Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Soil nitrogen supply of peat grasslands estimated by degree days and soil organic matter content
    Pijlman, J. ; Holshof, G. ; Berg, W. van den; Ros, G.H. ; Erisman, J.W. ; Eekeren, N. van - \ 2020
    Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 117 (2020). - ISSN 1385-1314 - p. 351 - 365.
    Fertilisation - Histosols - Mineralisation - Nitrogen efficiency - pH - Weather

    Accurate estimates of the quantity and rate of soil nitrogen supply (SNS) are essential to increase soil and farm N use efficiencies, in particular for soils high in organic matter. The objective of this work was to enhance the empirical understanding of the SNS of dairy grasslands on peat soils, using soil properties and weather variables. Data were collected from studies on herbage N uptake carried out between 1992 and 2017 in the western peat district of the Netherlands. For the period between March to mid October, SNS was estimated from the sum of mean growing season daily temperatures, soil organic matter (SOM) and applied calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) N with a residual standard error of 25–27 kg ha−1. Each °C growing season temperature sum affected SNS by 78–90 g ha−1 and each g SOM per 100 g dry soil affected SNS by 3.6–3.9 kg ha−1, respectively. SNS was equally estimated for conditions with and without CAN fertilisation. Validation with data from independent field trials showed similar impacts of SOM and growing season temperature sum on SNS. The error of prediction of the presented models, however, was still too large for direct on-farm application and led to underestimations for a specific site. Nevertheless, the obtained models allow for an increased understanding of soil and farm N balances. The models can therefore be used for improved temporal and spatial SNS-adapted farming practice advice, which can potentially lead to reduced soil and farm N surpluses.

    Dierenwelzijn in de kringlooplandbouw startdocument
    Boer, I.J.M. de; Backus, G.B.C. ; Bergh, W.T.A.A.G.M. van den; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Huijbers, J.A.M. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2020
    Den Haag : RDA - 8 p.
    animal welfare - circular agriculture
    Dierenwelzijn in de kringlooplandbouw samenvatting
    Boer, I.J.M. de; Backus, G.B.C. ; Bergh, W.T.A.A.G.M. van den; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Huijbers, J.A.M. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2020
    Den Haag : RDA - 16 p.
    animal welfare - circular agriculture
    Dierenwelzijn in de kringlooplandbouw
    Boer, I.J.M. de; Backus, G.B.C. ; Bergh, W.T.A.A.G.M. van den; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Huijbers, J.A.M. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2020
    Den Haag : RDA - 39 p.
    animal welfare - circular agriculture
    De biodiversiteitsmonitor voor beloning van boeren voor biodiversiteitsverbetering
    Doorn, A.M. van; Melman, T.C.P. ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2020
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 17 (2020)164. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 34 - 36.
    Een van de oplossingsrichtingen voor herstel van biodiversiteit op het boerenland is het belonen van bijdragen van boeren aan biodiversiteit. De Biodiversiteitsmonitor Melkveehouderij kan daarvoor een belangrijk instrument zijn, ook omdat het een centrale rol speelt in het Deltaplan biodiversiteitsherstel. De biodiversiteitsmonitor maakt de prestaties van boeren voor biodiversiteit inzichtelijk aan de hand van zeven kritische prestatie indicatoren (KPI’s). De indicatoren sturen integraal naar biodiversiteitsverbetering en kunnen mogelijk gebruikt worden om boeren te belonen voor hun prestaties. Maar bij welke waarden van de KPI’s is sprake van herstel van biodiversiteit? En bij welke waarden kunnen we spreken over een ecologisch optimum? Het Wereld Natuurfonds en Rabobank vroegen Wageningen Environmental Research en het Louis Bolk Instituut om drempel- en streefwaarden te bepalen voor de KPI’s.
    Can the presence of plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) improve nitrogen cycling of dairy grassland systems on peat soils?
    Pijlman, Jeroen ; Berger, Stijn J. ; Lexmond, Fay ; Bloem, Jaap ; Groenigen, Jan Willem van; Visser, Eric J.W. ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2020
    New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 63 (2020)1. - ISSN 0028-8233 - p. 102 - 122.
    grassland - nitrification - nitrogen - nitrous oxide - peat - Plantain

