Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Far-red light during cultivation induces postharvest cold tolerance in tomato fruit
Affandi, Fahrizal Y. ; Verdonk, Julian C. ; Ouzounis, Theoharis ; Ji, Yongran ; Woltering, Ernst J. ; Schouten, Rob E. - \ 2020
Postharvest Biology and Technology 159 (2020). - ISSN 0925-5214
We investigated the role of far-red LED light during cultivation on postharvest cold tolerance in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum cv Moneymaker). Red and blue top LED light, providing 150 μmol m−2 s-1 photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR) at plant height for 16 h daily, was combined with 0, 30 or 50 μmol m−2 s-1 (non-PAR) far-red LED light. Tomatoes were harvested at the mature green or red stage and subjected to cold storage for 0, 5, 10, and 15 d at 4 °C, followed by 20 d shelf-life at 20 °C.
Mature green harvested tomatoes, cultivated with additional far-red light, showed reduced weight loss, less pitting, faster red colour development during shelf-life (when prior long cold stored), and less softening (when prior short or non-cold stored). FR lighting during cultivation likely protects the membrane integrity of MG tomatoes and thus allows uninterrupted lycopene synthesis. Red harvested tomatoes cultivated with additional far-red light were firmer at harvest, showed reduced weight loss and less decay during shelf-life. Less red colouration was observed for red harvested fruits at the start of shelf-life when fruits were prior cold stored, indicative of lycopene breakdown during cold storage. The improved cold tolerance of red harvested fruits grown under additional far-red light is likely due to higher firmness at the start of the shelf-life period with lycopene acting as antioxidant during cold storage. In conclusion, additional far-red light during cultivation improved postharvest cold tolerance for tomatoes harvested at both the green and red maturity stage, and might therefore be suitable to prolong the storage potential of tomato at sub-optimal temperatures.
Handhavingsprotocol Hokverrijking : Praktische uitwerking van open normen in wetgeving helpt varkenswelzijn vooruit
Jonge, Francien de; Nieuwenhuizen, Jeroen van den; Ekkelboom, Myra ; Ernst, Kristi ; Kerssen, Nynke ; Smeets, Sharine ; Sun, Yan ; Yin, Xuetong ; Blaauw, Xana ; He, Zhengxiao ; Jong, Mandy de; Nauta, Charlotte ; Verdaasdonk, Marleen ; Kanhailal, Sharita - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel 353) - ISBN 9789463951685 - 27
Melamine-Based Microporous Organic Framework Thin Films on an Alumina Membrane for High-Flux Organic Solvent Nanofiltration
Amirilargani, Mohammad ; Yokota, Giovana N. ; Vermeij, Gijs H. ; Merlet, Renaud B. ; Delen, Guusje ; Mandemaker, Laurens D.B. ; Weckhuysen, Bert M. ; Winnubst, Louis ; Nijmeijer, Arian ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. - \ 2019
ChemSusChem (2019). - ISSN 1864-5631
membranes - microporous materials - organic solvent nanofiltration - polymers - porous organic frameworks

Microporous polymer frameworks have attracted considerable attention to make novel separation layers owing to their highly porous structure, high permeability, and excellent molecular separation. This study concerns the fabrication and properties of thin melamine-based microporous polymer networks with a layer thickness of around 400 nm, supported on an α-alumina support and their potential use in organic solvent nanofiltration. The modified membranes show excellent solvent purification performances, such as n-heptane permeability as high as 9.2 L m−2 h−1 bar −1 in combination with a very high rejection of approximately 99 % for organic dyes with molecular weight of ≥457 Da. These values are higher than for the majority of the state-of-the-art membranes. The membranes further exhibit outstanding long-term operation stability. This work significantly expands the possibilities of using ceramic membranes in organic solvent nanofiltration.

