Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

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    Transition pathways - contours of an analytical framework
    Elzen, Boelie ; Haas, Wim de; Wigboldus, Seerp ; Bos, Bram ; Dijkshoorn-Dekker, Marijke - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business Unit Field Crops (Report WPR 839) - 30
    ZEEVIVO Zeewier in visvoer : Visproductie: selectie en karakterisatie van op zeewier gebaseerde eiwitconcentraten voor visvoeders
    Kals, Jeroen ; Schram, Edward ; Elzen, Fedor den; Hertfelder, Luca ; Hylkema, Alwin - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen Livestock Research 1223) - 43
    Taking stock of national climate policies to evaluate implementation of the Paris Agreement
    Roelfsema, Mark ; Soest, Heleen L. van; Harmsen, Mathijs ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Bertram, Christoph ; Elzen, Michel den; Höhne, Niklas ; Iacobuta, Gabriela ; Krey, Volker ; Kriegler, Elmar ; Luderer, Gunnar ; Riahi, Keywan ; Ueckerdt, Falko ; Després, Jacques ; Drouet, Laurent ; Emmerling, Johannes ; Frank, Stefan ; Fricko, Oliver ; Gidden, Matthew ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Huppmann, Daniel ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Fragkiadakis, Kostas ; Gi, Keii ; Keramidas, Kimon ; Köberle, Alexandre C. ; Aleluia Reis, Lara ; Rochedo, Pedro ; Schaeffer, Roberto ; Oshiro, Ken ; Vrontisi, Zoi ; Chen, Wenying ; Iyer, Gokul C. ; Edmonds, Jae ; Kannavou, Maria ; Jiang, Kejun ; Mathur, Ritu ; Safonov, George ; Vishwanathan, Saritha Sudharmma - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    Many countries have implemented national climate policies to accomplish pledged Nationally Determined Contributions and to contribute to the temperature objectives of the Paris Agreement on climate change. In 2023, the global stocktake will assess the combined effort of countries. Here, based on a public policy database and a multi-model scenario analysis, we show that implementation of current policies leaves a median emission gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq by 2030 with the optimal pathways to implement the well below 2 °C and 1.5 °C Paris goals. If Nationally Determined Contributions would be fully implemented, this gap would be reduced by a third. Interestingly, the countries evaluated were found to not achieve their pledged contributions with implemented policies (implementation gap), or to have an ambition gap with optimal pathways towards well below 2 °C. This shows that all countries would need to accelerate the implementation of policies for renewable technologies, while efficiency improvements are especially important in emerging countries and fossil-fuel-dependent countries.

    Natuur maand voor op schema, volgende week hooikoorts van els
    Vliet, A.J.H. van; Hofhuis, Hidde ; Bron, W.A. ; Weger, L.A. de - \ 2019
    Nature Today
    Door de zeer warme december en januari ligt de ontwikkeling in de natuur een maand voor op schema. Overal wordt de voorlente steeds duidelijker zichtbaar met bloeiende hazelaars, sneeuwklokjes en elzen. De komende week komt de tweede lichting elzenpollen in de lucht. Hooikoortspatiënten en huisartsen dienen daar bedacht op te zijn. We verwachten tot half maart elzenpollen in de lucht.
    The RIO approach: Design and anchoring of sustainable animal husbandry systems
    Elzen, Boelie ; Bos, Bram - \ 2019
    Technological Forecasting and Social Change 145 (2019). - ISSN 0040-1625 - p. 141 - 152.
    Anchoring of sustainable innovations - Animal husbandry - Reflexive Interactive Design (RIO) - Sustainable design - Transition stimulation

    This paper discusses an approach to develop new ‘integrally sustainable’ animal production systems and stimulate their uptake in practice. It consists of a design approach called RIO, and a set of ‘anchoring’ activities to stimulate their uptake in niches and in the regime. In the period 2001–2015 we have applied the approach in various animal production sectors, and adapted and improved it while doing. The general aim of the paper is to assess the applicability of the RIO/anchoring approach to induce sustainability transitions. We conclude that RIO is especially suited for areas characterized by a ‘heterogeneous’ set of sustainability challenges (in our case, environmental burden, animal welfare, public acceptance, profitability). A RIO approach can then render ‘integrally sustainable’ alternatives that generate wide interest in the regime. Anchoring activities can successfully stimulate a variety of initial changes. This does not suffice, however, and a conducive institutional environment is key to facilitate the initial uptake of the novel systems. With relatively simple and cheap financial instruments, governments can help to create such a conducive environment.

    Implications of various effort-sharing approaches for national carbon budgets and emission pathways
    Berg, Nicole J. van den; Soest, Heleen L. van; Hof, Andries F. ; Elzen, Michel G.J. den; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Chen, Wenying ; Drouet, Laurent ; Emmerling, Johannes ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Höhne, Niklas ; Kõberle, Alexandre C. ; McCollum, David ; Schaeffer, Roberto ; Shekhar, Swapnil ; Vishwanathan, Saritha Sudharmma ; Vrontisi, Zoi ; Blok, Kornelis - \ 2019
    Climatic Change (2019). - ISSN 0165-0009

    The bottom-up approach of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) in the Paris Agreement has led countries to self-determine their greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. The planned ‘ratcheting-up’ process, which aims to ensure that the NDCs comply with the overall goal of limiting global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C or even 1.5 °C, will most likely include some evaluation of ‘fairness’ of these reduction targets. In the literature, fairness has been discussed around equity principles, for which many different effort-sharing approaches have been proposed. In this research, we analysed how country-level emission targets and carbon budgets can be derived based on such criteria. We apply novel methods directly based on the global carbon budget, and, for comparison, more commonly used methods using GHG mitigation pathways. For both, we studied the following approaches: equal cumulative per capita emissions, contraction and convergence, grandfathering, greenhouse development rights and ability to pay. As the results critically depend on parameter settings, we used the wide authorship from a range of countries included in this paper to determine default settings and sensitivity analyses. Results show that effort-sharing approaches that (i) calculate required reduction targets in carbon budgets (relative to baseline budgets) and/or (ii) take into account historical emissions when determining carbon budgets can lead to (large) negative remaining carbon budgets for developed countries. This is the case for the equal cumulative per capita approach and especially the greenhouse development rights approach. Furthermore, for developed countries, all effort-sharing approaches except grandfathering lead to more stringent budgets than cost-optimal budgets, indicating that cost-optimal approaches do not lead to outcomes that can be regarded as fair according to most effort-sharing approaches.

    Are the G20 economies making enough progress to meet their NDC targets?
    Elzen, Michel den; Kuramochi, Takeshi ; Höhne, Niklas ; Cantzler, Jasmin ; Esmeijer, Kendall ; Fekete, Hanna ; Fransen, Taryn ; Keramidas, Kimon ; Roelfsema, Mark ; Sha, Fu ; Soest, Heleen van; Vandyck, Toon - \ 2019
    Energy Policy 126 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 238 - 250.
    China - G20 economies - National climate and energy policies - NDCs - Paris Agreement

    Under the Paris Agreement, countries committed to a variety of climate actions, including post-2020 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets. This study compares projected GHG emissions in the G20 economies under current climate policies to those under the GHG targets outlined in the nationally determined contributions (NDCs). It is based on an assessment of official governmental estimates and independent national and global studies. The study concludes that six G20 members (China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Russia and Turkey) are projected to meet their unconditional NDC targets with current policies. Eight members (Argentina, Australia, Canada, the European Union, Republic of Korea, South Africa and the United States) require further action to achieve their targets. Insufficient information is available for Saudi Arabia, and emission projections for Brazil and Mexico are subject to considerable uncertainty. The study also presents high-level decarbonisation indicators to better understand the current progress towards meeting the NDCs – Saudi Arabia and South Africa were found to continue increasing both emission intensity per unit GDP and emissions per capita under current policies by 2030 from 2015 levels.

    Deliverable 5.2. Scenarios for legume value chain development across Europe : Fostering sustainable legume-based farming systems and agri-feed and food chains in the EU
    Kootstra, A.M.J. ; Elzen, B. ; Schoorlemmer, H.B. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2018
    Wageningen : LegValue - 27
    In order to reduce its dependency on legume imports (mainly soya bean), which poses a risk for EU livestock production, the European Union wants to promote the development of legume production chains in the EU. The goal of the analysis discussed in this report is to identify a robust package of interventions that, when applied as a strategy, can be used to promote the development of legume value chains under different future conditions. This analysis is to be used as input for the workshop to be held in Roskilde in March 2018. In a scenario analysis using two dimensions – one on economics and one on EU cohesion – we defined four very different scenario’s, or Visions of the Future. We characterise these on three levels: firstly, on a societal level using STEEP methodology, secondly, on the level of the agro-food system, and thirdly, specifically on legumes for food and feed application. We analysed a variety of optional interventions for the promotion of legume value chains forrobustness under the different visions of the future. The exploration described in this report leads to the conclusion that knowledge interventions are the most robust as a strategy implemented to promote the development of legume value chains in the European Union, taking the very different visions of the future into account. It is however also important to realise that in real life implementation of innovations, conditions will not vary as much as they do in the visionscharacterised in this report, and that the act of doing an exploration of possible interventions is an important part of finding a suitable strategy.
    Reducing global GHG emissions by replicating successful sector examples : the ‘good practice policies’ scenario
    Roelfsema, Mark ; Fekete, Hanna ; Höhne, Niklas ; Elzen, Michel den; Forsell, Nicklas ; Kuramochi, Takeshi ; Coninck, Heleen de; Vuuren, Detlef P. van - \ 2018
    Climate Policy 18 (2018)9. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 1103 - 1113.
    2°C limit - Enhancing ambition - integrated assessment modelling - sector indicators - successful policies
    This article shows the potential impact on global GHG emissions in 2030, if all countries were to implement sectoral climate policies similar to successful examples already implemented elsewhere. This assessment was represented in the IMAGE and GLOBIOM/G4M models by replicating the impact of successful national policies at the sector level in all world regions. The first step was to select successful policies in nine policy areas. In the second step, the impact on the energy and land-use systems or GHG emissions was identified and translated into model parameters, assuming that it would be possible to translate the impacts of the policies to other countries. As a result, projected annual GHG emission levels would be about 50 GtCO2e by 2030 (2% above 2010 levels), compared to the 60 GtCO2e in the ‘current policies’ scenario. Most reductions are achieved in the electricity sector through expanding renewable energy, followed by the reduction of fluorinated gases, reducing venting and flaring in oil and gas production, and improving industry efficiency. Materializing the calculated mitigation potential might not be as straightforward given different country priorities, policy preferences and circumstances. Key policy insightsConsiderable emissions reductions globally would be possible, if a selection of successful policies were replicated and implemented in all countries worldwide.This would significantly reduce, but not close, the emissions gap with a 2°C pathway.From the selection of successful policies evaluated in this study, those implemented in the sector ‘electricity supply’ have the highest impact on global emissions compared to the ‘current policies’ scenario.Replicating the impact of these policies worldwide could lead to emission and energy trends in the renewable electricity, passenger transport, industry (including fluorinated gases) and buildings sector, that are close to those in a 2°C scenario.Using successful policies and translating these to policy impact per sector is a more reality-based alternative to most mitigation pathways, which need to make theoretical assumptions on policy cost-effectiveness.