    Reactive nitrogen (N) losses, and in particular nitrous oxide losses, from dairy grasslands on peat soils are generally high as a result of relative high soil organic matter contents, potential N mineralisation rates and shallow groundwater levels. Effects of the inclusion of the temperate forage species plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) (PL), which produces secondary compounds with biological nitrification inhibition capacity, on the fate of soil mineral N were studied in a combined mesocosm and field experiment. The experiments comprised four treatments differing in intentional herbage share of plantain versus perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) (100%PL, 66%PL, 33%PL and 0%PL). Potential nitrification in the mesocosm experiment was significantly lower at 100%PL versus 0%PL (p = 0.018), but soil nitrate concentrations were not. Nitrous oxide fluxes reduced by 39% (p = 0.021) in the presence of plantain in the field experiment, without an obvious link to the quantity of plantain. N use efficiency of plantain tended to increase with the quantity of plantain in the sward in the mesocosm experiment (p = 0.098), but not in the field experiment. Our results suggest that the presence of plantain can affect the fate of soil mineral N of dairy grasslands on peat soils.

    Drempel-en streefwaarden voor de KPI’s van de Biodiversiteitsmonitor melkveehouderij : Normeren vanuit de ecologie
    Doorn, Anne van; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Melman, Dick ; Eekeren, Nick van; Lesschen, Jan Peter ; Visser, Tim ; Blanken, Harm - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2968) - ISBN 9789463951883 - 75
    Herstel & benutten van biodiversiteit in de kringlooplandbouw : programmeringsstudie voor de kennis en innovatie agenda
    Doorn, Anne van; Schutt, Jeroen ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Kleijn, David ; Melman, Dick ; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Migchels, Gerard ; Lotz, Bert ; Westerik, Judith ; Schmidt, Anne ; Roessink, Ivo ; Groot, Arjen de; Boonstra, Froukje ; Blijdorp, Janneke ; Hilgen, Peter - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 40
    Het huidige Nederlandse landbouwmodel is failliet : Opinie
    Turnhout, E. ; Dijk, Jerry van; Bakker, M.M. ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Rotmans, Jan - \ 2019
    NRC-Handelsblad 2019 (2019). - ISSN 0002-5259
    Nitrogen Deposition Maintains a Positive Effect on Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in the 21st Century Despite Growing Phosphorus Limitation at Regional Scales
    Fleischer, Katrin ; Dolman, A.J. ; Molen, Michiel K. van der; Rebel, Karin T. ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Wassen, Martin J. ; Pak, Bernard ; Lu, Xingjie ; Rammig, Anja ; Wang, Ying Ping - \ 2019
    Global Biogeochemical Cycles 33 (2019)6. - ISSN 0886-6236 - p. 810 - 824.
    carbon sequestration - land carbon sink - nitrogen deposition - nitrogen fixation - phosphorus limitation - terrestrial ecosystems

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are two dominant nutrients regulating the productivity of most terrestrial ecosystems. The growing imbalance of anthropogenic N and P inputs into the future is estimated to exacerbate P limitation on land and limit the land carbon (C) sink, so that we hypothesized that P limitation will increasingly reduce C sequestered per unit N deposited into the future. Using a global land surface model (CABLE), we simulated the effects of increased N deposition with and without P limitation on land C uptake and the fate of deposited N on land from 1901 to 2100. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that N deposition continued to induce land C sequestration into the future, contributing to 15% of future C sequestration as opposed to 6% over the historical period. P limitation reduced the future land C uptake per unit N deposited only moderately at the global scale but P limitation increasingly caused N deposition to have net negative effects on the land C balance in the temperate zone. P limitation further increased the fraction of deposited N that is lost via leaching to aquatic ecosystems, globally from 38.5% over the historical period to 53% into the future, and up to 75% in tropical ecosystems. Our results suggest continued N demand for plant productivity but also indicate growing adverse N deposition effects in the future biosphere, not fully accounted for in global models, emphasizing the urgent need to elaborate on model representations of N and P dynamics.