Ripening of plum fruit : GreenCHAINge Fruit & Vegetables WP6
Woltering, Ernst ; Paillart, Maxence - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen Food & Biobased Research 1972) - 15
Ripening of plums, from South Africa (SA), was studied following reefer transportation. In experiment 1, plum cultivars ‘Pioneer’ and ‘African Rose’ were ripened using different temperature scenarios. Both cultivars showed increased coloration during ripening, but this was much more pronounced in ‘Pioneer’ compared to ‘African Rose’. In ‘Pioneer’ there was a clear decrease in firmness during ripening; this was correlated with the temperature sum. At a temperature sum of 100-120 degree-days, the fruit had soften completely and reached the “ready–to-eat” stage. Increasing the temperature sum did not further soften the fruit. Irrespective the temperature scenario, ‘African Rose’ showed no softening and did not become “ready-to-eat”. In experiment 2, plum cultivars ‘ So ngold’ and ‘Southern Belle’ were harvested three times during their production season, transported to the Netherlands (NL), and ripening was studied at three temperatures (16, 20 and 24°C for 2 days). ‘So ngold’ was always less firm at arrival compared to ‘Southern Belle’. The applied temperatures did not have a clear effect on the speed of ripening. Fruit firmness at arrival was similar for the different batches of each cultivar; fruit from later harvest batches showed slightly more softening during storage and shelf life than fruit from first harvestbatch. Ethylene treatment (100 ppm, 24h) had effect on firmness loss in ‘Southern Belle’ when plums were ripened at higher temperature (ethylene effect was not tested in ‘So ngold’). Ethylene production in ‘Songold’ was about ten times higher than in ‘Southern Belle’ and increased during ripening in both cultivars. No clear effect of ripening temperature on ethylene production was observed.
Predicting strawberry shelf life based on input quality : GreenCHAINge Fruit & Vegetables WP3
Brouwer, Bastiaan ; Mensink, Manon ; Woltering, Ernst ; Pereira da Silva, Fatima - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen Food & Biobased Research 1912) - 31
Dynamics of ripening of avocado fruit : GreenCHAINge Fruit & Vegetables WP6
Woltering, Ernst ; Paillart, Maxence - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen Food & Biobased Research 1924) - 22
Nederland gidsland
Ende, Ernst van den - \ 2019
Author Correction: Reproducible, interactive, scalable and extensible microbiome data science using QIIME 2
Bolyen, Evan ; Rideout, Jai Ram ; Dillon, Matthew R. ; Bokulich, Nicholas A. ; Abnet, Christian C. ; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A. ; Alexander, Harriet ; Alm, Eric J. ; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan ; Asnicar, Francesco ; Bai, Yang ; Bisanz, Jordan E. ; Bittinger, Kyle ; Brejnrod, Asker ; Brislawn, Colin J. ; Brown, C.T. ; Callahan, Benjamin J. ; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio ; Chase, John ; Cope, Emily K. ; Silva, Ricardo Da; Diener, Christian ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Douglas, Gavin M. ; Durall, Daniel M. ; Duvallet, Claire ; Edwardson, Christian F. ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Estaki, Mehrbod ; Fouquier, Jennifer ; Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Gibbons, Sean M. ; Gibson, Deanna L. ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Gorlick, Kestrel ; Guo, Jiarong ; Hillmann, Benjamin ; Holmes, Susan ; Holste, Hannes ; Huttenhower, Curtis ; Huttley, Gavin A. ; Janssen, Stefan ; Jarmusch, Alan K. ; Jiang, Lingjing ; Kaehler, Benjamin D. ; Kang, Kyo Bin ; Keefe, Christopher R. ; Keim, Paul ; Kelley, Scott T. ; Knights, Dan ; Koester, Irina ; Kosciolek, Tomasz ; Kreps, Jorden ; Langille, Morgan G.I. ; Lee, Joslynn ; Ley, Ruth ; Liu, Yong Xin ; Loftfield, Erikka ; Lozupone, Catherine ; Maher, Massoud ; Marotz, Clarisse ; Martin, Bryan D. ; McDonald, Daniel ; McIver, Lauren J. ; Melnik, Alexey V. ; Metcalf, Jessica L. ; Morgan, Sydney C. ; Morton, Jamie T. ; Naimey, Ahmad Turan ; Navas-Molina, Jose A. ; Nothias, Louis Felix ; Orchanian, Stephanie B. ; Pearson, Talima ; Peoples, Samuel L. ; Petras, Daniel ; Preuss, Mary Lai ; Pruesse, Elmar ; Rasmussen, Lasse Buur ; Rivers, Adam ; Robeson, Michael S. ; Rosenthal, Patrick ; Segata, Nicola ; Shaffer, Michael ; Shiffer, Arron ; Sinha, Rashmi ; Song, Se Jin ; Spear, John R. ; Swafford, Austin D. ; Thompson, Luke R. ; Torres, Pedro J. ; Trinh, Pauline ; Tripathi, Anupriya ; Turnbaugh, Peter J. ; Ul-Hasan, Sabah ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Vargas, Fernando ; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki ; Vogtmann, Emily ; Hippel, Max von; Walters, William ; Wan, Yunhu ; Wang, Mingxun ; Warren, Jonathan ; Weber, Kyle C. ; Williamson, Charles H.D. ; Willis, Amy D. ; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech ; Zaneveld, Jesse R. ; Zhang, Yilong ; Zhu, Qiyun ; Knight, Rob ; Caporaso, J.G. - \ 2019
Nature Biotechnology (2019). - ISSN 1087-0156

In the version of this article initially published, some reference citations were incorrect. The three references to Jupyter Notebooks should have cited Kluyver et al. instead of Gonzalez et al. The reference to Qiita should have cited Gonzalez et al. instead of Schloss et al. The reference to mothur should have cited Schloss et al. instead of McMurdie & Holmes. The reference to phyloseq should have cited McMurdie & Holmes instead of Huber et al. The reference to Bioconductor should have cited Huber et al. instead of Franzosa et al. And the reference to the biobakery suite should have cited Franzosa et al. instead of Kluyver et al. The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

