Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Biodiversity increases multitrophic energy use efficiency, flow and storage in grasslands
    Buzhdygan, Oksana Y. ; Meyer, Sebastian T. ; Weisser, Wolfgang W. ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Ebeling, Anne ; Borrett, Stuart R. ; Buchmann, Nina ; Cortois, Roeland ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Kroon, Hans de; Gleixner, Gerd ; Hertzog, Lionel R. ; Hines, Jes ; Lange, Markus ; Mommer, Liesje ; Ravenek, Janneke ; Scherber, Christoph ; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael ; Scheu, Stefan ; Schmid, Bernhard ; Steinauer, Katja ; Strecker, Tanja ; Tietjen, Britta ; Vogel, Anja ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Petermann, Jana S. - \ 2020
    Nature Ecology & Evolution 4 (2020)4. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 393 - 405.

    The continuing loss of global biodiversity has raised questions about the risk that species extinctions pose for the functioning of natural ecosystems and the services that they provide for human wellbeing. There is consensus that, on single trophic levels, biodiversity sustains functions; however, to understand the full range of biodiversity effects, a holistic and multitrophic perspective is needed. Here, we apply methods from ecosystem ecology that quantify the structure and dynamics of the trophic network using ecosystem energetics to data from a large grassland biodiversity experiment. We show that higher plant diversity leads to more energy stored, greater energy flow and higher community-energy-use efficiency across the entire trophic network. These effects of biodiversity on energy dynamics were not restricted to only plants but were also expressed by other trophic groups and, to a similar degree, in aboveground and belowground parts of the ecosystem, even though plants are by far the dominating group in the system. The positive effects of biodiversity on one trophic level were not counteracted by the negative effects on adjacent levels. Trophic levels jointly increased the performance of the community, indicating ecosystem-wide multitrophic complementarity, which is potentially an important prerequisite for the provisioning of ecosystem services.

    Towards an integrative understanding of soil biodiversity
    Thakur, Madhav P. ; Phillips, Helen R.P. ; Brose, Ulrich ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Lavelle, Patrick ; Loreau, Michel ; Mathieu, Jerome ; Mulder, Christian ; Putten, Wim H. Van der; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Wardle, David A. ; Bach, Elizabeth M. ; Bartz, Marie L.C. ; Bennett, Joanne M. ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brown, George ; Decaëns, Thibaud ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Ferlian, Olga ; Guerra, Carlos António ; König-Ries, Birgitta ; Orgiazzi, Alberto ; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Russell, David J. ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Wall, Diana H. ; Cameron, Erin K. - \ 2020
    Biological Reviews 95 (2020)2. - ISSN 1464-7931 - p. 350 - 364.
    alpha diversity - beta diversity - biodiversity theory - metacommunity theory - neutral theory - niche theory - spatial scale - species–energy relationship - theory of island biogeography

    Soil is one of the most biodiverse terrestrial habitats. Yet, we lack an integrative conceptual framework for understanding the patterns and mechanisms driving soil biodiversity. One of the underlying reasons for our poor understanding of soil biodiversity patterns relates to whether key biodiversity theories (historically developed for aboveground and aquatic organisms) are applicable to patterns of soil biodiversity. Here, we present a systematic literature review to investigate whether and how key biodiversity theories (species–energy relationship, theory of island biogeography, metacommunity theory, niche theory and neutral theory) can explain observed patterns of soil biodiversity. We then discuss two spatial compartments nested within soil at which biodiversity theories can be applied to acknowledge the scale-dependent nature of soil biodiversity.

    Limited evidence for spatial resource partitioning across temperate grassland biodiversity experiments
    Barry, Kathryn E. ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Mommer, Liesje ; Bai, Yongfei ; Beierkuhnlein, Carl ; Buchmann, Nina ; Kroon, Hans de; Ebeling, Anne ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Guimarães-Steinicke, Claudia ; Hildebrandt, Anke ; Isbell, Forest ; Milcu, Alexandru ; Neßhöver, Carsten ; Reich, Peter B. ; Roscher, Christiane ; Sauheitl, Leopold ; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael ; Schmid, Bernhard ; Tilman, David ; Felten, Stefanie von; Weigelt, Alexandra - \ 2020
    Ecology 101 (2020)1. - ISSN 0012-9658
    grassland - niche complementarity - niche partitioning - productivity - resource uptake - resources - standing root biomass