    Op weg naar de echte prijs, echte waarde en echte winst van voedsel : Een routekaart om te sturen op de maatschappelijke effecten van voedsel
    Groot Ruiz, Adrian de; Baltussen, Willy ; Adelhart Toorop, Renier de; Elzen, Floor van den; Janssen, Bas ; Keeken, Roland van; Logatcheva, Katja ; Martinius, Evelijn ; Ponsioen, Tommie - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2018-016) - ISBN 9789463437677 - 85
    The effect of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on routine haematological parameters in older people : an individual participant data meta-analysis
    Smelt, Antonia F.H. ; Gussekloo, Jacobijn ; Bermingham, Lynette W. ; Allen, Elizabeth ; Dangour, Alan D. ; Eussen, Simone J.P.M. ; Favrat, Bernard ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Kok, Frans J. ; Kwok, Timothy ; Mangoni, Arduino A. ; Ntaios, George ; Rest, Ondine van de; Seal, Eric ; Vaucher, Paul ; Verhoef, Petra ; Stijnen, Theo ; Elzen, Wendy P.J. Den - \ 2018
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72 (2018)6. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 785 - 795.
    Background/objectives: Low vitamin B12 and folate levels in community-dwelling older people are usually corrected with supplements. However, the effect of this supplementation on haematological parameters in older persons is not known. Therefore, we executed a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs). Subjects/methods: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane and CENTRAL for RCTs published between January 1950 and April 2016, where community-dwelling elderly (60+ years) who were treated with vitamin B12 or folic acid or placebo. The presence of anaemia was not required. We analysed the data on haematological parameters with a two-stage IPD meta-analysis. Results: We found 494 full papers covering 14 studies. Data were shared by the authors of four RCTs comparing vitamin B12 with placebo (n = 343) and of three RCTs comparing folic acid with placebo (n = 929). We found no effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on haemoglobin (change 0.00 g/dL, 95% CI: −0.19;0.18), and no effect of folic acid supplementation (change −0.09 g/dL, 95% CI: −0.19;0.01). The effects of supplementation on other haematological parameters were similar. The effects did not differ by sex or by age group. Also, no effect was found in a subgroup of patients with anaemia and a subgroup of patients who were treated >4 weeks. Conclusions: Evidence on the effects of supplementation of low concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate on haematological parameters in community-dwelling older people is inconclusive. Further research is needed before firm recommendations can be made concerning the supplementation of vitamin B12 and folate.
    Assessing the ambition of post-2020 climate targets : a comprehensive framework
    Höhne, Niklas ; Fekete, Hanna ; Elzen, Michel G.J. den; Hof, Andries F. ; Kuramochi, Takeshi - \ 2018
    Climate Policy 18 (2018)4. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 425 - 441.
    ambition - global stocktake - INDCs - NDCs - Paris agreement - UNFCCC
    One of the most fundamental questions surrounding the new Paris Agreement is whether countries’ proposals to reduce GHG emissions after 2020 are equally ambitious, considering differences in circumstances between countries. We review a variety of approaches to assess the ambition of the GHG emission reduction proposals by countries. The approaches are applied illustratively to the mitigation part of the post-2020 climate proposals (nationally determined contributions, or NDCs) by China, the EU, and the US. The analysis reveals several clear trends, even though the results differ per individual assessment approach. We recommend that such a comprehensive ambition assessment framework, employing a large variety of approaches, is used in the future to capture a wide spectrum of perspectives on ambition. POLICY RELEVANCE Assessing the ambition of the national climate proposals is particularly important as the Paris Agreement asks for regular reviews of national contributions, keeping in mind that countries raise their ambition over time. Such an assessment will be an important part of the regular global stocktake that will take place every five years, starting with a ‘light’ version in 2018. However, comprehensive methods to assess the proposals are lacking. This article provides such a comprehensive assessment framework.
    Exploring fair and ambitious mitigation contributions under the Paris Agreement goals
    Pan, Xunzhang ; Elzen, Michel den; Höhne, Niklas ; Teng, Fei ; Wang, Lining - \ 2017
    Environmental Science & Policy 74 (2017). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 49 - 56.
    Climate change - Effort-sharing - Fairness - NDCs - Paris Agreement
    In order to achieve the Paris Agreement goals of keeping the temperature rise well below 2 °C or even 1.5 °C, all countries would need to make fair and ambitious contributions to reducing emissions. A vast majority of countries have adopted reduction targets by 2030 in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). There are many alternative ways to analyze the fairness of national mitigation contributions. This article uses a model framework based on six equity principles of effort-sharing, to allocate countries’ reduction targets under global emissions scenarios consistent with meeting the Paris climate goals. It further compares these allocations with the NDCs. The analysis shows that most countries need to adopt more ambitious reduction targets by 2030 to meet 2 °C, and even more for 1.5 °C. In the context of 2 °C, the NDCs of the United States of America and the European Union lack ambition with respect to the approaches that emphasize responsibility; China's NDC projection falls short of satisfying any approach in 2030. In the context of 1.5 °C, only India, by implementing its most ambitious efforts by 2030, could be in line with most equity principles. For most countries, the NDCs would use most of their allowed emissions space for the entire 21 st century by 2030, posing a major challenge to transform to a pathway consistent with their fair contributions in the long-term.
    AgroEcological Transitions: Changes and breakthroughs in the making
    Mierlo, B.C. van; Augustyn, Anna Maria ; Elzen, B. ; Barbier, Marc - \ 2017
    In: AgroEcological Transitions / Elzen, Boelie, Augustyn, Anna Maria, Barbier, Marc, van Mierlo, Barbara, Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463431149 - p. 9 - 16.
    Creating Niches by applying Reflexive Interactive Design
    Bremmer, B. ; Bos, A.P. - \ 2017
    In: AgroEcological Transitions / Elzen, Boelie, Augustyn, Anna Maria, Barbier, Marc, van Mierlo, Barbara, Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463431149 - p. 19 - 34.
    Portfolio of promises: Designing and testing a new tool to stimulate transition towards sustainable agriculture
    Elzen, B. ; Janssen, A.P.H.M. ; Bos, A.P. - \ 2017
    In: AgroEcological Transitions / Elzen, Boelie, Augustyn, Anna Maria, Barbier, Marc, van Mierlo, Barbara, Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463431149 - p. 143 - 161.
    Role of NGOs in system innovation towards animal friendly pork production in the Netherlands
    Buurma, J.S. ; Hoes, A.C. ; Greef, K.H. de; Beekman, V. - \ 2017
    In: AgroEcological Transitions / Elzen, Boelie, Augustyn, Anna Maria, Barbier, Marc, van Mierlo, Barbara, Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463431149 - p. 162 - 175.
    Reflexivity, reflection and learning in the context of system innovation: Prying loose entangled concepts
    Beers, Pieter Jelle ; Mierlo, B.C. van - \ 2017
    In: AgroEcological Transitions / Elzen, Boelie, Augustyn, Anna Maria, Barbier, Marc, van Mierlo, Barbara, Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463431149 - p. 243 - 256.
    Conclusion: a Curiosity Cabinet of Agro-Ecological Transition Studies
    Barbier, Marc ; Elzen, B. ; Mierlo, B.C. van; Augustyn, Anna Maria - \ 2017
    In: AgroEcological Transitions / Elzen, Boelie, Augustyn, Anna Maria, Barbier, Marc, van Mierlo, Barbara, Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463431149 - p. 283 - 295.
    AgroEcological Transitions : changes and breakthroughs in the making
    Elzen, Boelie ; Augustyn, Anna Maria ; Barbier, Marc ; Mierlo, Barbara van - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463431149 - 302
    To underline the need for radical, systemic changes, we have chosen the term “AgroEcological Transitions” for the title of this volume. It stresses that a transition towards sustainable agriculture requires more than improving agribusiness as usual. To us, agroecology refers to broad and varied processes of experimentation and innovation that often start in niches and have the potential of transforming the dominant agri-food system into a more sustainable one. Analysing these ongoing processes will increase our understanding of transformative change. The chapters of this book reflect the need for such insights by analysing a broad variety of agroecological ‘breakthroughs-in-the-making’.
    Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °c
    Rogelj, Joeri ; Elzen, Michel Den; Höhne, Niklas ; Fransen, Taryn ; Fekete, Hanna ; Winkler, Harald ; Schaeffer, Roberto ; Sha, Fu ; Riahi, Keywan ; Meinshausen, Malte - \ 2016
    Nature 534 (2016)7609. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 631 - 639.

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to "pursue efforts" to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here we assess the effect of current INDCs on reducing aggregate greenhouse gas emissions, its implications for achieving the temperature objective of the Paris climate agreement, and potential options for overachievement. The INDCs collectively lower greenhouse gas emissions compared to where current policies stand, but still imply a median warming of 2.6-3.1 degrees Celsius by 2100. More can be achieved, because the agreement stipulates that targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are strengthened over time, both in ambition and scope. Substantial enhancement or over-delivery on current INDCs by additional national, sub-national and non-state actions is required to maintain a reasonable chance of meeting the target of keeping warming well below 2 degrees Celsius.

    Greenhouse gas emissions from current and enhanced policies of China until 2030 : Can emissions peak before 2030?
    Elzen, Michel den; Fekete, Hanna ; Höhne, Niklas ; Admiraal, Annemiek ; Forsell, Nicklas ; Hof, A.F. ; Olivier, J.G.J. ; Roelfsema, Mark ; Soest, Heleen van - \ 2016
    Energy Policy 89 (2016). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 224 - 236.
    Climate agreement - National climate and energy policies - Renewable targets

    In June 2015, China announced its post-2020 reduction targets, its central element being the intention to peak CO2 emissions by 2030 or earlier. China has implemented several policies to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study provides emission projections for China up to 2030 given current policies and a selected set of enhanced policies, and compares the results with projected CO2 emission trajectories that are consistent with the announced target for 2030. The projections are based on existing scenarios and energy system and land use model calculations. We project that the 2030 CO2 emission level consistent with a peak in CO2 emissions by 2030 ranges from 11.3 to 11.8 GtCO2. The corresponding total GHG emission level ranges from 13.5 to 14.0 GtCO2e in 2030. Current policies are likely not to be sufficient to achieve the 2030 targets, as our projected total GHG emission level under current policies ranges from 14.7 to 15.4 GtCO2e by 2030. However, an illustrative set of enhancement policy measures, all of which are related to national priorities, leads to projected GHG emission levels from 13.1 to 13.7 GtCO2e by 2030 - and thus below the levels necessary for peaking CO2 emissions before 2030.

