Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Rassenbericht Grasland 2019
Schoot, Jan Rinze van der; Schilder, Henk - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1209) - 9
Rapportage van proefveldresultaten van het rassenonderzoek aan Engels raaigras in de periode 2011-2018.
Beste boeren, de burger houdt wél van jullie
Broekhuizen, R.E. van - \ 2019

Ook online verschenen als: De boer heeft de burger mee, en toch voelt hij zich miskend

Angst en onbegrip zetten genetische technieken in Nederland op achterstand
Lotz, Bert - \ 2019
Beter kweken in kas? Aan alles hangt een prijskaartje: trends in kassen
Marcelis, Leo - \ 2018
Onderzoek naar droogteresistentie douglas en eik nadert afronding
Copini, Paul - \ 2018

Praktijknetwerk Bestuivers in de Betuwse Appelteelt
Groot, G.A. de; Scheper, J.A. ; Stam, J.M. ; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Winkler, K. ; Maas, M.P. van der; Holster, Henri ; Engels, Hilde ; Reemer, Menno ; Copijn, Sonne - \ 2018
Werken aan duurzaam behoud en bevordering van bestuivers en bestuiving op het teeltbedrijf, met aandacht voor haalbaarheid in de bedrijfsvoering, door samen nieuwe maatregelen uit te proberen, de effecten te meten, en te leren van elkaars resultaten en ervaringen.
Specific synbiotics in early life protect against diet-induced obesity in adult mice
Mischke, Mona ; Arora, Tulika ; Tims, Sebastian ; Engels, Eefje ; Sommer, Nina ; Limpt, Kees van; Baars, Annemarie ; Oozeer, Raish ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Bäckhed, Fredrik ; Knol, Jan - \ 2018
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism 20 (2018)6. - ISSN 1462-8902 - p. 1408 - 1418.
Body composition - Dietary intervention - Insulin resistance - Liver - Mouse model - Obesity therapy
Aims: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health throughout life. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life affect metabolic health in adulthood. Methods: Postnatal diets were supplemented with either prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS) or synbiotics (scGOS/lcFOS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V) until post-natal (PN) day 42 in a well-established rodent model for nutritional programming. Mice were subsequently challenged with a high-fat Western-style diet (WSD) for 8 weeks. Body weight and composition were monitored, as was gut microbiota composition at PN21, 42 and 98. Markers of glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism and host transcriptomics of 6 target tissues were determined in adulthood (PN98). Results: Early life synbiotics protected mice against WSD-induced excessive fat accumulation throughout life, replicable in 2 independent European animal facilities. Adult insulin sensitivity and dyslipidaemia were improved and most pronounced changes in gene expression were observed in the ileum. We observed subtle changes in faecal microbiota composition, both in early life and in adulthood, including increased abundance of Bifidobacterium. Microbiota transplantation using samples collected from synbiotics-supplemented adolescent mice at PN42 to age-matched germ-free recipients did not transfer the beneficial phenotype, indicating that synbiotics-modified microbiota at PN42 is not sufficient to transfer long-lasting protection of metabolic health status. Conclusion: Together, these findings show the potential and importance of timing of synbiotic interventions in early life during crucial microbiota development as a preventive measure to lower the risk of obesity and improve metabolic health throughout life.
Een onverwachte concentratie van Zwarte Zee-eenden in de Hollandse kustzone in een gebied met hoge dichtheden van geschikte schelpdieren
Fijn, R.C. ; Leopold, M.F. ; Dirksen, Sjoerd ; Arts, Floor ; Asch, M. van; Baptist, M.J. ; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Engels, Bas ; Horssen, Peter van; Jong, Job de; Perdon, K.J. ; Zee, Els M. van der; Ham, N. - \ 2017
Limosa 90 (2017)3. - ISSN 0024-3620 - p. 97 - 117.
Een onverwachte concentratie van Zwarte Zee-eenden in de Hollandse kustzone in een gebied met hoge dichtheden van geschikte schelpdieren De winterverspreiding van Zwarte Zee-eenden in Nederland concentreerde zich in de afgelopen jaren ten noorden van de oostelijke Waddeneilanden
en in mindere mate in de Voordelta. In sommige jaren verblijven echter grote groepen op andere plaatsen. In de voorjaren van 2013 en 2014 doken ineens grote aantallen Zwarte Zee-eenden op voor de kust van Texel en in de winter van
2015/16 meldden zeetrektellers ongekend grote aantallen voor de kust van Camperduin, een locatie waar in de tweede helft van de vorige eeuw ook wel eens grote aantallen werden gezien. In deze studie is gekeken in hoeverre het plotseling verschijnen van grote aantallen Zwarte Zee-eenden bij Camperduin in 2015/16 kan worden verklaard door het aanwezige voedsel in de zeebodem
aldaar.
Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning in a 15-year grassland experiment : Patterns, mechanisms, and open questions
Weisser, Wolfgang ; Roscher, Christiane ; Meyer, Sebastian T. ; Ebeling, Anne ; Luo, Guangjuan ; Allan, Eric ; Beßler, Holger ; Barnard, Romain L. ; Buchmann, Nina ; Buscot, François ; Engels, Christof ; Fischer, Christine ; Fischer, Markus ; Gessler, Arthur ; Gleixner, Gerd ; Halle, Stefan ; Hildebrandt, Anke ; Hillebrand, Helmut ; Kroon, Hans de; Lange, Markus ; Leimer, Sophia ; Roux, Xavier Le; Milcu, Alexandru ; Mommer, Liesje ; Niklaus, Pascal A. ; Oelmann, Yvonne ; Proulx, Raphael ; Roy, Jacques ; Scherber, Christoph ; Scherer-lorenzen, Michael ; Scheu, Stefan ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Wachendorf, Michael ; Wagg, Cameron ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Wilcke, Wolfgang ; Wirth, Christian ; Schulze, Ernst Detlef ; Schmid, Bernhard ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2017
Basic and Applied Ecology 23 (2017). - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 1 - 73.
Biomass - Carbon storage - Complementarity - Multi-trophic interactions - Nutrient cycling - Selection effect