    Locally, plant species richness supports many ecosystem functions. Yet, the mechanisms driving these often-positive biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships are not well understood. Spatial resource partitioning across vertical resource gradients is one of the main hypothesized causes for enhanced ecosystem functioning in more biodiverse grasslands. Spatial resource partitioning occurs if species differ in where they acquire resources and can happen both above- and belowground. However, studies investigating spatial resource partitioning in grasslands provide inconsistent evidence. We present the results of a meta-analysis of 21 data sets from experimental species-richness gradients in grasslands. We test the hypothesis that increasing spatial resource partitioning along vertical resource gradients enhances ecosystem functioning in diverse grassland plant communities above- and belowground. To test this hypothesis, we asked three questions. (1) Does species richness enhance biomass production or community resource uptake across sites? (2) Is there evidence of spatial resource partitioning as indicated by resource tracer uptake and biomass allocation above- and belowground? (3) Is evidence of spatial resource partitioning correlated with increased biomass production or community resource uptake? Although plant species richness enhanced community nitrogen and potassium uptake and biomass production above- and belowground, we found that plant communities did not meet our criteria for spatial resource partitioning, though they did invest in significantly more aboveground biomass in higher canopy layers in mixture relative to monoculture. Furthermore, the extent of spatial resource partitioning across studies was not positively correlated with either biomass production or community resource uptake. Our results suggest that spatial resource partitioning across vertical resource gradients alone does not offer a general explanation for enhanced ecosystem functioning in more diverse temperate grasslands.

    Evaluation Framework for Action Innovation projects : A series of Case Studies from Germany, The Netherlands, Hungary and Spain
    Boulding, Patrick ; Patrik, Eisenhauer ; Brüggemann, Nora ; Timmermans, A.J.M. ; Cseh, Balázs ; Riez, Raquel de - \ 2019
    REFRESH - 71 p.
    Global distribution of earthworm diversity
    Phillips, Helen R.P. ; Guerra, Carlos A. ; Bartz, Marie L.C. ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brown, George ; Crowther, Thomas W. ; Ferlian, Olga ; Gongalsky, Konstantin B. ; Hoogen, Johan Van Den; Krebs, Julia ; Orgiazzi, Alberto ; Routh, Devin ; Schwarz, Benjamin ; Bach, Elizabeth M. ; Bennett, Joanne ; Brose, Ulrich ; Decaëns, Thibaud ; König-Ries, Birgitta ; Loreau, Michel ; Mathieu, Jérôme ; Mulder, Christian ; Putten, Wim H. Van Der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Russell, David ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Thakur, Madhav P. ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Arai, Miwa ; Ayuke, Fredrick O. ; Baker, Geoff H. ; Beauséjour, Robin ; Bedano, José C. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Blanchart, Eric ; Blossey, Bernd ; Bolger, Thomas ; Bradley, Robert L. ; Callaham, Mac A. ; Capowiez, Yvan ; Caulfield, Mark E. ; Choi, Amy ; Crotty, Felicity V. ; Dávalos, Andrea ; Diaz Cosin, Darío J. ; Dominguez, Anahí ; Duhour, Andrés Esteban ; Eekeren, Nick Van; Emmerling, Christoph ; Falco, Liliana B. ; Fernández, Rosa ; Fonte, Steven J. ; Fragoso, Carlos ; Franco, André L.C. ; Fugère, Martine ; Fusilero, Abegail T. ; Gholami, Shaieste ; Gundale, Michael J. ; Gutiérrez Lopez, Monica ; Hackenberger, Davorka K. ; Hernández, Luis M. ; Hishi, Takuo ; Holdsworth, Andrew R. ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Hopfensperger, Kristine N. ; Lwanga, Esperanza Huerta ; Huhta, Veikko ; Hurisso, Tunsisa T. ; Iannone, Basil V. ; Iordache, Madalina ; Joschko, Monika ; Kaneko, Nobuhiro ; Kanianska, Radoslava ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Kelly, Courtland A. ; Kernecker, Maria L. ; Klaminder, Jonatan ; Koné, Armand W. ; Kooch, Yahya ; Kukkonen, Sanna T. ; Lalthanzara, H. ; Lammel, Daniel R. ; Lebedev, Iurii M. ; Li, Yiqing ; Jesus Lidon, Juan B. ; Lincoln, Noa K. ; Loss, Scott R. ; Marichal, Raphael ; Matula, Radim ; Moos, Jan Hendrik ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Mor n-Ríos, Alejandro ; Muys, Bart ; Neirynck, Johan ; Norgrove, Lindsey ; Novo, Marta ; Nuutinen, Visa ; Nuzzo, Victoria ; Mujeeb Rahman, P. ; Pansu, Johan ; Paudel, Shishir ; Pérès, Guénola ; Pérez-Camacho, Lorenzo ; Piñeiro, Raúl ; Ponge, Jean François ; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz ; Rebollo, Salvador ; Rodeiro-Iglesias, Javier ; Rodríguez, Miguel ; Roth, Alexander M. ; Rousseau, Guillaume X. ; Rozen, Anna ; Sayad, Ehsan ; Schaik, Loes Van; Scharenbroch, Bryant C. ; Schirrmann, Michael ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Schröder, Boris ; Seeber, Julia ; Shashkov, Maxim P. ; Singh, Jaswinder ; Smith, Sandy M. ; Steinwandter, Michael ; Talavera, José A. ; Trigo, Dolores ; Tsukamoto, Jiro ; Valença, Anne W. De; Vanek, Steven J. ; Virto, Iñigo ; Wackett, Adrian A. ; Warren, Matthew W. ; Wehr, Nathaniel H. ; Whalen, Joann K. ; Wironen, Michael B. ; Wolters, Volkmar ; Zenkova, Irina V. ; Zhang, Weixin ; Cameron, Erin K. ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2019
    Science 366 (2019)6464. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 480 - 485.

    Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.

    Author Correction: Diversity-dependent temporal divergence of ecosystem functioning in experimental ecosystems
    Guerrero-Ramírez, Nathaly R. ; Craven, Dylan ; Reich, Peter B. ; Ewel, John J. ; Isbell, Forest ; Koricheva, Julia ; Parrotta, John A. ; Auge, Harald ; Erickson, Heather E. ; Forrester, David I. ; Hector, Andy ; Joshi, Jasmin ; Montagnini, Florencia ; Palmborg, Cecilia ; Piotto, Daniel ; Potvin, Catherine ; Roscher, Christiane ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Tilman, David ; Wilsey, Brian ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2019
    Nature Ecology & Evolution 3 (2019). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1365 - 1365.

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    Above- and belowground overyielding are related at the community and species level in a grassland biodiversity experiment
    Barry, Kathryn E. ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Kroon, Hans de; Ebeling, Anne ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Gessler, Arthur ; Ravenek, Janneke M. ; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael ; Oram, Natalie J. ; Vogel, Anja ; Wagg, Cameron ; Mommer, Liesje - \ 2019
    In: Advances in Ecological Research / Eisenhauer, N., Bohan, D.A., Dumbrell, A.J., Academic Press Inc. (Advances in Ecological Research ) - ISBN 9780081029121 - p. 55 - 89.
    Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning - Biomass allocation - Functional diversity - Jena experiment - Light competition - Plant traits - Root biomass - Root:Shoot ratio - Shoot biomass - Species richness

    Plant species richness positively affects plant productivity both above- and belowground. While this suggests that they are related at the community level, few studies have calculated above- and belowground overyielding simultaneously. It thus remains unknown whether above- and belowground overyielding are correlated. Moreover, it is unknown how belowground community level overyielding translates to the species level. We investigated above- and belowground overyielding in the Jena Trait-Based Biodiversity Experiment, at both the community and species level and across two 8-species pools. We found that above- and belowground overyielding were positively correlated at the community level and at the species level—for seven out of the 13 investigated species. Some plant species performed better in mixtures compared to monocultures and others performed worse, but the majority did so simultaneously above- and belowground. However, plants invested more in aboveground overyielding than belowground. Based on this disproportional investment in overyielding aboveground, we conclude that light was more limiting than belowground resources in the present study, which requires individual species to compete more for light than for belowground resources.

    Transferring biodiversity-ecosystem function research to the management of ‘real-world’ ecosystems
    Manning, P. ; Loos, Jacqueline ; Barnes, Andrew D. ; Batáry, Péter ; Bianchi, Felix J.J.A. ; Buchmann, Nina ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Ebeling, Anne ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Fischer, Markus ; Fründ, Jochen ; Grass, Ingo ; Isselstein, Johannes ; Jochum, M. ; Klein, Alexandra M. ; Klingenberg, Esther O.F. ; Landis, Douglas A. ; Lepš, Jan ; Lindborg, Regina ; Meyer, Sebastian T. ; Temperton, Vicky M. ; Westphal, Catrin ; Tscharntke, Teja - \ 2019
    In: Advances in Ecological Research Academic Press Inc. (Advances in Ecological Research ) - p. 323 - 356.
    BEF research - Biodiversity experiments - Ecosystem management - Ecosystem services - Grasslands - Knowledge transfer

    Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) research grew rapidly following concerns that biodiversity loss would negatively affect ecosystem functions and the ecosystem services they underpin. However, despite evidence that biodiversity strongly affects ecosystem functioning, the influence of BEF research upon policy and the management of ‘real-world’ ecosystems, i.e., semi-natural habitats and agroecosystems, has been limited. Here, we address this issue by classifying BEF research into three clusters based on the degree of human control over species composition and the spatial scale, in terms of grain, of the study, and discussing how the research of each cluster is best suited to inform particular fields of ecosystem management. Research in the first cluster, small-grain highly controlled studies, is best able to provide general insights into mechanisms and to inform the management of species-poor and highly managed systems such as croplands, plantations, and the restoration of heavily degraded ecosystems. Research from the second cluster, small-grain observational studies, and species removal and addition studies, may allow for direct predictions of the impacts of species loss in specific semi-natural ecosystems. Research in the third cluster, large-grain uncontrolled studies, may best inform landscape-scale management and national-scale policy. We discuss barriers to transfer within each cluster and suggest how new research and knowledge exchange mechanisms may overcome these challenges. To meet the potential for BEF research to address global challenges, we recommend transdisciplinary research that goes beyond these current clusters and considers the social-ecological context of the ecosystems in which BEF knowledge is generated. This requires recognizing the social and economic value of biodiversity for ecosystem services at scales, and in units, that matter to land managers and policy makers.

