physical planning - netherlands - cultural landscape - defensive works
De gemeente Bergen op Zoom heeft Alterra opdracht gegeven enkele bouwstenen aan te leveren voor een te maken cultuurhistorisch streefbeeld voor de West-Brabantse waterlinie. De opdracht heeft bestaan uit drie deelopdrachten. Het eerste is om met behulp van een bodemkundig onderzoek te kunnen traceren waar eventuele aanvalslinies (loopgraven) zijn gegraven door de Franse aanvallers Rondom het Fort de Roovere. Tevens zal worden gekeken of het buitenste hoornwerk (`Ster van Eggers¿) van fort de Roovere is op te sporen. Hier zijn sporen van teruggevonden. Het tweede was een ecologische verkenning, waarin juridische en ecologische mogelijkheden, belemmeringen en randvoorwaarden voor het doen van ingrepen rondom Fort de Roovere worden geschetst. Er blijken waardevolle ecolgische waarden in het gebied voor te komen. Het derde was een landschappelijke verkenning naar hoe het landschap er in 1747 uit gezien zou kunnen hebben. Hiervan is een globale landschapskaart geconstrueerd.
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