In the past two decades, a large number of studies have investigated the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, most of which focussed on a limited set of ecosystem variables. The Jena Experiment was set up in 2002 to investigate the effects of plant diversity on element cycling and trophic interactions, using a multi-disciplinary approach. Here, we review the results of 15 years of research in the Jena Experiment, focussing on the effects of manipulating plant species richness and plant functional richness. With more than 85,000 measures taken from the plant diversity plots, the Jena Experiment has allowed answering fundamental questions important for functional biodiversity research.First, the question was how general the effect of plant species richness is, regarding the many different processes that take place in an ecosystem. About 45% of different types of ecosystem processes measured in the 'main experiment', where plant species richness ranged from 1 to 60 species, were significantly affected by plant species richness, providing strong support for the view that biodiversity is a significant driver of ecosystem functioning. Many measures were not saturating at the 60-species level, but increased linearly with the logarithm of species richness. There was, however, great variability in the strength of response among different processes. One striking pattern was that many processes, in particular belowground processes, took several years to respond to the manipulation of plant species richness, showing that biodiversity experiments have to be long-term, to distinguish trends from transitory patterns. In addition, the results from the Jena Experiment provide further evidence that diversity begets stability, for example stability against invasion of plant species, but unexpectedly some results also suggested the opposite, e.g. when plant communities experience severe perturbations or elevated resource availability. This highlights the need to revisit diversity-stability theory.Second, we explored whether individual plant species or individual plant functional groups, or biodiversity itself is more important for ecosystem functioning, in particular biomass production. We found strong effects of individual species and plant functional groups on biomass production, yet these effects mostly occurred in addition to, but not instead of, effects of plant species richness.Third, the Jena Experiment assessed the effect of diversity on multitrophic interactions. The diversity of most organisms responded positively to increases in plant species richness, and the effect was stronger for above- than for belowground organisms, and stronger for herbivores than for carnivores or detritivores. Thus, diversity begets diversity. In addition, the effect on organismic diversity was stronger than the effect on species abundances.Fourth, the Jena Experiment aimed to assess the effect of diversity on N, P and C cycling and the water balance of the plots, separating between element input into the ecosystem, element turnover, element stocks, and output from the ecosystem. While inputs were generally less affected by plant species richness, measures of element stocks, turnover and output were often positively affected by plant diversity, e.g. carbon storage strongly increased with increasing plant species richness. Variables of the N cycle responded less strongly to plant species richness than variables of the C cycle.Fifth, plant traits are often used to unravel mechanisms underlying the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. In the Jena Experiment, most investigated plant traits, both above- and belowground, were plastic and trait expression depended on plant diversity in a complex way, suggesting limitation to using database traits for linking plant traits to particular functions.Sixth, plant diversity effects on ecosystem processes are often caused by plant diversity effects on species interactions. Analyses in the Jena Experiment including structural equation modelling suggest complex interactions that changed with diversity, e.g. soil carbon storage and greenhouse gas emission were affected by changes in the composition and activity of the belowground microbial community. Manipulation experiments, in which particular organisms, e.g. belowground invertebrates, were excluded from plots in split-plot experiments, supported the important role of the biotic component for element and water fluxes.Seventh, the Jena Experiment aimed to put the results into the context of agricultural practices in managed grasslands. The effect of increasing plant species richness from 1 to 16 species on plant biomass was, in absolute terms, as strong as the effect of a more intensive grassland management, using fertiliser and increasing mowing frequency. Potential bioenergy production from high-diversity plots was similar to that of conventionally used energy crops. These results suggest that diverse 'High Nature Value Grasslands' are multifunctional and can deliver a range of ecosystem services including production-related services.A final task was to assess the importance of potential artefacts in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships, caused by the weeding of the plant community to maintain plant species composition. While the effort (in hours) needed to weed a plot was often negatively related to plant species richness, species richness still affected the majority of ecosystem variables. Weeding also did not negatively affect monoculture performance; rather, monocultures deteriorated over time for a number of biological reasons, as shown in plant-soil feedback experiments.To summarize, the Jena Experiment has allowed for a comprehensive analysis of the functional role of biodiversity in an ecosystem. A main challenge for future biodiversity research is to increase our mechanistic understanding of why the magnitude of biodiversity effects differs among processes and contexts. It is likely that there will be no simple answer. For example, among the multitude of mechanisms suggested to underlie the positive plant species richness effect on biomass, some have received limited support in the Jena Experiment, such as vertical root niche partitioning. However, others could not be rejected in targeted analyses. Thus, from the current results in the Jena Experiment, it seems likely that the positive biodiversity effect results from several mechanisms acting simultaneously in more diverse communities, such as reduced pathogen attack, the presence of more plant growth promoting organisms, less seed limitation, and increased trait differences leading to complementarity in resource uptake. Distinguishing between different mechanisms requires careful testing of competing hypotheses. Biodiversity research has matured such that predictive approaches testing particular mechanisms are now possible.
Effects of dredging and lanthanum-modified clay on water quality variables in an enclosure study in a hypertrophic pond
Lürling, Miquel ; Waajen, Guido ; Engels, Bart ; Oosterhout, Frank van - \ 2017
Water 9 (2017)6. - ISSN 2073-4441 - 24 p.
cyanobacterial bloom - Eutrophication control - Lake management - Lake restoration - Mitigation - Principle response curve