    Cascading spatial and trophic impacts of oak decline on the soil food web
    Domínguez-Begines, Jara ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; García, Luis V. ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena - \ 2019
    Journal of Ecology 107 (2019)3. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 1199 - 1214.
    bioindicators - neighbourhood models - Phytophthora cinnamomi - plant–soil interactions - Quercus suber - soil food web - soil nematodes - soil-borne pathogens - spatial patterns - tree mortality

    Tree defoliation and mortality have considerably increased world-wide during the last decades due to global change drivers such as increasing drought or invasive pests and pathogens. However, the effects of this tree decline on soil food webs are poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of Quercus suber decline on soil food webs of Mediterranean mixed forests invaded by the exotic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi, using soil nematodes as bioindicator taxa. We used a spatially explicit neighbourhood approach to predict the characteristics of the nematode community (diversity, trophic structure, and several indices indicative of soil food web conditions) as a function of the characteristics of the tree and shrub community (species composition, size, and health status). Our results indicate that the process of defoliation and mortality of Q. suber caused significant alterations in the nematode trophic structure increasing the abundance of lower trophic levels (bacterivores, fungivores, and herbivores) and decreasing the abundance of higher levels (predators and omnivores). Furthermore, Q. suber decline altered the functional composition of soil communities, producing a setback of the ecological succession in the soil food web to an earlier stage (decrease in the maturity index and increase in the plant parasitic index), simplified soil food webs (decrease in the structure index), and shifts in the predominant decomposition channel (increase in the fungivores/bacterivores ratio). We also detected contrasting characteristics of the nematode community in neighbourhoods dominated by coexisting woody species, which suggests potential for long-term indirect effects on soil food webs due to the substitution of Q. suber by non-declining species. Synthesis. Our study provides novel results that show the major impacts that ongoing health deterioration of dominant tree species can have on the structure and composition of soil food webs in forest systems invaded by exotic pathogens, with cascading consequences for soil biogeochemical processes in both the short- and long term.

    Plant species richness and functional groups have different effects on soil water content in a decade-long grassland experiment
    Fischer, Christine ; Leimer, Sophia ; Roscher, Christiane ; Ravenek, Janneke ; Kroon, Hans de; Kreutziger, Yvonne ; Baade, Jussi ; Beßler, Holger ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Mommer, Liesje ; Lange, Markus ; Gleixner, Gerd ; Wilcke, Wolfgang ; Schröder, Boris ; Hildebrandt, Anke - \ 2019
    Journal of Ecology 107 (2019)1. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 127 - 141.
    biodiversity - functional groups - Jena Experiment - plant–soil–water relation - soil water content - spatial–temporal variability - species richness

    The temporal and spatial dynamics of soil water are closely interlinked with terrestrial ecosystems functioning. The interaction between plant community properties such as species composition and richness and soil water mirrors fundamental ecological processes determining above-ground–below-ground feedbacks. Plant–water relations and water stress have attracted considerable attention in biodiversity experiments. Yet, although soil scientific research suggests an influence of ecosystem productivity on soil hydraulic properties, temporal changes of the soil water content and soil hydraulic properties remain largely understudied in biodiversity experiments. Thus, insights on how plant diversity—productivity relationships affect soil water are lacking. Here, we determine which factors related to plant community composition (species and functional group richness, presence of plant functional groups) and soil (organic carbon concentration) affect soil water in a long-term grassland biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment). Both plant species richness and the presence of particular functional groups affected soil water content, while functional group richness played no role. The effect of species richness changed from positive to negative and expanded to deeper soil with time. Shortly after establishment, increased topsoil water content was related to higher leaf area index in species-rich plots, which enhanced shading. In later years, higher species richness increased topsoil organic carbon, likely improving soil aggregation. Improved aggregation, in turn, dried topsoils in species-rich plots due to faster drainage of rainwater. Functional groups affected soil water distribution, likely due to plant traits affecting root water uptake depths, shading, or water-use efficiency. For instance, topsoils in plots containing grasses were generally drier, while plots with legumes were moister. Synthesis. Our decade-long experiment reveals that the maturation of grasslands changes the effects of plant richness from influencing soil water content through shading effects to altering soil physical characteristics in addition to modification of water uptake depth. Functional groups affected the soil water distribution by characteristic shifts of root water uptake depth, but did not enhance exploitation of the overall soil water storage. Our results reconcile previous seemingly contradictory results on the relation between grassland species diversity and soil moisture and highlight the role of vegetation composition for soil processes.