Molnetenhancer: Enhanced molecular networks by integrating metabolome mining and annotation tools
Ernst, Madeleine ; Kang, Kyo Bin ; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio ; Nothias, Louis Felix ; Wandy, Joe ; Chen, Christopher ; Wang, Mingxun ; Rogers, Simon ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der - \ 2019
Metabolites 9 (2019)7. - ISSN 2218-1989
Chemical classification - In silico workflows - Metabolite annotation - Metabolite identification - Metabolome mining - Molecular families - Networking - Substructures

Metabolomics has started to embrace computational approaches for chemical interpretation of large data sets. Yet, metabolite annotation remains a key challenge. Recently, molecular networking and MS2LDA emerged as molecular mining tools that find molecular families and substructures in mass spectrometry fragmentation data. Moreover, in silico annotation tools obtain and rank candidate molecules for fragmentation spectra. Ideally, all structural information obtained and inferred from these computational tools could be combined to increase the resulting chemical insight one can obtain from a data set. However, integration is currently hampered as each tool has its own output format and efficient matching of data across these tools is lacking. Here, we introduce MolNetEnhancer, a workflow that combines the outputs from molecular networking, MS2LDA, in silico annotation tools (such as Network Annotation Propagation or DEREPLICATOR), and the automated chemical classification through ClassyFire to provide a more comprehensive chemical overview of metabolomics data whilst at the same time illuminating structural details for each fragmentation spectrum. We present examples from four plant and bacterial case studies and show how MolNetEnhancer enables the chemical annotation, visualization, and discovery of the subtle substructural diversity within molecular families. We conclude that MolNetEnhancer is a useful tool that greatly assists the metabolomics researcher in deciphering the metabolome through combination of multiple independent in silico pipelines.

Reproducible, interactive, scalable and extensible microbiome data science using QIIME 2
Bolyen, Evan ; Rideout, Jai Ram ; Dillon, Matthew R. ; Bokulich, Nicholas A. ; Abnet, Christian C. ; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A. ; Alexander, Harriet ; Alm, Eric J. ; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan ; Asnicar, Francesco ; Bai, Yang ; Bisanz, Jordan E. ; Bittinger, Kyle ; Brejnrod, Asker ; Brislawn, Colin J. ; Brown, Titus C. ; Callahan, Benjamin J. ; Caraballo-Rodríguez, Andrés Mauricio ; Chase, John ; Cope, Emily K. ; Silva, Ricardo da; Diener, Christian ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Douglas, Gavin M. ; Durall, Daniel M. ; Duvallet, Claire ; Edwardson, Christian F. ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Estaki, Mehrbod ; Fouquier, Jennifer ; Gauglitz, Julia M. ; Gibbons, Sean M. ; Gibson, Deanna L. ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Gorlick, Kestrel ; Guo, Jiarong ; Hillmann, Benjamin ; Holmes, Susan ; Holste, Hannes ; Huttenhower, Curtis ; Huttley, Gavin A. ; Janssen, Stefan ; Jarmusch, Alan K. ; Jiang, Lingjing ; Kaehler, Benjamin D. ; Kang, Kyo Bin ; Keefe, Christopher R. ; Keim, Paul ; Kelley, Scott T. ; Knights, Dan ; Koester, Irina ; Kosciolek, Tomasz ; Kreps, Jorden ; Langille, Morgan G.I. ; Lee, Joslynn ; Ley, Ruth ; Liu, Yong Xin ; Loftfield, Erikka ; Lozupone, Catherine ; Maher, Massoud ; Marotz, Clarisse ; Martin, Bryan D. ; McDonald, Daniel ; McIver, Lauren J. ; Melnik, Alexey V. ; Metcalf, Jessica L. ; Morgan, Sydney C. ; Morton, Jamie T. ; Naimey, Ahmad Turan ; Navas-Molina, Jose A. ; Nothias, Louis Felix ; Orchanian, Stephanie B. ; Pearson, Talima ; Peoples, Samuel L. ; Petras, Daniel ; Preuss, Mary Lai ; Pruesse, Elmar ; Rasmussen, Lasse Buur ; Rivers, Adam ; Robeson, Michael S. ; Rosenthal, Patrick ; Segata, Nicola ; Shaffer, Michael ; Shiffer, Arron ; Sinha, Rashmi ; Song, Se Jin ; Spear, John R. ; Swafford, Austin D. ; Thompson, Luke R. ; Torres, Pedro J. ; Trinh, Pauline ; Tripathi, Anupriya ; Turnbaugh, Peter J. ; Ul-Hasan, Sabah ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Vargas, Fernando ; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki ; Vogtmann, Emily ; Hippel, Max von; Walters, William ; Wan, Yunhu ; Wang, Mingxun ; Warren, Jonathan ; Weber, Kyle C. ; Williamson, Charles H.D. ; Willis, Amy D. ; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech ; Zaneveld, Jesse R. ; Zhang, Yilong ; Zhu, Qiyun ; Knight, Rob ; Caporaso, J.G. - \ 2019
Nature Biotechnology 37 (2019)8. - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 852 - 857.
Assessing specialized metabolite diversity in the cosmopolitan plant genus Euphorbia l.
Ernst, Madeleine ; Nothias, Louis Félix ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Silva, Ricardo R. ; Saslis-Lagoudakis, Haris C. ; Grace, Olwen M. ; Martinez-Swatson, Karen ; Hassemer, Gustavo ; Funez, Luís A. ; Simonsen, Henrik T. ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Staerk, Dan ; Nilsson, Niclas ; Lovato, Paola ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. ; Rønsted, Nina - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
Coevolution - Computational metabolomics - Euphorbia - Immunomodulatory testing - Specialized metabolites