    Agrobosbouw kan heel goed samen met reguliere teelten
    Sukkel, W. - \ 2018
    Het GLB na 2020: mogelijkheden voor biodiversiteit, bodem en klimaat
    Erisman, Jan Willem ; Doorn, Anne van - \ 2018
    Bunnik : Louis Bolk Instituut (WENR rapport 2908) - 31
    Cleaning up nitrogen pollution may reduce future carbon sinks
    Gu, Baojing ; Ju, Xiaotang ; Wu, Yiyun ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Bleeker, Albert ; Reis, Stefan ; Sutton, Mark A. ; Lam, Shu Kee ; Smith, Pete ; Oenema, Oene ; Smith, Rognvald I. ; Lu, Xuehe ; Ye, Xinyue ; Chen, Deli - \ 2018
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 48 (2018). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 56 - 66.
    Carbon sink - Climate change - CO emission - Economic development - Nitrogen deposition - Stoichiometry
    Biosphere carbon sinks are crucial for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to mitigate global warming, but are substantially affected by the input of reactive nitrogen (Nr). Although the effects of anthropogenic CO2 emission and nitrogen deposition (indicated by Nr emission to atmosphere) on carbon sink have been studied, it is unclear how their ratio (C/N) changes with economic development and how such change alters biosphere carbon sinks. Here, by compiling datasets for 132 countries we find that the C/N ratio continued to increase despite anthropogenic CO2 and Nr emissions to atmosphere both showing an asymmetric para-curve with economic growth. The inflection points of CO2 and Nr emissions are found at around $15,000 gross domestic product per capita worldwide. Economic growth promotes the use of Nr and energy, while at the same time increases their use efficiencies, together resulting in occurrences of inflection points of CO2 and Nr emissions. Nr emissions increase slower but decrease faster than that of CO2 emissions before and after the inflection point, respectively. It implies that there will be relatively more anthropogenic CO2 emission but less N deposition with economic growth. This may limit biosphere carbon sink because of relative shortage of Nr. This finding should be integrated/included in global climate change modelling. Efforts, such as matching N deposition with carbon sequestration on regional scale, to manage CO2 and Nr emissions comprehensively to maintain a balance are critical.
    Measures for nature-based agriculture
    Erisman, Jan Willem ; Eekeren, Nick van; Doorn, Anne van; Geertsema, Willemien ; Polman, Nico - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2821) - 49
    Maatregelen Natuurinclusieve landbouw
    Erisman, Jan Willem ; Eekeren, Nick van; Doorn, Anne van; Geertsema, Willemien ; Polman, Nico - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2821) - 49
    landbouw - natuur - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - maatregelen - biologische landbouw - dierenwelzijn - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke productie - melkvee - agriculture - nature - farm management - measures - organic farming - animal welfare - animal housing - animal production - dairy cattle
    In deze notitie wordt een overzicht gegeven van maatregelen voor natuurinclusieve landbouw. Dit is een vorm van duurzame landbouw die optimaal gebruik maakt van de natuurlijke processen en deze integreert in de bedrijfsvoering. Natuurinclusieve landbouw begint met een gezonde bodem, produceert voedsel binnen de grenzen van natuur, milieu en leefomgeving en heeft positieve effecten op de biodiversiteit en het klimaat.
    Promoting nature conservation by Dutch farmers: a governance perspective
    Runhaar, Hens ; Melman, Dick ; Boonstra, Froukje ; Erisman, J.W. ; Horlings, Lummina ; Snoo, G.R. de; Termeer, Katrien ; Wassen, M.J. ; Westerink, J. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2017
    International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 15 (2017)3. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 264 - 281.
    Reconciling productive agricultural practices with nature conservation is not only an ecological challenge, but also a demanding matter of governance. This paper analyses the potential as well as the limitations of various governance arrangements, and explores ways to enhance the governance of nature conservation in agricultural landscapes. We assume four conditions to contribute to the performance of these arrangements: farmers should be motivated, demanded, enabled, and legitimized to participate in arrangements that promote nature conservation by farmers. We analyse 10 distinct Dutch governance arrangements in the period 2000–2016, including agri-environment schemes but also privately initiated arrangements. The arrangements target a large but unknown share of farmers and farmlands, but nature conservation ambition levels are generally low to moderate. The expected low-to-moderate performance is associated with a low-to-moderate motivation, demand, and ability. Underlying are stronger forces driving towards intensification and problems farmers face in recuperating the cost of nature conservation. New greening requirements in the EU Common Agricultural Policy and in agri-food supply chains are first, cautious steps addressing these fundamental drivers of ecological degradation. More ambitious greening requirements may contribute to a higher motivation and ability of larger groups of farmers to implement nature conservation measures.
    Low historical nitrogen deposition effect on carbon sequestration in the boreal zone
    Fleischer, K. ; Wårlind, D. ; Molen, M.K. Van Der; Rebel, K.T. ; Arneth, A. ; Erisman, J.W. ; Wassen, M.J. ; Smith, B. ; Gough, C.M. ; Margolis, H.A. ; Cescatti, A. ; Montagnani, L. ; Arain, A. ; Dolman, A.J. - \ 2015
    Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 120 (2015)12. - ISSN 2169-8953 - p. 2542 - 2561.
    carbon sequestration - FLUXNET - forests - global dynamic vegetation models - nitrogen deposition