    Energy Flux : The Link between Multitrophic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
    Barnes, Andrew D. ; Jochum, Malte ; Lefcheck, Jonathan S. ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Scherber, Christoph ; O'Connor, Mary I. ; Ruiter, Peter de; Brose, Ulrich - \ 2018
    Trends in Ecology and Evolution 33 (2018)3. - ISSN 0169-5347 - p. 186 - 197.
    ecological stoichiometry - ecosystem multifunctionality - food web - interaction network - metabolic theory - trophic cascade

    Relating biodiversity to ecosystem functioning in natural communities has become a paramount challenge as links between trophic complexity and multiple ecosystem functions become increasingly apparent. Yet, there is still no generalised approach to address such complexity in biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (BEF) studies. Energy flux dynamics in ecological networks provide the theoretical underpinning of multitrophic BEF relationships. Accordingly, we propose the quantification of energy fluxes in food webs as a powerful, universal tool for understanding ecosystem functioning in multitrophic systems spanning different ecological scales. Although the concept of energy flux in food webs is not novel, its application to BEF research remains virtually untapped, providing a framework to foster new discoveries into the determinants of ecosystem functioning in complex systems.

    Data from: Cascading spatial and trophic impacts of oak decline on the soil food web
    Domínguez-Begines, Jara ; Deyn, G.B. de; García, Luis V. ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Gomez-Aparicio, L. - \ 2018
    plant soil interactions - soil food web - soil nematodes - soil-borne pathogens - spatial patterns - tree mortality - neighborhood models - bioindicators
    Tree defoliation and mortality have considerably increased worldwide during the last decades due to global change drivers such as increasing drought or invasive pests and pathogens. However, the effects of this tree decline on soil food webs are poorly understood. In this study we evaluated the impacts of Quercus suber decline on soil food webs of Mediterranean mixed forests invaded by the exotic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi, using soil nematodes as bioindicator taxa. We used a spatially-explicit neighborhood approach to predict the characteristics of the nematode community (diversity, trophic structure, and several indices indicative of soil food web conditions) as a function of the characteristics of the tree and shrub community (species composition, size and health status). Our results indicate that the process of defoliation and mortality of Q. suber caused significant alterations in the nematode trophic structure increasing the abundance of lower trophic levels (bacterivores, fungivores and herbivores) and decreasing the abundance of higher levels (predators and omnivores). Furthermore, Q. suber decline altered the functional composition of soil communities, producing a setback of the ecological succession in the soil food web to an earlier stage (decrease in the maturity index and increase in the plant-parasitic index), simplified soil food webs (decrease in the structure index), and shifts in the predominant decomposition channel (increase in the fungivores/bacterivores ratio). We also detected contrasting characteristics of the nematode community in neighborhoods dominated by coexistent woody species, which suggests potential for long-term indirect effects on soil food webs due to the substitution of Q. suber by non-declining species. Synthesis: Our study provides novel results that show the major impacts that ongoing health deterioration of dominant tree species can have on the structure and composition of soil food webs in forest systems invaded by exotic pathogens, with cascading consequences for soil biogeochemical processes in both the short- and long-term.
    Multiple facets of biodiversity drive the diversity–stability relationship
    Craven, Dylan ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Pearse, William D. ; Hautier, Yann ; Isbell, Forest ; Roscher, Christiane ; Bahn, Michael ; Beierkuhnlein, Carl ; Bönisch, Gerhard ; Buchmann, Nina ; Byun, Chaeho ; Catford, Jane A. ; Cerabolini, Bruno E.L. ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. ; Craine, Joseph M. ; Luca, Enrica De; Ebeling, Anne ; Griffin, John N. ; Hector, Andy ; Hines, Jes ; Jentsch, Anke ; Kattge, Jens ; Kreyling, Jürgen ; Lanta, Vojtech ; Lemoine, Nathan ; Meyer, Sebastian T. ; Minden, Vanessa ; Onipchenko, Vladimir ; Polley, H.W. ; Reich, Peter B. ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Schamp, Brandon ; Smith, Melinda D. ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Tilman, David ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Wilsey, Brian ; Manning, Peter - \ 2018
    Nature Ecology & Evolution 2 (2018). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1579 - 1587.

    A substantial body of evidence has demonstrated that biodiversity stabilizes ecosystem functioning over time in grassland ecosystems. However, the relative importance of different facets of biodiversity underlying the diversity–stability relationship remains unclear. Here we use data from 39 grassland biodiversity experiments and structural equation modelling to investigate the roles of species richness, phylogenetic diversity and both the diversity and community-weighted mean of functional traits representing the ‘fast–slow’ leaf economics spectrum in driving the diversity–stability relationship. We found that high species richness and phylogenetic diversity stabilize biomass production via enhanced asynchrony in the performance of co-occurring species. Contrary to expectations, low phylogenetic diversity enhances ecosystem stability directly, albeit weakly. While the diversity of fast–slow functional traits has a weak effect on ecosystem stability, communities dominated by slow species enhance ecosystem stability by increasing mean biomass production relative to the standard deviation of biomass over time. Our in-depth, integrative assessment of factors influencing the diversity–stability relationship demonstrates a more multicausal relationship than has been previously acknowledged.