Coevolutionary theory suggests that an arms race between plants and herbivores yields increased plant specialized metabolite diversity and the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution predicts that coevolutionary interactions vary across geographic scales. Consequently, plant specialized metabolite diversity is expected to be highest in coevolutionary hotspots, geographic regions, which exhibit strong reciprocal selection on the interacting species. Despite being well-established theoretical frameworks, technical limitations have precluded rigorous hypothesis testing. Here we aim at understanding how geographic separation over evolutionary time may have impacted chemical differentiation in the cosmopolitan plant genus Euphorbia. We use a combination of state-of-the-art computational mass spectral metabolomics tools together with cell-based high-throughput immunomodulatory testing. Our results show significant differences in specialized metabolite diversity across geographically separated phylogenetic clades. Chemical structural diversity of the highly toxic Euphorbia diterpenoids is significantly reduced in species native to the Americas, compared to Afro-Eurasia. The localization of these compounds to young stems and roots suggest a possible ecological relevance in herbivory defense. This is further supported by reduced immunomodulatory activity in the American subclade as well as herbivore distribution patterns. We conclude that computational mass spectrometric metabolomics coupled with relevant ecological data provide a strong tool for exploring plant specialized metabolite diversity in a chemo-evolutionary framework.

Improved phosphoric acid recovery from sewage sludge ash using layer-by-layer modified membranes
Paltrinieri, Laura ; Remmen, Kirsten ; Müller, Barbara ; Chu, Liangyong ; Köser, Joachim ; Wintgens, Thomas ; Wessling, Matthias ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. - \ 2019
Journal of Membrane Science 587 (2019). - ISSN 0376-7388
Layer-by-layer - Phosphate recovery - Polyelectrolyte - Sewage sludge ash - Water treatment

We report an advanced treatment method for phosphoric acid recovery from leached sewage sludge ash. Layer-by-layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte deposition has been used as a tool to modify and convert a hollow ultrafiltration membrane into a nanofiltration (NF) LbL membrane for H3PO4 recovery. To build the LbL membrane, poly(styrenesulfonate) PSS was chosen as polyanion, while three different polycations were used: a permanently charged polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDADMAC; a pH-dependent charged polyelectrolyte poly(allylamine hydrochloride), PAH; and a PAH modified with guanidinium groups (PAH-Gu). Based on detailed surface characterizations (AFM, XPS and Zeta-potential) it was concluded that both charge density and pH-responsiveness of the polycations are key parameters to control the final membrane surface structure and transport properties. The surface properties of LbL-coated membranes were correlated with the membrane filtration performance, when exposed to the real leached sewage sludge ash solution. The highest permeability was recorded for (PDADMAC/PSS)6, a result that was rationalized on its loose, and possibly less interpenetrated, structure, followed by (PAH-Gu/PSS)6 characterized by a more dense, compact layer. H3PO4 recovery was the highest in the case of (PDADMAC/PSS)6, but the retention of multivalent metals (Fe3+ and Mg2+) was low, leading to a more contaminated permeate. The opposite trend was observed for (PAH-Gu/PSS)6, resulting in a less metal-contaminated, but also a less H3PO4-concentrated permeate. Our LbL-modified membranes were found to improve the permeability and H3PO4 recovery compared to a commercially available acid-resistant NF membrane.

Cell death signaling and morphology in chemical-treated tobacco BY-2 suspension cultured cells
Iakimova, Elena T. ; Yordanova, Zhenia P. ; Cristescu, Simona M. ; Harren, Frans J.M. ; Woltering, Ernst J. - \ 2019
Environmental and Experimental Botany 164 (2019). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 157 - 169.
Cell death - Ethylene - Lipid signaling - Reactive oxygen species - Tobacco BY-2 cells