An enclosure experiment was conducted between July and September 2009 to compare the effectiveness of a phosphate fixative, the lanthanum-modified bentonite clay Phoslock® (LMB), dredging, and their combination in controlling eutrophication in a hypertrophic urban pond in Heesch, The Netherlands. In total, 25 water quality variables were monitored. Multivariate analysis revealed that the combination LMB-treated and dredged enclosures deviated most from the pond (reference) and the controls, and showed the strongest eutrophication reduction. Overall, dredging significantly increased transparency, lowered turbidity, and improved the oxygen conditions in the enclosures compared to non-dredged ones. Nonetheless, one dredged enclosure deviated dramatically from the others, which might reflect methodological issues with dredging. The LMB treatment appeared to be less effective at mitigating eutrophication than dredging, and phosphate concentrations even increased during the experiment in the LMB-treated enclosures. Chemical equilibrium modeling suggested that humic substances could have formed complexes with lanthanum (La) from the LMB, rendering it unavailable for intercepting P over the course of the enclosure experiment. Residual lanthanum concentrations in combination dredging and LMB treatments exceeded the Dutch standard 10-fold. Total zooplankton abundance, and particularly Cladocera, increased in all enclosures over the course of the experiment. The limited effect of LMB in the enclosure experiment and the violation of the Dutch La standard when combined with dredging disqualify LMB as an intervention agent in the restoration of the pond.