    Costs, benefits and interlinkages between adaptation and mitigation
    Hof, Andries ; Bruin, Kelly De; Dellink, Rob ; Elzen, Michel Den; Vuuren, Detlef Van - \ 2014
    In: Global Climate Governance beyond 2012 Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9780521190114 - p. 235 - 254.

    The thirteenth Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2007 decided that developing countries should be compensated for adaptation costs to climate change through the Adaptation Fund (first draft decision of the third session of the conference of the parties serving as the meeting of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol). This shows that adaptation to climate change has become important in international climate negotiations. Today, adaptation is widely recognized as an equally important and complementary response to climate change mitigation (for example, Commission of the European Communities 2007; IPCC 2007a; Agrawala and Fankhauser 2008). Still, relatively little information is available to support more integrated climate policies that focus on both mitigation and adaptation (Klein et al. 2005). In particular, in integrated assessment models that aim at supporting climate policy by analysing their economic and environmental consequences and formulating efficient responses, explicit consideration of adaptation is still in its infancy (Tol 2005; Wilbanks 2005; Agrawala et al. 2008). This chapter tries to fill the gap in integrated assessment models by integrating adaptation and residual damage functions from AD-RICE (de Bruin et al. 2009) with the FAIR model (den Elzen and van Vuuren 2007; Hof et al. 2008). This version of the FAIR model (from now on called AD-FAIR) enables an analysis of the interactions between mitigation, emissions trading, adaptation and residual damages (that is, damages not avoided by adaptation measures) on a global as well as regional scale. Furthermore, adaptation is modelled explicitly as a policy variable, providing insights in the economic consequences of adaptation. This information is vital for effective adaptation governance.

    Portfolio of Promises. Designing and testing a new tool to stimulate transition towards sustainable agriculture
    Elzen, Boelie - \ 2014
    Assessing the 'Portofolio of Promises'- A new tool to stimulate transitions towards sustainable agriculture
    Elzen, B. ; Janssen, A.P.H.M. ; Bos, A.P. - \ 2014
    To stimulate sustainable innovation, the MLP, and the governance strategies based on it (like SNM and Transition Management), provide a number of useful tools. For the agricultural sectors, however, with its multi-variety of relevant sustainability aspects and its wide range of 'bottom-up' innovation initiatives by entrepreneurial farmers, these approaches have serious shortcomings. To address this, we have developed a 'Learning and Experimentation Strategy' (LES) in which a novelty is indicated with the term 'promise'. The term expresses that a novelty has attractive features from a certain sustainability perspective, but it has also problematic or unknown sides. Importantly, LES not only looks at individual promises but at a whole range, called the 'portfolio of promises'. Several of these may be connected as 'smart combinations' to address a wider range of sustainability aspects. The PoP as a tool is basically a database that contains information on a variety of aspects for each promise. The paper describes four tests that we have carried out with this tool in the animal production sector. This has led us to refine the strategies for using the LES approach as well change the architecture of the PoP to tune it to various specific applications. Although this is still work in progress, the tests indicate that the PoP can be used successfully as a tool in stimulating innovation towards sustainability.
    Are major economies on track to achieve their pledges for 2020? An assessment of domestic climate and energy policies
    Roelfsema, M. ; Elzen, M.G.J. den; Hoehne, N.E. ; Hof, A.F. ; Braun, N. ; Fekete, H. ; Böttcher, H. ; Brandsma, R. ; Larkin, J. - \ 2014
    Energy Policy 67 (2014). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 781 - 796.
    gas emission reductions - annex i countries
    Many of the major greenhouse gas emitting countries have planned and/or implemented domestic mitigation policies, such as carbon taxes, feed-in tariffs, or standards. This study analyses whether the most effective national climate and energy policies are sufficient to stay on track for meeting the emission reduction proposals (pledges) that countries made for 2020. The analysis shows that domestic policies of India, China and Russia are projected to lead to lower emission levels than the pledged levels. Australia's and the EU's nationally legally binding policy framework is likely to deliver their unconditional pledges, but not the conditional ones. The situation is rather unclear for Japan, South Korea, Brazil and Indonesia. We project that policies of Canada and the USA will reduce 2020 emission levels, but additional policies are probably needed to deliver their pledges in full. The analysis also shows that countries are implementing policies or targets in various areas to a varying degree: all major countries have set renewable energy targets; many have recently implemented efficiency standards for cars, and new emission trading systems are emerging.
    Regional GHG reduction targets based on effort sharing: a comparison of studies
    Höhne, N. ; Elzen, M.G.J. den; Escalante, D. - \ 2014
    Climate Policy 14 (2014)1. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 122 - 147.
    future commitments - emission allowances - sectoral approach - abatement costs - climate policy - greenhouse - differentiation - mitigation - triptych - countries
    Over 40 studies that analyse future GHG emissions allowances or reduction targets for different regions based on a wide range of effort-sharing approaches and long-term concentration stabilization levels are compared. This updates previous work undertaken for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Regional reduction targets differ significantly for each effort-sharing approach. For example, in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 1990 region, new proposals that emphasize the equity principles of responsibility, capability, and need, and those based on equal cumulative per capita emissions (carbon budgets), lead to relatively stringent emissions reduction targets. In order to reach a low concentration stabilization level of 450 ppm CO2e, the allowances under all effort sharing approaches in OECD1990 for 2030 would be approximately half of the emissions of 2010 with a large range, roughly two-thirds in the Economies in Transition (EIT), roughly at the 2010 emissions level or slightly below in Asia, slightly above the 2010 level in the Middle East and Africa and well below the 2010 level in Latin America. For 2050, allowances in OECD1990 and EIT would be a fraction of today's emissions, approximately half of 2010 emission levels in Asia, and possibly less than half of the 2010 level in Latin America.
    The emissions gap report 2013 - A UNEP Synthesis Report
    Elzen, M.G.J. den; Fransen, T. ; Rogner, H.H. ; Luderer, G. ; Rogelj, J. ; Schaeffer, R. ; Neufeldt, H. ; Hoehne, N.E. ; Morgan, J. ; Olhoff, A. - \ 2013
    Nairobi, Kenya : United Nations Environment Programme - ISBN 9789280733532 - 45
    Countries’ contributions to climate change: effect of accounting for all greenhouse gases, recent trends, basic needs and technological progress
    Elzen, M.J. ; Olivier, J.J. ; Hoehne, N.E. ; Janssens-Maenhout, G. - \ 2013
    Climatic Change 121 (2013)1. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 397 - 412.
    brazilian proposal - land-use - responsibility - emissions - choices - co2
    In the context of recent discussions at the UN climate negotiations we compared several ways of calculating historical greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and assessed the effect of these different approaches on countries’ relative contributions to cumulative global emissions. Elements not covered before are: (i) including recent historical emissions (2000–2010), (ii) discounting historical emissions to account for technological progress; (iii) deducting emissions for ‘basic needs’; (iv) including projected emissions up to 2020, based on countries’ unconditional reduction proposals for 2020. Our analysis shows that countries’ contributions vary significantly based on the choices made in the calculation: e.g. the relative contribution of developed countries as a group can be as high as 80 % when excluding recent emissions, non-CO2 GHGs, and land-use change and forestry CO2; or about 48 % when including all these emissions and discounting historical emissions for technological progress. Excluding non-CO2 GHGs and land-use change and forestry CO2 significantly changes relative historical contributions for many countries, altering countries’ relative contributions by multiplicative factors ranging from 0.15 to 1.5 compared to reference values (i.e. reference contribution calculations cover the period 1850-2010 and all GHG emissions). Excluding 2000–2010 emissions decreases the contributions of most emerging economies (factor of up to 0.8). Discounting historical emissions for technological progress reduces the relative contributions of some developed countries (factor of 0.8) and increases those of some developing countries (factor of 1.2–1.5). Deducting emissions for ‘basic needs’ results in smaller contributions for countries with low per capita emissions (factor of 0.3–0.5). Finally, including projected emissions up to 2020 further increases the relative contributions of emerging economies by a factor of 1.2, or 1.5 when discounting pre-2020 emissions for technological progress.
    Bridging incompatible regimes: how the formation of intermediary regimes drives system innovation
    Flinterman, J.F. ; Roep, D. ; Luijer, A. - \ 2013
    In: System Innovations, Knowledge Regimes, and Design Practices towards Transitions for Sustainable Agriculture / Barbier, M., Elzen, B., France : Inra - Science for Action and Development - ISBN 9782738013064 - p. 86 - 100.
    System innovations, which comprise changes in socio-technical networks, rules and routines governing particular fields of practice, are generally regarded as essential to a transition towards sustainability. Various researchers have tried to unravel the pathways of system innovations in order to understand how these innovations can be stimulated or facilitated as part of transition management. This chapter aims to contribute to knowledge on system innovation pathways by studying the development of care farming as a cross-sector system innovation. Care farming is a rapidly expanding form of multifunctional agriculture that combines agricultural production with an offer of day-care to a diversity of clients. It emerged when a few pioneers started to provide care services at their farms and successfully integrated the different regimes governing the rather distinct fields of agriculture and care. Since then, the number of care farms has increased substantially. A new intermediate care farming regime has evolved, comprising new rules and routines, and embedded in regionally and nationally organized care farmer networks that are increasingly acknowledged by the healthcare sector. Our findings suggest that, at niche level, farmer strategies of (individual and collective) alignment and self-empowerment facilitate the development and maturing of a new regime. At regime level, supporting pioneers, creating room for experimentation, and looking beyond sector borders are factors that contribute to the successful realization of system innovations.
    Innovation for sustainable egg production: realigning production with societal demands in The Netherlands
    Spoelstra, S.F. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. ; Bos, A.P. ; Elzen, B. ; Leenstra, F.R. - \ 2013
    Worlds Poultry Science Journal 69 (2013)2. - ISSN 0043-9339 - p. 279 - 298.
    poultry production systems - animal-welfare - laying hens - environment - management - quality - model
    This paper describes an innovation trajectory for sustainability in egg production in The Netherlands in the period 2002-2012. In the approach as well as in the analyses, insights from scientific disciplines that have studied transformations towards sustainability were adopted. Central stage is the project ‘Keeping and loving hens’ and its outcome, by a variety of follow up activities, in terms of technical changes as well as rearrangements of key players in the Dutch egg sector. The ‘Keeping and loving hens’ project was meant to contribute to a change in the Dutch egg sector towards sustainability by explicating and integrating the basic needs of the hen, farmer and citizen in an interactive design process with stakeholder involvement. At the end of the project, various other projects and activities by different key players has taken place, several of which have been evaluated and published. Together they provide a detailed description of a pathway of change. The multiple design goals included income for the farmer, acceptance by the public and improved animal welfare. Analyses has shown that designing well-founded images for laying hen husbandry systems created a learning network for sustainable egg production and elicited entrepreneurial innovations which gained the support of both animal welfare and retail organisations. Furthermore, it prompted government to develop additional policy instruments to support innovation for sustainable development. By early 2012, four laying hen farms in The Netherlands had adopted the principles developed in the project including functional areas for hens, coverable runs, no beak trimming and visitor's facilities to improve local embedment. Their production represented about 0.4% of total egg production in The Netherlands. The most important outcome, however, was a realignment of key players including farmers, retail, animal welfare organizations and government. Together they contribute to a pattern of emerging supply chains characterised by improved animal husbandry at the farm level in combination with an emerging market that is prepared to pay a premium for these products.