This study addressed the role of lipid-derived factors together with ethylene and ROS in programmed cell death (PCD) signaling in tobacco BY-2 suspension cultured cells. The cells were exposed to the chemical stress agents mastoparan (MP) and ethanol (EtOH). MP is an activator of membrane-associated heterotrimeric G-proteins and downstream phospholipids-dependent processes; EtOH is suggested to affect lipid-associated pathways. The effects of MP and EtOH were compared to cell death in response to CdSO4. All applied chemicals appeared potent cell death inducers. Ethylene and lipid signaling were found instrumental in chemical-induced cell death, presumably in conjunction with ROS. Cadmium and MP induced cell death of apoptotic-like phenotype. Lower EtOH concentrations (1–2%) induced vacuolar cell death associated with autophagy-associated formation of lysosome-like acidic organelles in part of the cells; in other cells in the same suspension apoptotic-like features were observed. At higher EtOH concentration (3%) the dead cells expressed exclusively apoptotic-like morphology. The results suggest that phospholipase D- and phospholipase C-derived phosphatidic acid triggers ROS generation that is responsible for the observed apoptotic-like PCD. Vacuolar cell death in EtOH-treated cells appeared dependent on phospholipase C - phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related pathway. The obtained results indicate that depending on the inducer and stress severity, similar or distinct regulatory pathways can be activated, and the signals may interact in the transmission of the cell death message.

Deciphering complex metabolite mixtures by unsupervised and supervised substructure discovery and semi-automated annotation from MS/MS spectra
Rogers, Simon ; Wei Ong, Cher ; Wandy, Joe ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Ridder, Lars ; Hooft, Justin J.J. Van Der - \ 2019
Faraday Discussions 218 (2019). - ISSN 1359-6640 - p. 284 - 302.
Complex metabolite mixtures are challenging to unravel. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a widely used and sensitive technique to obtain structural information on complex mixtures. However, just knowing the molecular masses of the mixture’s constituents is almost always insufficient for confident assignment of the associated chemical structures. Structural information can be augmented through MS fragmentation experiments whereby detected metabolites are fragmented giving rise to MS/MS spectra. However, how can we maximize the structural information we gain from fragmentation spectra? We recently proposed a substructure-based strategy to enhance metabolite annotation for complex mixtures by considering metabolites as the sum of (bio)chemically relevant moieties that we can detect through mass spectrometry fragmentation approaches. Our MS2LDA tool allows us to discover - unsupervised - groups of mass fragments and/or neutral losses termed Mass2Motifs that often correspond to substructures. After manual annotation, these Mass2Motifs can be used in subsequent MS2LDA analyses of new datasets, thereby providing structural annotations for many molecules that are not present in spectral databases. Here, we describe how additional strategies, taking advantage of i) combinatorial in-silico matching of experimental mass features to substructures of candidate molecules, and ii) automated machine learning classification of molecules, can facilitate semi-automated annotation of substructures. We show how our approach accelerates the Mass2Motif annotation process and therefore broadens the chemical space spanned by characterized motifs. Our machine learning model used to classify fragmentation spectra learns the relationships between fragment spectra and chemical features. Classification prediction on these features can be aggregated for all molecules that contribute to a particular Mass2Motif and guide Mass2Motif annotations. To make annotated Mass2Motifs available to the community, we also present motifDB: an open database of Mass2Motifs that can be browsed and accessed programmatically through an API. MotifDB is integrated within ms2lda.org, allowing users to efficiently search for characterized motifs in their own experiments. We expect that with an increasing number of Mass2Motif annotations available through a growing database we can more quickly gain insight in the constituents of complex mixtures. That will allow prioritization towards novel or unexpected chemistries and faster recognition of known biochemical building blocks.
Hightech ontmoet agrifood: WUR en TU Eindhoven werken steeds meer samen
Ende, Ernst van den - \ 2019
Molecular separation using poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) grafted to γ-alumina : Surface versus pore modification
Amirilargani, Mohammad ; Merlet, Renaud B. ; Chu, Liangyong ; Nijmeijer, Arian ; Winnubst, Louis ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. - \ 2019
Journal of Membrane Science 582 (2019). - ISSN 0376-7388 - p. 298 - 306.
Alumina membrane - Copolymer grafting - Molecular separation - Pore modification - Surface modification

Here, we report the covalent coupling of poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) onto γ-alumina to develop high-performance organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) membranes. A high molecular weight (M w ) alternating copolymer of maleic anhydride (MA) and styrene (St) was synthesized and directly grafted to the γ-alumina membrane, while commercially available low M w random copolymers of St and MA were also investigated. We show that solute rejection and membrane permeability strongly depend on the nature of the applied copolymer. In particular, the M w of the copolymer applied is potentially the key for improving the membrane performance. When a high M w copolymer was applied, the grafted layer covered the surface of the membrane. This results in membranes with significantly improved rejection, while maintaining a high permeability. In contrast, we observed pore grafting by applying low M w copolymers, which resulted in membranes with slightly higher rejection and dramatically lower permeability compared to unmodified membrane. The best results were obtained by grafting γ-alumina with a high M w alternating copolymer. These membranes showed a solute rejection of 98% for Sudan Black B (457 g mol −1 ) in toluene, while the permeability remained high at 2.9 L m −2 h −1 bar −1 .

MIL-53(Al) and NH2-MIL-53(Al) modified α-alumina membranes for efficient adsorption of dyes from organic solvents
Amirilargani, Mohammad ; Merlet, Renaud B. ; Hedayati, Pegah ; Nijmeijer, Arian ; Winnubst, Louis ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. De; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. - \ 2019
Chemical Communications 55 (2019)28. - ISSN 1359-7345 - p. 4119 - 4122.