    Nitrogen (N) cycle dynamics and N deposition play an important role in determining the terrestrial biosphere's carbon (C) balance. We assess global and biome-specific N deposition effects on C sequestration rates with the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-GUESS. Modeled CN interactions are evaluated by comparing predictions of the C and CN version of the model with direct observations of C fluxes from 68 forest FLUXNET sites. N limitation on C uptake reduced overestimation of gross primary productivity for boreal evergreen needleleaf forests from 56% to 18%, presenting the greatest improvement among forest types. Relative N deposition effects on C sequestration (dC/dN) in boreal, temperate, and tropical sites ranged from 17 to 26 kg C kg N-1 when modeled at site scale and were reduced to 12-22 kg C kg N-1 at global scale. We find that 19% of the recent (1990-2007) and 24% of the historical global C sink (1900-2006) was driven by N deposition effects. While boreal forests exhibit highest dC/dN, their N deposition-induced C sink was relatively low and is suspected to stay low in the future as no major changes in N deposition rates are expected in the boreal zone. N deposition induced a greater C sink in temperate and tropical forests, while predicted C fluxes and N-induced C sink response in tropical forests were associated with greatest uncertainties. Future work should be directed at improving the ability of LPJ-GUESS and other process-based ecosystem models to reproduce C cycle dynamics in the tropics, facilitated by more benchmarking data sets. Furthermore, efforts should aim to improve understanding and model representations of N availability (e.g., N fixation and organic N uptake), N limitation, P cycle dynamics, and effects of anthropogenic land use and land cover changes.

    Towards a common nutrient use efficiency assessment method for livestock supply chains: : a case study of mixed dairy supply chains in western europe
    Uwizeye, U.A. ; Gerber, P.J. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2015
    The comprehensive assessment of efficiency of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) use in livestock supply chains is a key step towards sustainable nutrient management [1]. Previously, we identified supply chain level nutrient use efficiency (life-cycle NUE), as a pertinent indicator to support monitoring of practice changes and benchmarking of livestock supply chains [2]. The quantification of life-cycle NUE [3] requires the computation of NUE at each stage of supply chain, including crop/pasture production, animal production and processing. A ‘perfect’ NUE assessment in crop/pasture production would require measurement of all nutrient flows, including inputs, soil stock changes (SSC), losses and removals in harvested biomass. However, no dataset could be found that includes comprehensive measurement of both SSC and losses. Therefore, existing models commonly estimate the value of these variables by modelling one of these two flows and deriving the other from mass balance. The aim of this study, part of the FAO Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance (LEAP) partnership, was to assess the extent to which reported life-cycle NUE values depend on such methodological choices. We compared three N accounting approaches: i) a simple input-output approach where SSC is set to equal 0 [4], ii) an approach where N losses are modelled [5] and iii) an approach where SSC is modelled, based on assumptions about NUE values [6]. Additionally, for P-NUE, we explored methodological approaches to account for “sustainable fertility build-up” in P-deficient and optimum soils [7]. We illustrate both these N and P assessments for mixed dairy systems in Western Europe.