    Copenhagen Accord Pledges imply higher costs for staying below 2°C warming
    Vliet, J. van; Berg, M. van den; Schaeffer, M. ; Vuuren, D. van; Elzen, M. ; Hof, A. van 't; Mendoza Beltran, A. ; Meinshausen, M. - \ 2012
    Climatic Change 113 (2012)2. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 551 - 561.
    non-co2 greenhouse gases - concentration targets - model
    This study compares emission pathways aimed at limiting temperature increase to 2°C under varying constraints. In a first set of pathways, the timing of emission reductions is such that over the 2010–2100 period, assuming full participation from 2013 onwards, mitigation costs are minimized. In a second set of pathways, we set emissions in 2020 at a level based on the pledges of the Copenhagen Accord. In the ‘Copenhagen Potential’ scenario, climate talks result in satisfying conditions linked by countries to their ‘most ambitious’ proposals. Contrasting, in the ‘Copenhagen Current’ scenario, climate talks fall short of satisfying the conditions to move beyond current unilateral pledges. We include scenarios with and without the availability of bio-energy in combination with carbon capture and storage. We find that for a ‘Copenhagen Potential’ scenario, emissions by 2020 are higher (47 GtCO2eq/yr) than for a least-cost pathway for 2°C (43 GtCO2eq/yr with a 40–46 GtCO2eq/yr literature range). In the ‘Copenhagen Potential’ scenario the 2°C target can still be met with a likely chance, although discounted mitigation costs over 2010–2100 could be 10 to 15 % higher, and up to 60 % in the 2040–2050s, than for least-cost pathways. For the ‘Current Copenhagen’ scenario, maintaining an equally low probability of exceeding 2°C becomes infeasible in our model, implying higher costs due to higher climate risks. We conclude that there is some flexibility in terms of 2020 emissions compared to the optimal pathways but this is limited. The 2020 emission level represents a trade-off between short-term emission reductions and long-term dependence on rapid reductions through specific technologies (like negative emission reductions). Higher 2020 emissions lead to higher overall costs and reduced long-term flexibility, both leading to a higher risk of failing to hold warming below 2°C.
    Greenhouse gas emission reduction proposals and national climate policies of major economies : Policy Brief
    Hoehne, N.E. ; Braun, N. ; Fekete, H. ; Larkin, J. ; Elzen, M. ; Roelfsema, M. ; Hof, A. van 't; Böttcher, H. - \ 2012
    Bilthoven, Utrecht : Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven and ECOFYS, Utrecht (ECOFYS : sustainable energy for everyone ) - 33
    Understanding eco-industrial development processes through multiple change perspectives
    Verguts, V.A.J. ; Dessein, J. ; Lauwers, L. ; Werkman, R.A. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2012
    In: System Innovations, knowledge regimes and design practices towards transitions for sustainable agriculture / Barbier, M., Elzen, B., INRA - ISBN 9782738013064 - p. 193 - 207.
    Eco-industrial parks are receiving increasing attention in light of the sustainability discourse. Although the formation and development of eco-industrial parks have been investigated, these processes are difficult to grasp. In order to better understand and govern the trajectory of these processes, this chapter attempts to reveal some of their complexity. It addresses the formation of industrial parks from a change perspective, with a focus on the interplay between actors and context. We use two lenses to build a combination of change perspectives: transition management theories, and the episodic and continuous change concepts of organisational theory. Both of these lenses distinguish between change that is planned, abrupt and discontinuous, and change that is emergent, incremental and continuous. The main lesson of the paper is that actors’ perspectives of change and development affect possible governance strategies. Planned change assumes that actors are unable to adapt their underlying structures to the new demands for sustainable development and thus require interventions from the outside. In the case of continuous change, actors are seen as self-organising. This process calls more for facilitation and removal of possible stumbling blocks. In order to choose a good governance strategy applied to the circumstances, these perspectives need to be combined.
    Quantitative detection of foliar nematodes (Aphelenchoides ssp.) is complex DNA bachgrounds.
    Doorn, J. van; Dees, R.H.L. ; Rybarczyk-Mydlowska, K.D. ; Mooijman, P.J.W. ; Elzen, P.J.M. van den; Vervoort, M. ; Veenhuizen, P.T.M. ; Karssen, G. ; Bakker, J.A. - \ 2012
    Populaire, winterharde elzen geven hooikoorts in de winter
    Vliet, Arnold van - \ 2012
    New identities, new commitments: something is lacking between niche and regime
    Charão Marques, F. ; Ploeg, J.D. van der; Kessler Dal Soglio, F. - \ 2012
    In: System Innovations, Knowledge Regimes, and Design Practices towards Transitions for Sustainable Agriculture / Barbier, M., Elzen, B., Inra - Science for Action and Development - ISBN 9782738013064 - p. 23 - 46.
    This paper analyses the difficulties in achieving the alignment of actors playing different roles in innovative processes. In so doing it seeks to further our understanding of transitions towards sustainable agriculture. We use an analytical framework that combines the Multi-level Perspective with the Actor Oriented Approach in order to examine the emerging ‘novelties’ generated by family farmers producing medicinal plants in ecological systems in the South of Brazil. We identify the characteristics that fit a definition of ‘innovation niche’. We describe the main weaknesses preventing the complete emergence of a niche, and analyse the misalignment of the various actors’ expectations. This is partly due to the incumbent regime’s strong relationship with the dominant technical-scientific fields, which contrasts with ecological agriculture that is known for its remarkable connection to social, technical, organisational, and behavioural changes. The novelty production of medicinal plants clearly illustrates some of the broader transitions at work in rural development. The case study also highlights the importance of finding ways to effectively manage these ‘niches of innovation’, in order to strengthen the internal coherence of their sociotechnical dynamics and to reinforce the social networks. As part of this process, there is a clear need to institutionalise new professional identities that are willing and able to question and even disrupt existing commitments.
    Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems
    Elzen, B. ; Barbier, M. ; Cerf, M. ; Grin, J. - \ 2012
    In: Farming Systems Research into the 21st Century: The New Dynamic / Darnhofer, I., Gibbon, D., Dedieu, B., Dordrecht : Springer Science + Business Media - ISBN 9789400745025 - p. 431 - 455.
    How can the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run be addressed? We argue that sustainable agro-food systems cannot be developed through a simple improvement of existing systems, but will require a transition. Therefore, we focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and supported, taking into account renewal initiatives at the farm level, organised projects, heterogeneous actors and differing interests. We argue that a transition will have to come from a range of novelties that initially have various misfits with an existing regime. To tackle these misfits will require a learning process that needs to be of a ‘reflexive’ nature which implies that various taken for granted characteristics of the regime and beliefs of stakeholders can be questioned. Another critical issue is that this learning not only takes place in a protected environment (or niche) but that new links with the existing regime need to be created. Only then can learning about novelties start a transformation process in the regime that may eventually lead to a transition.
    The art of 'doing' sustainable agricultural innovation: approaches and attitudes to facilitating transitional projects
    Loeber, A.M.C. ; Vermeulen, T. - \ 2012
    In: System Innovations, Knowledge Regimes, and Design Practices towards Transitions for Sustainable Agriculture / Barbier, M., Elzen, B., INRA - ISBN 9782738013064 - p. 102 - 117.
    System Innovations, Knowledge Regimes, and Design Practices towards Transitions for Sustainable Agriculture
    Barbier, M. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2012
    Paris : INRA - ISBN 9782738013064
    Reflexive interactive design as an instrument for dual track governance
    Bos, A.P. ; Grin, J. - \ 2012
    In: System Innovations, Knowledge Regimes, and Design Practices towards Transitions for Sustainable Agriculture. / Barbier, M., Elzen, B.E., Paris : INRA - ISBN 9782738013064 - p. 132 - 153.
    Sustainable development cannot be attained by technical innovation alone; it calls for a reorientation of the existing socio-technical regime: a system innovation. This implies the coordination of the distributed agency of the actors that focus on structural change, as well as activities focusing on the development of novel practices. These two ‘tracks’ of governance activities may reinforce each other in a process of dual track governance if they ‘reach out to each other’, i.e. seek to make functional connections. The paper describes a design-oriented approach to this dual track governance issue, called Reflexive Interactive Design (RIO). This approach is based on the idea that one can anticipate and facilitate system innovation by the introduction of novel concepts midway between broad future visions and specific novelties. Design and the design process turn out to act as a good vehicle to align processes of change both at the regime level and the niche level. The paper analyses the application of the approach in two design projects on sustainable husbandry of pigs and laying hens. These projects evolved into concrete experiments and new farms that radically diverge from the dominant practice, and have clearly contributed to changes at the level of the regime.
    Anchoring of innovations: Assessing Dutch efforts to harvest energy from glasshouses
    Elzen, B. ; Mierlo, B.C. van; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2012
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 5 (2012). - ISSN 2210-4224 - p. 1 - 18.
    In the multi-level perspective (MLP), two key levels are socio-technical regimes and technological niches. The linking processes between these levels, however, are not well understood. We use the concept of anchoring as a starting point towards a theory of linking and distinguish three forms: technological, network and institutional anchoring. Our case study concerns attempts to reduce energy consumption in the Dutch glasshouse horticulture sector, consisting of a variety of alternative energy approaches. Distinguishing the three forms of anchoring appears to be useful for studying and understanding the interactions between novelty, niche and regime. The study reveals that ‘hybrid actors’ and ‘hybrid forums’ play a crucial role in bringing about various forms of anchoring. These findings are not only of analytical interest, but also relevant for practitioners who desire to induce system innovation to contribute to sustainability.
    Learning and Experimentation Strategy: Outline of a Method to Develop Sustainable Livestock Production Systems
    Elzen, B. ; Spoelstra, S.F. - \ 2012
    In: Methods and Procedures for Building Sustainable Farming Systems / Marta-Costa, A.A., Silva, E., Dordrecht : Springer - ISBN 9789400750029 - p. 91 - 105.
    Over the past decade, the Dutch government has increasingly emphasised the need for integral solutions for sustainability problems in the livestock production sector. This led to the adoption of research approaches in line with transition management and system innovation that had been developed in other domains. In 2008, the government set further policy targets of 5 and 100% sustainable livestock production at the farm level for 2011 and 2023, respectively. Policy measures included stimulation of sector initiatives for sustainable agriculture (sectoral innovation agendas) and demand for projects with a focus on system innovation. Two broad approaches may contribute to the realisation of these targets, notably top-down and bottom-up. Currently, the links between the bottom-up and the top-down processes are relatively weak. As both may contribute to a system innovation, a major challenge is to make a fruitful combination between the two approaches. To this end, we have developed what we call a ‘learning and experimentation strategy’ (LES) that we will elaborate in this chapter.