To the best of our knowledge, for the first time MIL-53(Al) and NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) modified α-alumina membranes are investigated for the adsorption of organic dyes from organic solvents. These new, modified membranes show excellent adsorption of high concentrations of Rose Bengal dye in methanol and isopropanol solutions.

De novo construction of polyploid linkage maps using discrete graphical models
Behrouzi, Pariya ; Wit, Ernst C. - \ 2019
Bioinformatics 35 (2019)7. - ISSN 1367-4803 - p. 1083 - 1093.

Motivation Linkage maps are used to identify the location of genes responsible for traits and diseases. New sequencing techniques have created opportunities to substantially increase the density of genetic markers. Such revolutionary advances in technology have given rise to new challenges, such as creating high-density linkage maps. Current multiple testing approaches based on pairwise recombination fractions are underpowered in the high-dimensional setting and do not extend easily to polyploid species. To remedy these issues, we propose to construct linkage maps using graphical models either via a sparse Gaussian copula or a non-paranormal skeptic approach. Results We determine linkage groups, typically chromosomes, and the order of markers in each linkage group by inferring the conditional independence relationships among large numbers of markers in the genome. Through simulations, we illustrate the utility of our map construction method and compare its performance with other available methods, both when the data are clean and contain no missing observations and when data contain genotyping errors. Our comprehensive map construction method makes full use of the dosage SNP data to reconstruct linkage map for any bi-parental diploid and polyploid species. We apply the proposed method to three genotype datasets: Barley, peanut and potato from diploid and polyploid populations.

Comprehensive mass spectrometry-guided phenotyping of plant specialized metabolites reveals metabolic diversity in the cosmopolitan plant family Rhamnaceae
Kang, Kyo Bin ; Ernst, Madeleine ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Silva, Ricardo R. da; Park, Junha ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Sung, Sang Hyun ; Dorrestein, Pieter C. - \ 2019
The Plant Journal (2019). - ISSN 0960-7412
annotation - classification - mass spectrometry - Rhamnaceae - specialized metabolites - technical advance

Plants produce a myriad of specialized metabolites to overcome their sessile habit and combat biotic as well as abiotic stresses. Evolution has shaped the diversity of specialized metabolites, which then drives many other aspects of plant biodiversity. However, until recently, large-scale studies investigating the diversity of specialized metabolites in an evolutionary context have been limited by the impossibility of identifying chemical structures of hundreds to thousands of compounds in a time-feasible manner. Here we introduce a workflow for large-scale, semi-automated annotation of specialized metabolites and apply it to over 1000 metabolites of the cosmopolitan plant family Rhamnaceae. We enhance the putative annotation coverage dramatically, from 2.5% based on spectral library matches alone to 42.6% of total MS/MS molecular features, extending annotations from well-known plant compound classes into dark plant metabolomics. To gain insights into substructural diversity within this plant family, we also extract patterns of co-occurring fragments and neutral losses, so-called Mass2Motifs, from the dataset; for example, only the Ziziphoid clade developed the triterpenoid biosynthetic pathway, whereas the Rhamnoid clade predominantly developed diversity in flavonoid glycosides, including 7-O-methyltransferase activity. Our workflow provides the foundations for the automated, high-throughput chemical identification of massive metabolite spaces, and we expect it to revolutionize our understanding of plant chemoevolutionary mechanisms.

Multicore Liquid Perfluorocarbon-Loaded Multimodal Nanoparticles for Stable Ultrasound and 19F MRI Applied to In Vivo Cell Tracking
Koshkina, Olga ; Lajoinie, Guillaume ; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca ; Swider, Edyta ; Cruz, Luis J. ; White, Paul B. ; Schweins, Ralf ; Dolen, Yusuf ; Dinther, Eric A.W. van; Riessen, N.K. van; Rogers, Sarah E. ; Fokkink, Remco ; Voets, Ilja K. ; Eck, Ernst R.H. van; Heerschap, Arend ; Versluis, Michel ; Korte, Chris L. de; Figdor, Carl G. ; Vries, I.J.M. de; Srinivas, Mangala - \ 2019
Advanced Functional Materials 29 (2019)19. - ISSN 1616-301X
F MRI - cell therapy - cell tracking - multimodal imaging - perfluorocarbons - ultrasound

Ultrasound is the most commonly used clinical imaging modality. However, in applications requiring cell-labeling, the large size and short active lifetime of ultrasound contrast agents limit their longitudinal use. Here, 100 nm radius, clinically applicable, polymeric nanoparticles containing a liquid perfluorocarbon, which enhance ultrasound contrast during repeated ultrasound imaging over the course of at least 48 h, are described. The perfluorocarbon enables monitoring the nanoparticles with quantitative 19 F magnetic resonance imaging, making these particles effective multimodal imaging agents. Unlike typical core–shell perfluorocarbon-based ultrasound contrast agents, these nanoparticles have an atypical fractal internal structure. The nonvaporizing highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon forms multiple cores within the polymeric matrix and is, surprisingly, hydrated with water, as determined from small-angle neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Finally, the nanoparticles are used to image therapeutic dendritic cells with ultrasound in vivo, as well as with 19 F MRI and fluorescence imaging, demonstrating their potential for long-term in vivo multimodal imaging.