    [1] M.A. Sutton, A. Bleeker, C. Howard, M. Bekunda, B. Grizzetti, W. de Vries, et al., Our Nutrient World: the challenge to produce more food and energy with less pollution. Global Overview of Nutrient Management, Sutton, M. A.;Bleeker, A.;Howard, C. M.;Bekunda, M.;Grizzetti, B.;Vries, W. de;Grinsven, H. J. M. van;Abrol, Y. P.;Adhya, T. K.;Billen, G.;Davidson, E. A.;Datta, A.;Diaz, R.;Erisman, J. W.;Liu, X. J.;Oenema, O.;Palm, C.;Raghuram, N.;Reis, S.;Scholz, R. W.;Sims, T.;Westhoek, H.;Zhang, F. S., CEH/UNEP, Edinburgh, UK, 2013.
    [2] P. Gerber, A. Uwizeye, R. Schulte, C. Opio, I. de Boer, Nutrient use efficiency: a valuable approach to benchmark the sustainability of nutrient use in global livestock production?, SI Syst. Dyn. Sustain. 9–10 (2014) 122–130. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2014.09.007.
    [3] S. Suh, S. Yee, Phosphorus use-efficiency of agriculture and food system in the US, Phosphorus Cycle. 84 (2011) 806–813. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.01.051.
    [4] E. OECD, Gross Nitrogen Balances-Handbook, URL. 20 (2007) 2010.
    [5] G. Velthof, D. Oudendag, H. Witzke, W. Asman, Z. Klimont, O. Oenema, Integrated assessment of nitrogen losses from agriculture in EU-27 using MITERRA-EUROPE, J. Environ. Qual. 38 (2009) 402–417.
    [6] F.Ş. Özbek, A. Leip, Estimating the gross nitrogen budget under soil nitrogen stock changes: A case study for Turkey, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 205 (2015) 48–56.
    [7] G. Tóth, A. Jones, L. Montanarella, The LUCAS topsoil database and derived information on the regional variability of cropland topsoil properties in the European Union, Environ. Monit. Assess. 185 (2013) 7409–7425. doi:10.1007/s10661-013-3109-3.

    Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system; the case for nitrogen and livestock
    Grinsven, J.J.M. van; Erisman, J.W. ; Vries, W. de; Westhoek, H. - \ 2015
    Environmental Research Letters 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1748-9326 - 10 p.
    dairy farms - management - intensification - welfare - trends - impact - costs - meat - pig
    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3–1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25–30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10–20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2–2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when changing to organic farming. We conclude that in Europe extensification of agriculture is sustainable when combined with adjusted diets and externalization of environmental costs to food prices.
    Nitrogen : too much of a vital resource : Science Brief
    Erisman, J.W. ; Galloway, J.N. ; Dise, N.B. ; Sutton, M.A. ; Bleeker, A. ; Grizzetti, B. ; Leach, A.M. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
    Zeist, The Netherlands : WWF Netherlands (WWF science brief NL ) - ISBN 9789074595223 - 27
    stikstofkringloop - waterverontreiniging - eutrofiëring - emissiereductie - broeikasgassen - terrestrische ecosystemen - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - milieubeleid - nitrogen cycle - water pollution - eutrophication - emission reduction - greenhouse gases - terrestrial ecosystems - scientific research - environmental policy
    It is now clear that the nitrogen problem is one of the most pressing environmental issues that we face. But in spite of the enormity of our influence on the N cycle and consequent implications for the environment and for human well-being, there is surprisingly little attention paid to the issue. While biodiversity loss and climate change have spawned huge budgets to create national and multidisciplinary programs, global organizations, political and media attention, the N challenge remains much less apparent in our thinking and actions. This is because we are educated with the important role that N plays with regard to food security. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the N challenge, and to provide options for decreasing the negative impacts of excess N.
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