Invloed van gewassen op bodemkwaliteit: Variatie tussen genotypen : een verkennende literatuurstudie voor ruwvoedergewassen
Wiel, Clemens C.M. van de; Linden, Gerard van der; Sukkel, Wijnand - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Plant Research (Rapport / Wageningen Plant Research 668) - 17
voederplanten - ruwvoer (forage) - bodemkwaliteit - genotypen - fodder plants - forage - soil quality - genotypes
Gewassen beïnvloeden de bodem waarop ze geteeld worden. In deze verkennende literatuurstudie is onderzocht wat er bekend is over variatie tussen verschillende genotypen/plantenrassen met betrekking tot hun effect op bodemkwaliteit voor een aantal ruwvoedergewassen, in het bijzonder Maïs (Zea mays), Engels raaigras (Lolium perenne) en Witte klaver (Trifolium repens). Dergelijke variatie zou mogelijkheden kunnen bieden om via veredeling en het inzetten van specifieke rassen de bodemkwaliteit te verbeteren. Er is betrekkelijk weinig onderzoek vanuit deze invalshoek gedaan. De focus van de studie was gericht op variatie in wortelarchitectuur, en wortelexudatie en wortelafsterving/nieuwvorming in relatie tot het organische stof gehalte en beschikbaarheid van nutriënten, en de bodem biota, met name mycorrhiza.
Voedselzekerheid kan niet zonder dierlijke producten
Zanten, Hannah van - \ 2016
Omdat land schaars is, vindt er concurrentie plaats tussen productie van veevoer en productie van voedsel. Rekening houdend met de schaarste aan land, is het efficiënter om gewassen te verbouwen die geschikt zijn voor humane consumptie in plaats van het land te gebruiken om gewassen te verbouwen om veevoer te produceren. Om de bijdrage van de veehouderijsector aan een - in de toekomst duurzame - voedselvoorziening in kaart te brengen hebben we een methode ontwikkeld, ook wel de landgebruik-ratio (in Engels ‘land use ratio oftewel LUR) genoemd. De LUR houdt rekening met de productiviteit van een gewas, het gebruik van voor de mens niet eetbare producten als veevoer en of het land geschikt is voor akkerbouw (wel of geen marginale gronden). De resultaten laten zien dat melkkoeien op zandgrond, leghennen en varkensproductiesystemen in Nederland een LUR >1 hebben. In termen van eiwitproductie per m2 is het daarom efficiënter om deze gronden te gebruiken voor de productie van humaan voedsel in plaats van voor de productie van veevoer. Melkkoeien op veengronden hebben echter een LUR <1. Dit komt omdat veengrond niet geschikt is voor akkerbouw. Veehouderijsystemen met een LUR van <1, zoals melkkoeien op veengrond, spelen daarom een belangrijke rol in een toekomstige duurzame voedselvoorziening.Veehouderijsystemen zouden zich niet moeten richten op de hoogste productiviteit per dier, maar op de hoogste eiwitproductie voor mensen per hectare. Door reststromen optimaal te gebruiken kan de veehouderijsector een cruciale hoeveelheid eiwit produceren zonder dat er concurrentie om land plaatsvindt tussen voer en voedsel. De veehouderijsector kan daarom een belangrijke bijdrage leveren aan de wereldvoedselproductie van de toekomst.
Data from: Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide
Khoury, C.K. ; Achicanoy, Harold A. ; Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Navarro-Racines, Carlos ; Guarino, Luigi ; Flores-Palacios, Ximena ; Engels, Johannes M.M. ; Wiersema, John H. ; Dempewolf, Hannes ; Sotelo, Steven ; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian ; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P. ; Fowler, Cary ; Jarvis, Andy ; Rieseberg, Loren H. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2016
food security - crop diversity - crop origins - plant genetic resources - crop domestication - crop improvement
Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.
Overleven: op zoek naar bijenvolken die kunnen omgaan met varroa en verkreukeldevleugelvirus
Blacquiere, T. ; Scheer, H. van der - \ 2016
Bijenhouden 10 (2016)3. - ISSN 1877-9786 - p. 12 - 14.
De Europese rassen van de westerse honingbij (Apis mellifera) zitten in Europa en Noord-Amerika al een tiental jaren in zwaar weer vanwege abnormale bijensterfte en het jaarlijks verlies van 20-30% van de volken (Van der Scheer en Blacquière, 2013b). Ook al is de besmetting met varroa in Nederland de laatste twee jaar minder, toch hebben de honingbijen nog veel last van de parasitaire varroamijt (Varroa destructor) in combinatie met het verkreukeldevleugelvirus, in het Engels Deformed Wing Virus, afgekort DWV (Van der Scheer en Blacquière, 2013a). Die besmetting met mijten vergt bestrijding om de volken in leven te houden. Omdat bestrijding veel aandacht vraagt en geld kost wordt er gezocht naar varroa-resistente volken van de westerse honingbij
Hoe de giraffe aan zijn lange nek komt
Groenen, Martien - \ 2016
Engels onderwijs op z'n Twents
Bitter, Harry - \ 2016