    Rozen en elzen in bloei
    Vliet, Arnold van - \ 2012
    Witte en zwarte elzen komen in bloei
    Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Nature Today
    Normative contestation in transitions ‘in the making’: Animal welfare concerns and system innovation in pig husbandry
    Elzen, B. ; Geels, F. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Mierlo, B. van - \ 2011
    Research Policy 40 (2011)2. - ISSN 0048-7333 - p. 263 - 275.
    sociotechnical transition - social-movements - dynamics - transformation - evolutionary - performance
    Previous studies of system innovations mainly focused on historical cases that were driven by commercial motivations of pioneers and entrepreneurs. This article investigates a system innovation in the making that is driven by normative concerns, such as sustainability or animal welfare, initially formulated by outsiders like special-interest groups. Our central research question is: How, when and why is normative contestation of existing regimes effective in influencing the orientation of transitions in the making? The conceptual framework enriches innovation studies and the multi-level perspective with insights from social movement theory (SMT) and political science. SMT is used to analyze the build up of normative pressure (through framing, resource mobilization, and political opportunity structures). From political science we use the notion of multiple streams, in our analysis a problem, regulatory, market and technology stream.The research design consists of a comparative case study of pig husbandry systems. One case analyses the sub-sector of pregnant sows where normative pressures, after several decades, led to the changes advocated by the contestants. The second case concerns the sub-sector of pig fattening where normative pressure was less successful. The difference is partly explained by the normative pressure for pregnant sows being larger than for fattening pigs. The other part of the explanation is that in the first case normative pressure aligned better with the three other streams (regulatory, market and technology) to lead to the changes desired by the contestants.
    Nieuwe concepten voor een familiekuddestal
    Noorduyn, L. ; Dixhoorn, I.D.E. van; Elzen, B. - \ 2010
    Syscope Magazine 2010 (2010)28. - p. 6 - 7.
    biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - kuddes (herds) - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting van rundvee - organic farming - dairy farming - herds - animal welfare - cattle housing
    Gangbare en biologische melkveehouders werken aan een familiekuddestal, waar de pasgeboren kalfjes drie maanden bij de koe blijven. Met elkaar wisselen ze ervaringen uit. De melkveehouders Jan en Ruben Broenink doen sinds voorjaar 2010 mee in het netwerk. Onderzoekers brengen de meer theoretische kennis in.
    Allianties met de Omgeving
    Rienks, W.A. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2010
    In: Anders groeien / Booij, A, Galama, P, Rienks, W, Arnhem : CRB Uitgeverij - p. 40 - 43.
    Towards Sustainable Livestock production in the Netherlands: Outline of a Learning and Experimentation Strategy (LES)
    Elzen, B. ; Spoelstra, S.F. - \ 2010
    Combining top-down and bottom-up approaches towards sustainable livestock production: A learning and experimentation strategy (LES)
    Spoelstra, S.F. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2010
    Learning and Experimentation Strategy (LES). Outline of a Method to develop Sustainable Livestock Production Systems
    Elzen, B. ; Spoelstra, S.F. - \ 2010
    In: Proceedings IFSA: Building sustainable rural futures. The added value of systems approaches in time of change and uncertainty, Vienna, Austria, 4-7 July, 2010. - - p. 823 - 834.
    Ontwikkelingen in de varkenshouderij
    Hoste, Robert - \ 2010
    Keeping the ambition high. The value of reflexive monitoring in action for system innovation projects (full paper)
    Mierlo, B.C. van; Amstel, M. van; Arkesteijn, M.C.M. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2010
    - p. 1 - 12.
    Exploring system innovation in the electricity system through sociotechnical scenarios
    Hofman, P. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2010
    Technology Analysis and Strategic Management 22 (2010)6. - ISSN 0953-7325 - p. 653 - 670.
    transition - strategies - management - sectors
    There is a need for scenario methods specifically designed to explore the complex nature of systems innovation, especially since systems innovations are needed to solve the climate change problem and to deal with the finity of fossil fuels. This paper develops sociotechnical scenarios as a method that can complement existing scenario methods in exploring system innovation. Sociotechnical scenarios are not predictions of the future but can help to design more robust transition oriented policies. They can give insight in the various complex processes at work in systems change, in driving forces and promising combinations of technological, societal and institutional change. The paper illustrates the method by developing three transition pathways and draws policy recommendations for transitions towards low carbon futures based upon these
    Reflexive Monitoring in Action. A guide for monitoring system innovation projects
    Mierlo, B.C. van; Regeer, B. ; Amstel, M. van; Arkesteijn, M.C.M. ; Beekman, V. ; Bunders, J.F.G. ; Cock Buning, T. de; Elzen, B. ; Hoes, A.C. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2010
    Wageningen/Amsterdam : Communication and Innovation Studies, WUR; Athena Institute, VU - ISBN 9789085855996 - 104
    innovaties - monitoring - richtlijnen (guidelines) - gereedschappen - ontwikkeling - duurzame ontwikkeling - innovations - monitoring - guidelines - tools - development - sustainable development
    “Researchers at Wageningen University and the VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands, have been working together on a type of monitoring that they have called reflexive monitoring in action (RMA). RMA has been developed especially for projects that aim to contribute to the sustainable development of a sector or region by working on system innovation. Sustainable development demands simultaneous changes at many levels of society and in multiple domains: ecological, economic, political and scientific. It requires choices to be made that are radically different from the usual practices, habits, interrelationships and institutional structures. But that is precisely why it is not easy. System innovation projects therefore benefit from a type of monitoring that encourages the ‘reflexivity’ of the project itself, its ability to affect and interact with the environment within which it operates. If a project wants to realise the far-reaching ambitions of system innovation, then reflection and learning must be tightly interwoven within it. And that learning should focus on structural changes. RMA can contribute to this. In the guide, -aiming at supporting the work of project managers, monitors and clients-, the authors present the characteristics and the value of Reflexive Monitoring in Action, together with practical guidelines that will help put that monitoring into practice. At the end of the guide the authors provide detailed descriptions of seven monitoring tools.”
    Innovation processes towards eco-efficient agricultural production. Search for manageability
    Spoelstra, S.F. ; Elzen, B. ; Bos, A.P. - \ 2010
    In: Exploring the potential of high technological and eco-efficient agriculture / de Visser, C., Hengsdijk, H., van Ittersum, M., Meijerink, G., van den Pol, A., Slingerland, M., Lelystad : Wageningen UR (PPO Publication 395) - p. 131 - 141.
    Reflexieve monitoring in actie. Handvatten voor de monitoring van systeeminnovatieprojecten
    Mierlo, B.C. van; Regeer, B. ; Amstel, M. van; Arkesteijn, M.C.M. ; Beekman, V. ; Bunders, J.F.G. ; Cock Buning, T. de; Elzen, B. ; Hoes, A.C. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2010
    Oisterwijk : Boxpress - ISBN 9789085857457 - 104
    verandering - monitoring - projecten - indicatoren - innovaties - systeeminnovatie - duurzame ontwikkeling - change - monitoring - projects - indicators - innovations - system innovation - sustainable development
    Handboek over en voor monitoring van projecten die willen bijdragen aan een duurzame ontwikkeling van een sector of een gebied door te werken aan systeeminnovatie. Naast een beschouwing over het karakter en de waarde van dit type monitoring, biedt dit boek praktische richtlijnen die helpen om monintoring uit te voeren en bijpassende instrumenten te selecteren en gebruiken.
    Betrekken van boereninitiatieven in een leer- en experimenteer strategie voor duurzame ontwikkeling van de veehouderij
    Spoelstra, S.F. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2010
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 355) - 17
    duurzaamheid (sustainability) - boeren - leervermogen - experimenten - strategisch management - sustainability - farmers - learning ability - experiments - strategic management
    Based on the theory of Strategic Niche Management farmers initiatives, individually as well as in a certain coherence, are considered and treated as a set of experiments for learning on opportunities and barriers for sustainable development
    Monitoring en evaluatie van de Melkvee Academie
    Elzen, B. - \ 2010
    V-focus 7 (2010)2. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 20 - 21.
    melkveehouderij - melkvee - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - innovaties - dairy farming - dairy cattle - farm management - entrepreneurship - innovations
    De Melkvee Academie bestaat sinds 2005. Het aantal deelnemers is inmiddels gegroeid tot ruim 1.800. De Academie organiseert diverse activiteiten die het ondernemerschap bij melkveehouders moeten bevorderen. Daarbij wordt samengewerkt met het bedrijfsleven, het onderzoek en het onderwijs. Wageningen UR Livestock Research voert momenteel een monitorings- en evaluatieprogramma uit om inzicht te krijgen in het effect van de activiteiten van de Academie.
    Bloei hazelaars en elzen vertraagd
    Weger, L. de; Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2010
    Nature Today 2010 (2010)07-02-2010.
    Sharing the burden of financing adaptation to climate change
    Dellink, R. ; Elzen, M. ; Aiking, H. ; Bergsma, E. ; Berkhout, F. ; Dekker, T. ; Gupta, J. - \ 2009
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 19 (2009)4. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 411 - 421.
    brazilian proposal - temperature increase - co2 emissions - responsibility - policy - countries - liability - uncertainties - compensation - targets
    Climate change may cause most harm to countries that have historically contributed the least to greenhouse gas emissions and land-use change. This paper identifies consequentialist and non-consequentialist ethical principles to guide a fair international burden-sharing scheme of climate change adaptation costs. We use these ethical principles to derive political principles - historical responsibility and capacity to pay - that can be applied in assigning a share of the financial burden to individual countries. We then propose a hybrid 'common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities' approach as a promising starting point for international negotiations on the design of burden-sharing schemes. A numerical assessment of seven scenarios shows that the countries of Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would bear the bulk of the costs of adaptation, but contributions differ substantially subject to the choice of a capacity to pay indicator. The contributions are less sensitive to choices related to responsibility calculations, apart from those associated with land-use-related emissions. Assuming costs of climate adaptation of USD 100 billion per year, the total financial contribution by the Annex I countries would be in the range of USD 65-70 billion per year. Expressed as a per capita basis, this gives a range of USD 43-82 per capita per year.
    Anchorage of Innovations: Relevance for Transforum approach
    Elzen, Boelie - \ 2009
    The effect of different mitigation strategies on international financing of adaptation
    Hof, A.F. ; Bruin, K.C. de; Dellink, R.B. ; Elzen, M.G.J. den; Vuuren, D.P. van - \ 2009
    Environmental Science & Policy 12 (2009)7. - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 832 - 843.
    climate-change - greenhouse gases - damage costs - trade-offs - model - policy - projections - economics - targets - regimes
    Recent proposals at the UNFCCC meeting in Bali in December 2007 suggest that a 2% levy on the CDM could finance adaptation costs in developing regions. Other proposals include extending the scope of the levy to emissions trading. This study applies an Integrated Assessment Model to gain insight in the interactions between adaptation costs, residual damages and mitigation costs and to analyse the effectiveness of a 2% levy on both the CDM and emissions trading from developing countries. We show that adaptation is especially important in lower income regions where damages are higher. The revenues of a 2% levy strongly depend on both the climate mitigation target and the burden-sharing regime. A more stringent climate mitigation target results in more emissions trade and, in the longer run, less need for adaptation. Both factors increase the share of adaptation costs that can be funded. The burden-sharing regime strongly affects the revenues of a 2% levy as well: relatively more stringent targets for developed countries increase the revenues of a 2% levy. However, in the next two decades the share of adaptation that can be financed remains well below 20% in most cases. Additional funding mechanisms are therefore necessary to substantially finance adaptation costs in developing countries.