Ernst van den Ende: De gmo richtlijn moet worden aangepast
Ende, Ernst van den - \ 2019
Ernst van den Ende : ‘The GMO directive needs to be amended’
Ende, Ernst van den - \ 2019
Removing the no-analogue bias in modern accelerated tree growth leads to stronger medieval drought
Scharnweber, Tobias ; Heußner, Karl Uwe ; Smiljanic, Marko ; Heinrich, Ingo ; Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke van der; Maaten, Ernst van der; Struwe, Thomas ; Buras, Allan ; Wilmking, Martin - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

In many parts of the world, especially in the temperate regions of Europe and North-America, accelerated tree growth rates have been observed over the last decades. This widespread phenomenon is presumably caused by a combination of factors like atmospheric fertilization or changes in forest structure and/or management. If not properly acknowledged in the calibration of tree-ring based climate reconstructions, considerable bias concerning amplitudes and trends of reconstructed climatic parameters might emerge or low frequency information is lost. Here we present a simple but effective, data-driven approach to remove the recent non-climatic growth increase in tree-ring data. Accounting for the no-analogue calibration problem, a new hydroclimatic reconstruction for northern-central Europe revealed considerably drier conditions during the medieval climate anomaly (MCA) compared with standard reconstruction methods and other existing reconstructions. This demonstrates the necessity to account for fertilization effects in modern tree-ring data from affected regions before calibrating reconstruction models, to avoid biased results.

A Low-Power MEMS IDE Capacitor with Integrated Microhotplate : Application as Methanol Sensor using a Metal-Organic Framework Coating as Affinity Layer
Venkatesh, Manjunath R. ; Sachdeva, Sumit ; Mansouri, Brahim El; Wei, Jia ; Bossche, Andre ; Bosma, Duco ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Zhang, Guo Qi - \ 2019
Sensors 19 (2019)4. - ISSN 1424-8220
Capacitor interdigitated electrodes - MEMS microhotplate - ZIF-8

Capacitors made of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) as a transducer platform for the sensing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have advantages due to their lower power operation and fabrication using standard micro-fabrication techniques. Integrating a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), such as a microhotplate with IDE capacitor, further allows study of the temperature- dependent sensing response of VOCs. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of a low-power MEMS microhotplate with IDE capacitor to study the temperature-dependent sensing response to methanol using Zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8), a class of metal-organic framework (MOF), is presented. A Titanium nitride (TiN) microhotplate with aluminum IDEs suspended on a silicon nitride membrane is fabricated and characterized. The power consumption of the ZIF-8 MOF-coated device at an operating temperature of 50 ∘ C is 4.5 mW and at 200 ∘ C it is 26 mW. A calibration methodology for the effects of temperature of the isolation layer between the microhotplate electrodes and the capacitor IDEs is developed. The device coated with ZIF-8 MOF shows a response to methanol in the concentration range of 500 ppm to 7000 ppm. The detection limit of the sensor for methanol vapor at 20 ∘ C is 100 ppm. In situ study of sensing properties of ZIF-8 MOF to methanol in the temperature range from 20 ∘ C to 50 ∘ C using the integrated microhotplate and IDE capacitor is presented. The kinetics of temperature-dependent adsorption and desorption of methanol by ZIF-8 MOF are fitted with double-exponential models. With the increase in temperature from 20 ∘ C to 50 ∘ C, the response time for sensing of methanol vapor concentration of 5000 ppm decreases by 28%, whereas the recovery time decreases by 70%.

Growing to shrink: Nano-tunable polystyrene brushes inside 5 nm mesopores
Merlet, Renaud B. ; Amirilargani, Mohammad ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Nijmeijer, Arian ; Winnubst, Louis - \ 2019
Journal of Membrane Science 572 (2019). - ISSN 0376-7388 - p. 632 - 640.
ARGET ATRP - Gamma alumina - Inorganic membrane - Organic solvent nanofiltration - Polystyrene brush

The development of controlled polymerization techniques in the last decade has enabled polymer brushes to be grown from inorganic substrates with precision. Less studied are brushes grown from concave geometries of high curvature, such as mesopores, despite their application potential in the separation sciences. The method used here, surface-initiated, activators-regenerated-by-electron-transfer, atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ARGET-ATRP), is used to grow a polystyrene brush grown from aluminum oxide pores of 5 nm diameter, to-date the most confined geometry in which ATRP has been conducted. The brush is characterized by TGA, AFM, and FTIR, the latter two methods applied specifically to the external brush. Additionally, permporometry as well as permeability and retention measurements are used to characterize the graft within the mesopores. We show that the brush length is tunable, that the brush length is solvent-dependent, and we also demonstrate the application potential of this hybrid material as an organic solvent nanofiltration membrane. This new class of membranes shows excellent performance: a toluene permeability of 2.0 L m−2 h−1 bar−1 accompanied by a 90% rejection of diphenylanthracene (MW 330 g mol−1).