    Frameworks for Action : Selection Process
    Bygrave, Kate ; Rogers, David ; Eisenhauer, Patrik ; Brüggemann, Nora ; Timmermans, A.J.M. ; Cseh, Balázs ; Lopez-i-Gelats, Feliu ; Diaz-Ruiz, Raquel - \ 2017
    REFRESH - 94 p.
    IoT European Large-Scale Pilots – Integration, Experimentation and Testing
    Guillén, Sergio ; Sala, Pilar ; Fico, Giuseppe ; Arredondo, María Teresa ; Cano, Alicia ; Posada, Jorge ; Gutiérrez, German ; Palau, Carlos ; Votis, Konstantinos ; Verdouw, C.N. ; Wolfert, J. ; Beers, G. ; Sundmaeker, H. ; Chatzikostas, Grigoris ; Ziegler, Sébastian ; Hemmens, Christopher ; Holst, Marita ; Stahlbröst, Anna ; Scudiero, Lucio ; Reale, C. ; Krco, S. ; Drajic, D. ; Eisenhauer, M. ; Jahn, M. ; Valino, J. ; Gluhak, A. ; Brynskov, M. ; Vermesan, O. ; Fischer, F. ; Lenz, O. - \ 2017
    In: Cognitive Hyperconnected Digital Transformation / Vermesan, O., Bacquet, J., River Publishers - ISBN 9788793609112 - p. 221 - 282.
    The IoT European Large-Scale Pilots Programme includes the innovation consortia that are collaborating to foster the deployment of IoT solutions in Europe through the integration of advanced IoT technologies across the value chain, demonstration of multiple IoT applications at scale and in a usage context, and as close as possible to operational conditions. The programme projects are targeted, goal-driven initiatives that propose IoT approaches to specific real-life industrial/societal challenges. They are autonomous entities that involve stakeholders from the supply side to the demand side, and contain all the technological and innovation elements, the tasks related to the use, application and deployment as well as the development, testing and integration activities. This chapter describes the IoT Large Scale Pilot Programme initiative together with all involved actors. These actors include the coordination and support actions CREATE-IoT and U4IoT, being them drivers of the programme, and all five IoT Large-Scale Pilot projects, namely ACTIVAGE, IoF2020, MONICA, SynchroniCity and AUTOPILOT.
    Diversity-dependent temporal divergence of ecosystem functioning in experimental ecosystems
    Guerrero-Ramírez, Nathaly R. ; Craven, Dylan ; Reich, Peter B. ; Ewel, John J. ; Isbell, Forest ; Koricheva, Julia ; Parrotta, John A. ; Auge, Harald ; Erickson, Heather E. ; Forrester, David Ian ; Hector, Andy ; Joshi, Jasmin ; Montagnini, Florencia ; Palmborg, Cecilia ; Piotto, Daniel ; Potvin, Catherine ; Roscher, Christiane ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Tilman, David ; Wilsey, Brian ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2017
    Nature Ecology & Evolution 1 (2017). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1639 - 1642.
    The effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning generally increase over time, but the underlying processes remain unclear. Using 26 long-term grassland and forest experimental ecosystems, we demonstrate that biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationships strengthen mainly by greater increases in functioning in high-diversity communities in grasslands and forests. In grasslands, biodiversity effects also strengthen due to decreases in functioning in low-diversity communities. Contrasting trends across grasslands are associated with differences in soil characteristics.
    Functional trait dissimilarity drives both species complementarity and competitive disparity
    Wagg, Cameron ; Ebeling, Anne ; Roscher, Christiane ; Ravenek, Janneke ; Bachmann, Dörte ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Mommer, Liesje ; Buchmann, Nina ; Hillebrand, Helmut ; Schmid, Bernhard ; Weisser, Wolfgang W. - \ 2017
    Functional Ecology 31 (2017)12. - ISSN 0269-8463 - p. 2320 - 2329.
    biodiversity - community ecology - competition - Jena experiment - trait-based experiment (TBE)
    Niche complementarity and competitive disparity are driving mechanisms behind plant community assembly and productivity. Consequently, there is great interest in predicting species complementarity and their competitive differences from their functional traits as dissimilar species may compete less and result in more complete use of resources. Here we assessed the role of trait dissimilarities for species complementarity and competitive disparities within an experimental gradient of plant species richness and functional trait dissimilarity. Communities were assembled using three pools of grass and forb species based on a priori knowledge of traits related to (1) above- and below-ground spatial differences in resource acquisition, (2) phenological differences or (3) both. Complementarity and competitive disparities were assessed by partitioning the overyielding in mixed species communities into species complementarity and dominance effects. Community overyielding and the underlying complementarity and competitive dominance varied strongly among the three plant species pools. Overyielding and complementarity were greatest among species that were assembled based on their variation in both spatial and phenological traits. Competitive dominance was greatest when species were assembled based on spatial resource acquisition traits alone. In communities that were assembled based on species variation in only spatial or phenological traits, greater competitive dominance was predicted by greater differences in SLA and flowering initiation respectively, while greater complementarity was predicted by greater dissimilarity in leaf area and flowering senescence respectively. Greater differences in leaf area could also be linked to greater species complementarity in communities assembled based on variation in both phenological and spatial traits, but trait dissimilarity was unrelated to competitive dominance in these communities. Our results indicate that complementarity and competitive disparity among species are both driven by trait dissimilarities. However, the identity of the traits that drives the complementarity and competitive disparity depends on the trait variation among species that comprise the community. Moreover, we demonstrate that communities assembled with the greater variation in both spatial and phenological traits show the greatest complementarity among species. A plain language summary is available for this article.
    Shifts of community composition and population density substantially affect ecosystem function despite invariant richness
    Spaak, Jurg W. ; Baert, Jan M. ; Baird, Donald J. ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Maltby, Lorraine ; Pomati, Francesco ; Radchuk, Viktoriia ; Rohr, Jason R. ; Brink, Paul J. van den; Laender, Frederik De - \ 2017
    Ecology Letters 20 (2017)10. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1315 - 1324.
    Algae - biodiversity - coexistence - community ecology - modelling - primary production