    Hazelaars en elzen in bloei
    Vliet, A.J.H. van; Weger, L. de - \ 2009
    Nature Today 2009 (2009)18-12-2009.
    Leren over reflexieve procesmonitoring. Lessen uit de tweede ontwikkelingsfase van een methodologie voor ondersteuning van projecten gericht op systeeminnovatie
    Mierlo, B.C. van; Arkesteijn, M.C.M. ; Elzen, B. ; Leeuwis, C. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Communicatie & Innovatie Studies (Onderzoeksprogramma's Systeeminnovaties Plantaardige Productiesystemen ) - 20 p.
    Hoe praktijkinitiatieven bijdragen aan duurzame innovaties
    Elzen, B. ; Spoelstra, S.F. ; Migchels, G. - \ 2009
    Syscope Magazine 2009 (2009)22. - p. 27 - 30.
    innovaties - systeeminnovatie - multifunctionele landbouw - regionale voedselketens - innovations - system innovation - multifunctional agriculture - regional food chains
    Bij ondernemers zit veel innovatiekracht. Hoe is die kracht aan te wenden voor daadwerkelijke verduurzaming, of anders gezegd: hoe kunnen praktijkinitiatieven bijdragen aan systeeminnovatie? Innovatienetwerk Waardewerken voor de multifunctionele landbouw demonstreert hoe dit kan
    Buitenlandse elzen bloeien: pollen in de lucht
    Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2009
    Nature Today 2009 (2009)21-1-2009.
    Climate benefits of changing diet
    Stehfest, E. ; Bouwman, A.F. ; Vuuren, D.P. van; Elzen, M. ; Kabat, P. - \ 2009
    Climatic Change 95 (2009)1-2. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 83 - 102.
    voedselconsumptie - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - broeikasgassen - milieueffect - landgebruik - dierlijke productie - food consumption - climatic change - climate adaptation - greenhouse gases - environmental impact - land use - animal production - greenhouse-gas - ecosystem responses - global change - emissions - targets - costs - scenarios - systems - health - model
    Climate change mitigation policies tend to focus on the energy sector, while the livestock sector receives surprisingly little attention, despite the fact that it accounts for 18% of the greenhouse gas emissions and for 80% of total anthropogenic land use. From a dietary perspective, new insights in the adverse health effects of beef and pork have lead to a revision of meat consumption recommendations. Here, we explored the potential impact of dietary changes on achieving ambitious climate stabilization levels. By using an integrated assessment model, we found a global food transition to less meat, or even a complete switch to plant-based protein food to have a dramatic effect on land use. Up to 2,700 Mha of pasture and 100 Mha of cropland could be abandoned, resulting in a large carbon uptake from regrowing vegetation. Additionally, methane and nitrous oxide emission would be reduced substantially. A global transition to a low meat-diet as recommended for health reasons would reduce the mitigation costs to achieve a 450 ppm CO2-eq. stabilisation target by about 50% in 2050 compared to the reference case. Dietary changes could therefore not only create substantial benefits for human health and global land use, but can also play an important role in future climate change mitigation policies.
    Sustainable livestock production: assessment of farmers initiatives
    Spoelstra, S.F. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2009
    Struggling for impact : challenges in utilizing M&E for maximum benefit in regional projects
    Elzen, B. ; Kusters, C.S.L. - \ 2009
    [Wageningen] : Wageningen UR - 44
    monitoring - evaluatie - bedrijfsvoering - regionale ontwikkeling - proefprojecten - monitoring - evaluation - management - regional development - pilot projects
    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) has the ambition to improve the management of projects and programmes towards impact in a complex and continuously changing environment. This report describes the main findings of the WURK project which had the objective to develop a better insight into the practical role of M&E in regional projects. The WURK project is based on setting up and carrying out M&E in four ‘pilot’ projects during the year 2008
    Historische en hedendaagse systeem-innovaties in de glastuinbouw en varkenshouderij: Een innovatie-sociologische analyse
    Geels, F. ; Elzen, B. ; Berkers, E. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Mierlo, B.C. van - \ 2008
    Zoetermeer : Transforum Agro & Groen - 146
    glastuinbouw - varkenshouderij - verandering - innovaties - systeeminnovatie - bedrijfssystemen - intensieve veehouderij - nederland - dierlijke productie - varkens - greenhouse horticulture - pig farming - change - innovations - system innovation - farming systems - intensive livestock farming - netherlands - animal production - pigs
    Transities en systeem-innovaties in de landbouw zijn het thema van dit rapport. Klimaatverandering, energiegebruik, methaan-emissies, dierenwelzijn, economische concurrentie, voedselschandalen (BSE, dioxine), verzuring, stankproblemen, landschapsinrichting, en rurale ontwikkeling zijn enkele van de socio-economische ontwikkelingen die druk creëren op het landbouwsysteem. Veel van deze ontwikkelingen kunnen (waarschijnlijk) niet binnen de grenzen van het bestaande systeem het hoofd geboden worden. Daarom is het thema van transities naar nieuwe systemen (systeem-innovatie) gestegen op de maatschappelijke en politieke agenda. Wat betreft empirische focus gaat dit rapport over transities in twee sectoren: glastuinbouw en varkenshouderij. Voor beide sectoren is een studie gedaan van historische transities en een studie van contemporaine transities ‘in the making’. Hedentendaage, staat de glastuinbouw onder druk wegens hoog energiegebruik (en dus CO2 emissies en klimaatverandering), vooral gerelateerd aan ruimteverwarming met gas. De varkenssector staat onder druk wat betreft dierenwelzijn (o.a. ruimtegebruik in stallen, onverdoofd castreren van biggetjes), internationale economische concurrentie, en mestproblematiek (verzuring, stank). In reactie op deze druk, zijn in beide sectoren radicale innovatietrajecten gestart die systeemcomponenten aanzienlijk veranderen.
    Anchorage of Innovations: Assessing Dutch efforts to use the greenhouse effect as an energy source
    Elzen, B. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Mierlo, B.C. van - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 28
    aardgas - energiegebruik - kassen - landbouwontwikkeling - natural gas - energy consumption - greenhouses - agricultural development
    This case study concerns the Dutch glasshouse horticulture sector which is responsible for 10% of the country’s natural gas consumption. Various developments resulted in internal as well as external pressures to bring this down. This has led to a variety of ‘alternative energy approaches’ for the sector. The interactions between niche and regime, however, are not well understood. Building on Loeber (2003) the concept of ‘anchorage’ to analyse this interaction is used. It is concluded that the concept of anchorage provides a useful tool to study the interaction between niche and regime and the crooked pathways of ‘innovation in the making’
    Experimenting with Reflexive Process Monitoring in agriculture
    Mierlo, B.C. van; Leeuwis, C. ; Arkesteijn, M.C.M. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2008
    In: Proceedings of the Conference Transitions towards sustainable agriculture food chains and peri-urban areas, Wageningen, 26-29 October, 2008. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - p. 74 - 75.
    Vleesconsumptie en klimaatbeleid
    Stehfest, E. ; Bouwman, A.F. ; Vuuren, D.P. van; Elzen, M.G.J. den; Eickhout, B. ; Jeuken, M. ; Oorschot, M. van; Kabat, P. - \ 2008
    Bilthoven : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL rapport 50011004/2008) - 32
    vleeswaren - voedselconsumptie - klimaatverandering - biodiversiteit - broeikasgassen - landgebruik - dieet - milieueffect - vleesvervangers - meat products - food consumption - climatic change - biodiversity - greenhouse gases - land use - diet - environmental impact - meat alternates
    In deze studie wordt de mogelijke invloed van dieetveranderingen op de kosten van ambitieuze klimaatdoelstellingen verkend. Doel van de studie is uitsluitend om in te schatten wat de wereldwijde bijdrage van dieetverandering kan zijn. De vleesconsumptie wordt aangepast in vier varianten van dieetverandering: GeenHerkauwers (geen vlees van herkauwers), GeenVlees (geheel geen vlees), GeenDierproducten (geen enkel dierlijk product) en WilettDieet (een 'gezond' dieet). Hiervoor wordt het geïntegreerde model IMAGE (Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment) gebruikt. Ook worden resultaten voor landgebruik en biodiversiteit gegeven
    Creatieve ontwikkeldagen rondom de toekomstbeelden : melkveehouderij met energie : melk, de minerale motor : groei door schaalverkleining
    Cornelissen, J.M.R. ; Gosselink, J.M.J. ; Bos, A.P. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2008
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group van Wageningen UR 166) - 48
    melkveehouderij - melkvee - ontwerp - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - toekomst - dairy farming - dairy cattle - design - sustainability - future
    De resultaten van de creatieve ontwikkeldagen die gehouden zijn rondom drie toekomstbeelden worden besproken. Deze sessies zijn deel van het proces richting een her-ontwerp en co-ontwerp van een duurzamere melkveehouderij in Nederland. Kracht van Koeien werkt in opdracht van het ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit aan een andere en meer duurzame melkveehouderij
    Anchorage of innovations: Using the greenhouse effect to save energy
    Elzen, B. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Mierlo, B.C. van - \ 2008
    In: Proceedings of the Conference Transitions towards sustainable agriculture, food chains and peri-urban areas, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 26-29 October 2008. - - p. 99 - 100.
    Anchorage of Innovations: Using the Greenhouse Effect to Save Energy
    Elzen, B. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Mierlo, Barbara van - \ 2008
    In: Book of abstracts European Association for the Study of Science and Technology, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 20-23 August 2008. - - p. 405 - 405.