Wageningen University & Research wil vanaf 2018 beginnen met Engelstalige bacheloropleidingen. Universiteit Twente experimenteert hier al sinds 2010 mee. Resource nam een kijkje in Enschede en vroeg naar de voors en tegens van zo’n taalswitch.

Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide
Khoury, Colin K. ; Achicanoy, Harold A. ; Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Navarro-Racines, Carlos ; Guarino, Luigi ; Flores-Palacios, Ximena ; Engels, Johannes M.M. ; Wiersema, John H. ; Dempewolf, Hannes ; Sotelo, Steven ; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian ; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P. ; Fowler, Cary ; Jarvis, Andy ; Rieseberg, Loren H. ; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 283 (2016)1832. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 9 p.
Crop diversity - Crop domestication - Crop improvement - Crop origins - Food security - Plant genetic resources

Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins ('primary regions of diversity') of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own ('foreign crops'), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

Voorbij de ziek(t)e: belangrijke naasten over het samen leven met diabetes - uitdagingen voor de zorgverlening
Bouman, Mariëtte ; Engels, J. - \ 2015
Zelfs mijn gedachten waren op het Engels overgeschakeld
Bracke, M.B.M. ; Kolsteren, M. - \ 2015
In: In Amerika heb ik ruim leren denken - p. 133 - 136.
Auteur Manon Kolsteren neemt je mee in haar tocht langs studenten en wetenschappers die tussen 1950 en nu voor studie of onderzoek een periode in Amerika verbleven. De interviews en foto's laten zien hoe de wereld veranderde in de afgelopen 65 jaar en alle studenten en wetenschappers, ongeacht het jaartal van vertrek, toch verbonden zijn door hun periode in Amerika. Herkenbaar voor wie zelf in Amerika verbleef voor studie of onderzoek, inspirerend voor wie van plan is dat te gaan doen.
Policy Brief - Where our Food Crops Come from: A New Estimation of Countries’ Interdependence in Plant Genetic Resources
Khoury, C.K. ; Achicanoy, H.A. ; Bjorkman, A.D. ; Navarro-Racines, C. ; Guarino, L. ; Flores-Palacios, X. ; Engels, J.M.M. ; Wiersema, J.H. ; Dempewolf, H. ; Ramirez-Villegas, J. ; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P. ; Fowler, C. ; Jarvis, A. ; Rieseberg, L.H. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2015
CIAT International Center for Tropical Agriculture
Key messages: • Access to plant genetic resources used in crop improvement is essential for achieving food and nutrition security. • All countries utilize crops whose genetic diversity originates outside their borders and therefore benefi t from international collaboration to access plant genetic resources. • Countries are highly interdependent in regard to these resources, as 68.7% of their diets and 69.3% of their national agricultural production systems depend on crops whose genetic diversity originates largely outside their borders, on average across countries worldwide. • Countries’ dependence on crops that originated in other regions has increased over the past 50 years in concert with economic and agricultural development and the globalization of food systems. Increased utilization of these “foreign” crops is correlated with greater dietary diversity and higher GDP. • Global interdependence in plant genetic resources provides a strong rationale for proactively conserving and facilitating access to this diversity worldwide. We recommend more comprehensive participation of countries in the Multilateral System of Access and Benefi t Sharing of the ITPGRFA, and for widening international cooperation and a multilateral approach to the exchange of plant genetic diversity in order to consider all crops of present and future international importance.
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