    There has been considerable focus on the impacts of environmental change on ecosystem function arising from changes in species richness. However, environmental change may affect ecosystem function without affecting richness, most notably by affecting population densities and community composition. Using a theoretical model, we find that, despite invariant richness, (1) small environmental effects may already lead to a collapse of function; (2) competitive strength may be a less important determinant of ecosystem function change than the selectivity of the environmental change driver and (3) effects on ecosystem function increase when effects on composition are larger. We also present a complementary statistical analysis of 13 data sets of phytoplankton and periphyton communities exposed to chemical stressors and show that effects on primary production under invariant richness ranged from −75% to +10%. We conclude that environmental protection goals relying on measures of richness could underestimate ecological impacts of environmental change.

    Root chemistry and soil fauna, but not soil abiotic conditions explain the effects of plant diversity on root decomposition
    Chen, Hongmei ; Oram, Natalie J. ; Barry, Kathryn E. ; Mommer, Liesje ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Kroon, Hans de; Ebeling, Anne ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Fischer, Christine ; Gleixner, Gerd ; Gessler, Arthur ; González Macé, Odette ; Hacker, Nina ; Hildebrandt, Anke ; Lange, Markus ; Scherer-lorenzen, Michael ; Scheu, Stefan ; Oelmann, Yvonne ; Wagg, Cameron ; Wilcke, Wolfgang ; Wirth, Christian ; Weigelt, Alexandra - \ 2017
    Oecologia 185 (2017)3. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 499 - 511.
    Functional groups - Jena Experiment - Root litter - SEM - Species richness
    Plant diversity influences many ecosystem functions including root decomposition. However, due to the presence of multiple pathways via which plant diversity may affect root decomposition, our mechanistic understanding of their relationships is limited. In a grassland biodiversity experiment, we simultaneously assessed the effects of three pathways—root litter quality, soil biota, and soil abiotic conditions—on the relationships between plant diversity (in terms of species richness and the presence/absence of grasses and legumes) and root decomposition using structural equation modeling. Our final structural equation model explained 70% of the variation in root mass loss. However, different measures of plant diversity included in our model operated via different pathways to alter root mass loss. Plant species richness had a negative effect on root mass loss. This was partially due to increased Oribatida abundance, but was weakened by enhanced root potassium (K) concentration in more diverse mixtures. Equally, grass presence negatively affected root mass loss. This effect of grasses was mostly mediated via increased root lignin concentration and supported via increased Oribatida abundance and decreased root K concentration. In contrast, legume presence showed a net positive effect on root mass loss via decreased root lignin concentration and increased root magnesium concentration, both of which led to enhanced root mass loss. Overall, the different measures of plant diversity had contrasting effects on root decomposition. Furthermore, we found that root chemistry and soil biota but not root morphology or soil abiotic conditions mediated these effects of plant diversity on root decomposition.
    Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning in a 15-year grassland experiment : Patterns, mechanisms, and open questions
    Weisser, Wolfgang ; Roscher, Christiane ; Meyer, Sebastian T. ; Ebeling, Anne ; Luo, Guangjuan ; Allan, Eric ; Beßler, Holger ; Barnard, Romain L. ; Buchmann, Nina ; Buscot, François ; Engels, Christof ; Fischer, Christine ; Fischer, Markus ; Gessler, Arthur ; Gleixner, Gerd ; Halle, Stefan ; Hildebrandt, Anke ; Hillebrand, Helmut ; Kroon, Hans de; Lange, Markus ; Leimer, Sophia ; Roux, Xavier Le; Milcu, Alexandru ; Mommer, Liesje ; Niklaus, Pascal A. ; Oelmann, Yvonne ; Proulx, Raphael ; Roy, Jacques ; Scherber, Christoph ; Scherer-lorenzen, Michael ; Scheu, Stefan ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Wachendorf, Michael ; Wagg, Cameron ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Wilcke, Wolfgang ; Wirth, Christian ; Schulze, Ernst Detlef ; Schmid, Bernhard ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2017
    Basic and Applied Ecology 23 (2017). - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 1 - 73.
    Biomass - Carbon storage - Complementarity - Multi-trophic interactions - Nutrient cycling - Selection effect
    In the past two decades, a large number of studies have investigated the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, most of which focussed on a limited set of ecosystem variables. The Jena Experiment was set up in 2002 to investigate the effects of plant diversity on element cycling and trophic interactions, using a multi-disciplinary approach. Here, we review the results of 15 years of research in the Jena Experiment, focussing on the effects of manipulating plant species richness and plant functional richness. With more than 85,000 measures taken from the plant diversity plots, the Jena Experiment has allowed answering fundamental questions important for functional biodiversity research.First, the question was how general the effect of plant species richness is, regarding the many different processes that take place in an ecosystem. About 45% of different types of ecosystem processes measured in the 'main experiment', where plant species richness ranged from 1 to 60 species, were significantly affected by plant species richness, providing strong support for the