    To make the agricultural sector more sustainable requires system innovations, i.e. new technologies as well as institutional change. The dynamic of such system innovations can be understood using the `multilevel perspective¿ (MLP). The two key levels in the MLP are the so-called `socio-technical regime¿ (an existing system) and `technological niches¿ (a breeding ground for radical alternatives to the system). The concepts used in the MLP, however, are too general to be directly useful for policies seeking to stimulate sustainable development. Using a case study on various attempts to reduce energy consumption in glasshouse horticulture in the Netherlands we have refined the MLP to make it more useful as a policy tool. Innovation within an existing regime tends to be rather incremental while more radical innovations are often developed by outsiders in niches. We use the term `anchorage¿ to explain how such radical innovations can start transforming an existing regime and overcome various barriers. It appears that an intermediary type of actor between outsiders and insiders plays an important role in these processes which we call `hybrid actors¿
    Reflexieve procesmonitoring: interactief en kritisch
    Mierlo, B. van; Arkesteijn, M.C.M. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2008
    Syscope Magazine 2008 (2008)17. - p. 18 - 22.
    monitoring - projectcontrole - verandering - systeeminnovatie - duurzame ontwikkeling - monitoring - project control - change - system innovation - sustainable development
    Hoe kun je vanuit een innovatieproject tot institutionele veranderingen komen? Voor deze vraag staan projectteams die streven naar een duurzame ontwikkeling in een sector of gebied. Speciaal voor hen is reflexieve procesmonitoring in ontwikkeling, een nieuwe methode van monitoring en evaluatie voor trajecten gericht op systeeminnovatie. De methode is in beginsel interactief, hij wordt uitgevoerd door betrokkenen zelf. Toch kan een speciale monitor nuttig en nodig zijn, blijkt uit vier pilots
    Stimulating entrepreneurship - The impact of a new way of organizing dairy farmers
    Holster, H.C. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2008
    In: 8th European IFSA Symposium. Empowerment of the rural actors: a renewal of farming system perspectives, 6 - 10 July, 2008, Clermont Farrand, France. - - p. 13 - 22.
    Rolverdelingen in interactieve reflexieve procesmonitoring
    Mierlo, B.C. van; Arkesteijn, M.C.M. ; Elzen, B. - \ 2008
    In: Een andere rol voor de overheid?. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789064642333 - p. 99 - 103.
    Effect of SRT and temperature on biological conversions and the related scum-forming potential
    Halalsheh, M.M.I. ; Koppes, J. ; Elzen, J. den; Zeeman, G. ; Fayyad, M. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2005
    Water Research 39 (2005)12. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 2475 - 2482.
    dissolved air flotation - anaerobic-digestion - activated-sludge - waste-water - dewaterability - slaughterhouse - sewage - system - lipids
    Sludge flotation was reported to cause several operational problems in anaerobic systems including UASB reactors treating both strong domestic sewage and some industrial wastewater. This research is to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on scum-forming potential (SFP) of sludge and other physical-chemical properties. A simple test was developed to measure and compare the tendency of different sludge to form a scum layer. Results showed that anaerobic digestion affects chemical composition of sludge flocs and consequently, SFP, which was found to be inversely proportional to the degree of digestion (both SRT and temperature). It was suggested that higher protein concentration at elevated SRT and 25°C increased the negative surface charge of sludge flocs and ,consequently, reduced the ability of sludge to attach to gas bubbles and float. Floc average size increased with increasing SRT and temperature, especially for sludge with 75 d SRT at 25°C. On the other hand, settling properties of sludge were negatively affected by increasing SRT to 75 d at 25°C. Filterability had a strong positive correlation with average floc size, but also polymeric constituents correlated positively with filterability at 25°C.
    Naar een integraal emissiebeleid : met een plan van aanpak voor onderzoek
    Ham, A. van den; Hoop, D.W. de; Elzen, G.J.F. van den - \ 2004
    Den Haag : LEI (Vensterrapport ) - 58 p.
    Prikkels ter stimulering van de mineralenexcretie in de intensieve varkenshouderij
    Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Elzen, G.J.F. van den - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Agro Management Tools (Rapport / Agro Management Tools )
    Kenniscirculatie en innovatie: de zoektocht van agrarisch Nederland
    Stallen, M.P.K. ; Ravensbergen, P. ; Postma, D.J. ; Poot, E.H. ; Ham, A. van den; Buck, A.J. de; Elzen, G.J.F. van den; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Wielinga, E. ; Wolf, P.L. de - \ 2004
    Den Haag [etc.] : LEI [etc.] - 55
    innovaties - kennis - landbouwsector - landbouwbeleid - informatieverspreiding - kennisoverdracht - innovations - knowledge - agricultural sector - agricultural policy - diffusion of information - knowledge transfer
    De belangrijkste onderzoeksvragen in dit project 'kenniscirculatie en innovatie' betreffen de rol van kennis bij het tot stand komen van innovaties in de agrarische sector, de wijze waarop kennisnetwerken tot stand komen en het verloop van leer- en innovatieprocessen in netwerken. Dit rapport bevat de ervaringen en verhalen van ondernemers, onderzoekers en andere betrokkenen bij deze netwerken
    Economie op Bioveem bedrijven
    Doornewaard, G.J. ; Beldman, A.C.G. ; Elzen, G.J.F. van den; Daatselaar, C.H.G. - \ 2004
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij (Rapport / Bioveem 5) - 23
    melkvee - melkveehouderij - biologische landbouw - alternatieve landbouw - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - economie - nederland - bedrijfseconomie - dairy cattle - dairy farming - organic farming - alternative farming - farm results - economics - netherlands - business management
    De biologische melkveehouderij versterken en verbreden is het primaire doel van het project Bioveem. Het LEI speelt in dit project met name een rol bij de thema’s ondernemerschap en bedrijfseconomie. Een belangrijk kenmerk van het project is dat de deelnemers centraal staan. Dit betekent dat de meningen en visies van de deelnemers ook duidelijk in (de beoordeling van) de resultaten zijn meegenomen. Bij de Bioveem-deelnemers speelt economie een belangrijke rol, maar deze is niet leidend in strategie en bedrijfsvoering. Bij het afwegen van verschillende opties is het dus niet louter het (verwachte) economisch resultaat dat de uiteindelijke keuze bepaald. Ook zaken m.b.t. de manier waarop wordt geproduceerd zijn belangrijk voor de deelnemers. Met betrekking tot het economisch resultaat wordt het meeste belang gehecht aan de kengetallen die met echte geldstromen te maken hebben.
    Climate Change. Beyond Climate, Options for broadening climate policy
    Aerts, J.C.J.H. ; Asselt, H. van; Bakker, S.J.A. ; Bayangos, V. ; Beers, C. van; Berk, M. ; Biermann, F. ; Bouwer, L.M. ; Bree, L. van; Coninck, H.C. de; Dorland, K. ; Egging, R. ; Elzen, M.G.J. den; Gupta, J. ; Heemst, J. van; Jansen, J.C. ; Kok, M.T.J. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Oostvoorn, F. van; Veraart, J.A. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2004
    Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM report 500019001) - 256
    klimaat - klimaatverandering - milieufactoren - milieubeleid - brandstoffen - bio-energie - nederland - biobased economy - climate - climatic change - environmental factors - environmental policy - fuels - bioenergy - netherlands - biobased economy
    'Boeren op hoog water'; Een studie naar de toekomstperspectieven voor landbouw op natte veengronden in het Groene Hart
    Vogelzang, T.A. ; Borgstein, M.H. ; Elzen, G.J.F. van den; Eiff, F.A. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Woud, M. - \ 2004
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 3, Natuurlijke hulpbronnen en milieu ) - ISBN 9789052429212 - 81
    agrarische economie - veengronden - veengebieden - melkveehouderij - bedrijfssystemen - boeren - nederland - peilbeheer - veenweiden - west-nederland - groene hart - agricultural economics - peat soils - peatlands - dairy farming - farming systems - farmers - netherlands - water level management - peat grasslands - west netherlands - groene hart
    In dit rapport wordt verslag gedaan van een onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden voor landbouw op natte veengronden in het Groene Hart. Hiermee wordt bedoeld een bedrijfssysteem in de melkveehouderij, waarbij het slootwaterpeil verhoogd wordt van 60 naar 35 cm beneden maaiveld. Hiertoe is in eerste instantie bezien welke toekomstscenario's er momenteel zijn voor de landbouw in het Westelijke Veenweidegebied en is meer specifiek voor de regio De Venen een actoranalyse gemaakt over de standpunten van verschillende partijen daarom-trent. Onderzocht is vervolgens welke mogelijkheden agrarische ondernemers hebben om te anticiperen op de genoemde peilverhoging en welke kosten daaraan verbonden zijn. Ook is onderzocht of het mogelijk is om gebiedscontracten af te sluiten rond landbouw op natte veengronden en welke inhoud een dergelijk contract tussen overheden en agrarische onder-nemers dan zou moeten hebben. Het onderzoek is gebaseerd op een actorenanalyse middels interviews en literatuuronderzoek, berekeningen van de Animal Sciences Group van Wage-ningen UR, een GDR-meeting met experts en een workshop met vertegenwoordigers van alle betrokken belangengroepen in De Venen.