view that biodiversity is a significant driver of ecosystem functioning. Many measures were not saturating at the 60-species level, but increased linearly with the logarithm of species richness. There was, however, great variability in the strength of response among different processes. One striking pattern was that many processes, in particular belowground processes, took several years to respond to the manipulation of plant species richness, showing that biodiversity experiments have to be long-term, to distinguish trends from transitory patterns. In addition, the results from the Jena Experiment provide further evidence that diversity begets stability, for example stability against invasion of plant species, but unexpectedly some results also suggested the opposite, e.g. when plant communities experience severe perturbations or elevated resource availability. This highlights the need to revisit diversity-stability theory.Second, we explored whether individual plant species or individual plant functional groups, or biodiversity itself is more important for ecosystem functioning, in particular biomass production. We found strong effects of individual species and plant functional groups on biomass production, yet these effects mostly occurred in addition to, but not instead of, effects of plant species richness.Third, the Jena Experiment assessed the effect of diversity on multitrophic interactions. The diversity of most organisms responded positively to increases in plant species richness, and the effect was stronger for above- than for belowground organisms, and stronger for herbivores than for carnivores or detritivores. Thus, diversity begets diversity. In addition, the effect on organismic diversity was stronger than the effect on species abundances.Fourth, the Jena Experiment aimed to assess the effect of diversity on N, P and C cycling and the water balance of the plots, separating between element input into the ecosystem, element turnover, element stocks, and output from the ecosystem. While inputs were generally less affected by plant species richness, measures of element stocks, turnover and output were often positively affected by plant diversity, e.g. carbon storage strongly increased with increasing plant species richness. Variables of the N cycle responded less strongly to plant species richness than variables of the C cycle.Fifth, plant traits are often used to unravel mechanisms underlying the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. In the Jena Experiment, most investigated plant traits, both above- and belowground, were plastic and trait expression depended on plant diversity in a complex way, suggesting limitation to using database traits for linking plant traits to particular functions.Sixth, plant diversity effects on ecosystem processes are often caused by plant diversity effects on species interactions. Analyses in the Jena Experiment including structural equation modelling suggest complex interactions that changed with diversity, e.g. soil carbon storage and greenhouse gas emission were affected by changes in the composition and activity of the belowground microbial community. Manipulation experiments, in which particular organisms, e.g. belowground invertebrates, were excluded from plots in split-plot experiments, supported the important role of the biotic component for element and water fluxes.Seventh, the Jena Experiment aimed to put the results into the context of agricultural practices in managed grasslands. The effect of increasing plant species richness from 1 to 16 species on plant biomass was, in absolute terms, as strong as the effect of a more intensive grassland management, using fertiliser and increasing mowing frequency. Potential bioenergy production from high-diversity plots was similar to that of conventionally used energy crops. These results suggest that diverse 'High Nature Value Grasslands' are multifunctional and can deliver a range of ecosystem services including production-related services.A final task was to assess the importance of potential artefacts in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships, caused by the weeding of the plant community to maintain plant species composition. While the effort (in hours) needed to weed a plot was often negatively related to plant species richness, species richness still affected the majority of ecosystem variables. Weeding also did not negatively affect monoculture performance; rather, monocultures deteriorated over time for a number of biological reasons, as shown in plant-soil feedback experiments.To summarize, the Jena Experiment has allowed for a comprehensive analysis of the functional role of biodiversity in an ecosystem. A main challenge for future biodiversity research is to increase our mechanistic understanding of why the magnitude of biodiversity effects differs among processes and contexts. It is likely that there will be no simple answer. For example, among the multitude of mechanisms suggested to underlie the positive plant species richness effect on biomass, some have received limited support in the Jena Experiment, such as vertical root niche partitioning. However, others could not be rejected in targeted analyses. Thus, from the current results in the Jena Experiment, it seems likely that the positive biodiversity effect results from several mechanisms acting simultaneously in more diverse communities, such as reduced pathogen attack, the presence of more plant growth promoting organisms, less seed limitation, and increased trait differences leading to complementarity in resource uptake. Distinguishing between different mechanisms requires careful testing of competing hypotheses. Biodiversity research has matured such that predictive approaches testing particular mechanisms are now possible.
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