    Terugdringen van slachtafwijkingen in de varkensvleesketen
    Bondt, N. ; Elzen, G.J.F. van den; Hoste, R. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Vermeij, I. ; Fels, J.B. van der - \ 2004
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 5, Ketens ) - ISBN 9789052429229 - 38
    agrarische economie - varkensvlees - varkenshouderij - slacht - variatie - informatie - nederland - schadepreventie - agricultural economics - pigmeat - pig farming - slaughter - variation - information - netherlands - loss prevention
    Dit rapport bevat de resultaten van een studie naar de behoeften en mogelijkheden voor terugkoppeling van gegevens van slachterij naar varkenshouder, met als doel het reduceren van ketenverliezen door een betere verticale samenwerking en het dichter bij de markt brengen van de varkenshouder. In het onderzoek is het economisch voordeel van het terugdringen van slachtafwijkingen (borstvliezen, longen, poten en dergelijke) berekend, zowel voor de varkenshouder als voor de slachterij en is tevens een aanzet gegeven voor terugkoppeling van slachtgegevens via een internettoepassing
    Duwen, dwingen of dansen: het stimuleren van (systeem)innovaties in de praktijk
    Ham, A. van den; Postma, D.J. ; Smit, C.T. ; Elzen, G.J.F. van den - \ 2003
    Den Haag : Landbouw-Economisch Instituut (Vensterrapport LEI )
    De ondernemers in Bioveem: drijfveren, doelstellingen en strategie bij de start van het project
    Elzen, G.J.F. van den; Baars, T. ; Beldman, A.C.G. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Water, C.W. - \ 2003
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Bioveem 2) - 65
    boeren - melkvee - melkveehouderij - biologische landbouw - alternatieve landbouw - motivatie - doelstellingen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - onderzoeksprojecten - nederland - farmers - dairy cattle - dairy farming - organic farming - alternative farming - motivation - objectives - farm management - research projects - netherlands
    De ondernemer heeft een centrale en cruciale rol in het project. Daarom is het project van start gegaan met het in kaart brengen van de ondernemers, hun drijfveren en doelstellingen. Dit is gebeurd op basis van keukentafelgesprekken. Leidraad voor het ondernemersgesprek was het Strategisch Management Rapport van het LEI. Specifiek voor Bioveem is het SMR enigszins aangepast. In het gesprek werd concreet gevraagd naar onderzoeksthema¿s die in het kader van Bioveem zouden kunnen worden behandeld. De informatie uit de individuele rapporten dient voor alle betrokkenen bij Bioveem als achtergrondinformatie en referentiekader. Op basis van de door de ondernemers aangegeven onderzoeksthema¿s worden en zijn op veel bedrijven activiteiten opgestart. Het SMR is per definitie een dynamisch document. Ondernemers kunnen veranderen, de omgeving kan veranderen. Dit kan leiden tot een bijstelling van de strategie. De kunst is om in de loop van het project steeds helder te houden wat de strategie van de ondernemers is en als die wordt bijgesteld waarom dit dan gebeurt. Uit de individuele rapporten blijkt een grote diversiteit aan structuurkenmerken en van strategieën bij de projectdeelnemers. Het melkquotum varieert bijvoorbeeld van 215.000 tot 2.500.000 kg. Diverse bedrijven hebben neventakken, soms in de landbouw (akkerbouw, groente), soms in het zelf verwerken of vermarkten van producten, soms in activiteiten die wat verder van het primaire bedrijf af staan: zorgtak of toerisme. Op basis van de rapporten zijn per bedrijf de concrete aangegeven
    Realisatie Agrarisch Vestigingsgebied Nederweert
    Vogelzang, T.A. ; Backus, G.B.C. ; Sengers, H.H.W.J.M. ; Elzen, G.J.F. van den; Breet, M. - \ 2003
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 7, Gamma, instituties, mens en beleving ) - ISBN 9789052428017 - 81
    agrarische economie - landbouwbeleid - vestigingsplaats van de productie - nederland - intensieve veehouderij - zandgronden - de peel - reconstructie - agricultural economics - agricultural policy - location of production - netherlands - intensive livestock farming - sandy soils - de peel - reconstruction
    In dit rapport wordt verslag gedaan van een onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden voor inplaat-sing van intensieve veehouderijbedrijven op het Agrarisch Vestigingsgebied Nederweert. Hiertoe is de belangstelling voor vestiging van betrokken ondernemers op het AVN onderzocht en bekeken welke voorwaarden er voor hen gelden om die stap te kunnen maken. Ook is onderzocht hoe een aantal belanghebbende partijen (stakeholders) momenteel het krachtenveld rondom het AVN beoordelen en welke kansen zij zien om het geheel daadwerkelijk te realiseren. Geïnventariseerd is welke regelingen en instrumenten beschikbaar zijn ter subsidiëring en ondersteuning van bedrijven die zich willen vestigen op het AVN. Ook is een rekenmodel ontwikkeld, waarmee door de betrokken ondernemers de bedrijfseconomische aspecten van hun bedrijfsverplaatsing kunnen worden ingeschat, rekening houdend met voornoemde subsidiekaders. Ten slotte is er een raamovereenkomst ontwikkeld, af te sluiten tussen de ondernemer en de eigenaar/beheerder van het AVN, die als basis kan dienen voor een gefaseerde verplaatsing van bedrijven naar het AVN.
    Doorwerking van onderzoekskennis in beleidsprocessen; De uitdaging van afstemming
    Groot, S.A. de; Postma, D.J. ; Elzen, G.J.F. van den - \ 2003
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 7, Gamma, instituties, mens en beleving ) - ISBN 9789052428154 - 42
    overheidsbeleid - onderzoeksimplementatie - nederland - government policy - implementation of research - netherlands
    De doorwerking van kennis is een actueel onderwerp. In dit kader wenst het Ministerie van Landouw, Natuurbeheer en Visserij een beter zicht te krijgen op de mate waarin en de wij-ze waarop onderzoekskennis zijn doorwerking vindt in beleidsprocessen. In dit rapport is het resultaat weergegeven van drie evaluaties van onderzoeksprojec-ten naar de doorwerking van kennis is beleidsprocessen. Aan de hand van casestudies en interviews zijn de gerealiseerde kennisproducten, gerealiseerde effecten, de knelpunten bij kennisdoorwerking en succesfactoren en verbeterpunten voor kennisdoorwerking geïdenti-ficeerd. Het onderzoek resulteert in een aantal aanbevelingen ter verbetering van kennisdoorwerking. Een belangrijk onderdeel van de aanbevelingen richten zich op de fase van vraagarti-culatie en op de fase van oplevering en overdracht van onderzoeksresultaten.
    Rol van ICT bij procesinnovatie : case Agro Innovation Framework (AIF)
    Groot, S.A. de; Elzen, G.J.F. van den - \ 2003
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 7, Gamma, instituties, mens en beleving ) - ISBN 9789052428161 - 30
    agrarische economie - landbouwproductie - informatietechnologie - innovatie adoptie - nederland - agricultural economics - agricultural production - information technology - innovation adoption - netherlands
    De rol van ICT binnen innovatie is een weinig belicht onderwerp. Door nader in te gaan op innovatieprocessen, processen van kennisontwikkeling en de facilitering van innovaties is een beter zicht te krijgen op de specifieke rol van ICT. Dit rapport is het resultaat van een literatuurstudie naar de rol van rol van ICT binnen innovatieprocessen, in het bijzonder procesinnovaties. Centraal in deze studie staat de ontwikkelde methodiek Agro Innovation Framework (AIF), als een belangrijk resultaat van het project 'Ontwerp productiesystemen met 100¿fficiënt gebruik grondstoffen en hulpbronnen'. Met behulp van deze software tool is het mogelijk om innovatieve agro-productiesystemen met minimale reststromen te ontwerpen en te simuleren.
    Mineralenmanagement in de varkenshouderij, een vooronderzoek naar de kennisbehoefte en de mogelijkheden voor ondersteuning
    Elzen, G.J.F. van den; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Agro Management Tools (AMT 12)
    Naar netwerkfinanciering en -aanpak voor Kwaliteitsimpuls Landschap
    Ham, A. van den; Venema, G.S. ; Elzen, G.J.F. van den - \ 2002
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 4, Ruimte en economie ) - ISBN 9789052427737 - 71
    agrarische economie - landschapsbescherming - natuurbescherming - financiën - nederland - agrarisch natuurbeheer - netwerken - agricultural economics - landscape conservation - nature conservation - finance - netherlands - agri-environment schemes - networks
    Publieke en private actoren ontwikkelden, samen met het LEI, een financieringsconcept dat perspectief biedt om publieke en private partijen elkaar aanvullend de financiering van natuur en landschap (bijvoorbeeld de Kwaliteitsimpuls Landschap) te laten verzorgen. Publiek en privaat geld blijven strikt gescheiden evenals de geldstromen voor de investeringen, het beheer en de facilitering van het proces. Er zijn wel voorzieningen voor ontschotting ingebouwd. Financiering van de verbetering van de kwaliteit van natuur en landschap door publieke en private partijen lukt beter als de deelnemende partijen daarmee hun doelstellingen (beter) kunnen realiseren. Dat geldt ook voor de Kwaliteitsimpuls Landschap. Om beter zicht te krijgen op elkaars doelen, is een grotere participatie van gebiedsactoren in een vroeg stadium van het beleidsproces van belang. Dat geeft de mogelijkheid elkaars kennis in de eigen denkkaders te integreren. De actoren groeien als het ware met elkaar mee. Dat schept ruimte om gezamenlijk dilemma's op te lossen. Door een groep veranderingsgezinde actoren op basis van kennisverschillen in plaats van kennisovereenkomsten oplossingen voor dilemma's te laten zoeken, is het mogelijk met (voorlopig) vaststaande kaders (Comptabiliteitswet, EU-steunkader, reeds vastgelegde beleidsdoelen) om te gaan. Mits er voldoende ruimte wordt geboden om met creativiteit met de dilemma's om te kunnen gaan.
    Effect of srt and temperature on biological conversions and the related scum formating potential during anaerobic digestion of primary sludge.
    Halalsheh, M. ; Koppes, J. ; Elzen, J. den; Zeeman, G. ; Fayyad, M. ; Lettinga, G. - \ 2001
    In: Proceedings of the IWA, AD conference. Anaerobic digestion 2001; Anaerobic conversion for sustainability Antwerpen :
    ISO-certificering voor het Praktijkonderzoek
    Elzen, D. van den; Loo, D. van de - \ 1999
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 13 (1999)4. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 5 - 5.
    In 1998 heeft het Praktijkonderzoek het startsein gegeven voor het opzetten van een kwaliteitssysteem. Dit verschaft opdrachtgevers duidelijkheid over de werkwijze van het Praktijkonderzoek Varkenshouderij. Ook varkenshouderijbedrijven kunnen voordeelhebben van het door het Praktijkonderzoek opgestelde kwaliteitssysteem.
    Soil science and hydrology: methods and measurement techniques.
    Soet, M. ; Stricker, J.N.M. ; Droogers, P. ; Kabat, P. ; Elbers, J.A. ; Elzen, E. van den - \ 1998
    In: Hydrologic Atmospheric Pilot Experiment in the Sahel (HAPEX): methods, measurements and selected results from the West Central Supersite / Kabat, P., Prince, S.D., Prihodko, L., - p. 32 - 53.
    Bodemgesteldheid, beheer en vegetatie van 208 opstanden van Robusta-populier
    Delft, S.P.J. van - \ 1996
    Wageningen : SC-DLO - 217
    bosbouw - kaarten - bodemkarteringen - bomen - populus canadensis - forestry - maps - soil surveys - trees - populus canadensis
    In 208 Robusta-opstanden zijn gegevens verzameld over bodemgesteldheid, beheersaspecten en vegetatie. Er liggen 12 meetperken op veengronden, 8 op moerige gronden, 13 op podzolgronden, 22 op dikke eerdgronden, 38 op kalkloze zandgronden, 35 op kalkhoudende zandgronden en bijzondere lutumarme gronden, 45 op zeekleigronden, 27 op rivierkleigronden en 7 op oude kleigronden en leemgronden. Het grootste deel ligt op voormalige landbouwgronden of in de IJsselmeerpolders. In 84,7% van de opstanden wordt geen actief vegetatiebeheer gevoerd. Er zijn 13 vegetatietypen onderscheiden, die in de meeste gevallen behoren tot het elzen-vogelkersverbond. Eén vegetatietype wordt beschouwd als `populierenweide'.
    Broekbossen van Nederland
    Clerkx, A.P.P.M. ; Dort, K.W. van; Hommel, P.W.F.M. - \ 1994
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO [etc.] (IBN - rapport 096) - 369
    bossen - vegetatie - ecologie - hydrologie - bosbouw - plantenecologie - bomen - autecologie - nederland - alnus glutinosa - betula pubescens - ecohydrologie - forests - vegetation - ecology - hydrology - forestry - plant ecology - trees - autecology - netherlands - alnus glutinosa - betula pubescens - ecohydrology
    Het rapport 'Broekbossen van Nederland' is opgebouwd uit twee delen. Het eerste deel (hoofdstuk 1-8) behandelt de achtergronden en de methoden van het onderzoek, alsmede de overzichten van de verschillende aspecten van het broekbosecosysteem. Het tweede deel (hoofdstuk 9-12) vormt de kern van de publikatie: de geïntegreerde typologie van de Nederlandse elzen- en berkenbroekbossen.
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