Light regulation of vitamin C in tomato fruit is mediated through photosynthesis
Ntagkas, Nikolaos ; Woltering, Ernst ; Nicole, Celine ; Labrie, Caroline ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. - \ 2019
Environmental and Experimental Botany 158 (2019). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 180 - 188.
Ascorbic acid - Irradiance - Photosynthesis - Respiration - Spectrum - Vitamin C

Higher levels of irradiance result in higher accumulation of ascorbate in leaves and fruits. Photosynthesis and respiration are an integral part of the physiological mechanism of light regulation of ascorbate in leaves, but little is known about the light regulation of ascorbate in fruit. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fruit illumination alone is sufficient for ascorbate increase in tomato fruit and whether this light signal is mediated by respiration and photosynthesis. First the changes of ascorbate with the progress of fruit development were investigated and subsequently detached fruit of different tomato genotypes were exposed to different irradiances and spectra. Measurements were performed on ascorbate, respiration, photosynthesis and chlorophyll content of the fruit. When attached to the plant, there was no effect of development on ascorbate from the mature green to the red stage. Detached fruit stored in darkness did not accumulate ascorbate. However, when exposed to 300–600 μmol m−2 s-1 light detached mature green fruit (photosynthetically active) substantially accumulated ascorbate, while mature red fruit (non-photosynthetically active) did not respond to light. Photosynthesis correlated with this increase of ascorbate while no correlation between respiration and ascorbate was found. Spectral effects on ascorbate in detached tomato fruit were limited. These results indicate that the signal for light regulation of ascorbate is perceived locally in the fruit and that fruit illumination alone is sufficient for a considerable increase in ascorbate levels for as long as the fruit contains chlorophyll. It is shown that photosynthetic activity of the fruit is an integral part of the response of ascorbate to light in tomato fruit. The light induced increase in ascorbate levels occurred in a range of genotypes, indicating a universal effect of light to ascorbate in tomato fruit.

Pre-to-post diagnosis weight trajectories in colorectal cancer patients with non-metastatic disease
Zutphen, Moniek van; Geelen, Anouk ; Boshuizen, Hendriek C. ; Winkels, Renate M. ; Geijsen, Anne J.M.R. ; Wesselink, Evertine ; Snellen, Merel ; Kok, Dieuwertje E. ; Wilt, Johannes H.W. de; Meeberg, Paul C. van de; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A. ; Halteren, Henk K. van; Spillenaar Bilgen, Ernst J. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van - \ 2019
Supportive Care in Cancer 27 (2019)4. - ISSN 0941-4355 - p. 1541 - 1549.
Chemotherapy - Colorectal cancer - Weight change - Weight gain

Purpose: Previous studies have shown that > 50% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy gain weight after diagnosis. This may affect long-term health. Therefore, prevention of weight gain has been incorporated in oncological guidelines for CRC with a focus on patients that undergo adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. It is, however, unknown how changes in weight after diagnosis relate to weight before diagnosis and whether weight changes from pre-to-post diagnosis are restricted to chemotherapy treatment. We therefore examined pre-to-post diagnosis weight trajectories and compared them between those treated with and without adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: We included 1184 patients diagnosed with stages I–III CRC between 2010 and 2015 from an ongoing observational prospective study. At diagnosis, patients reported current weight and usual weight 2 years before diagnosis. In the 2 years following diagnosis, weight was self-reported repeatedly. We used linear mixed models to analyse weight trajectories. Results: Mean pre-to-post diagnosis weight change was −0.8 (95% CI −1.1, −0.4) kg. Post-diagnosis weight gain was + 3.5 (95% CI 2.7, 4.3) kg in patients who had lost ≥ 5% weight before diagnosis, while on average clinically relevant weight gain after diagnosis was absent in the groups without pre-diagnosis weight loss. Pre-to-post diagnosis weight change was similar in patients treated with (−0.1 kg (95%CI −0.8, 0.6)) and without adjuvant chemotherapy (−0.9 kg (95%CI −1.4, −0.5)). Conclusions: Overall, hardly any pre-to-post diagnosis weight change was observed among CRC patients, because post-diagnosis weight gain was mainly observed in patients who lost weight before diagnosis. This was observed independent of treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy.

Detecting epistatic selection with partially observed genotype data by using copula graphical models
Behrouzi, Pariya ; Wit, Ernst C. - \ 2019
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C: Applied Statistics 68 (2019)1. - ISSN 0035-9254 - p. 141 - 160.
Epistasis - Epistatic selection - Gaussian copula - Graphical models - Linkage disequilibrium - Penalized inference

In cross-breeding experiments it can be of interest to see whether there are any synergistic effects of certain genes. This could be by being particularly useful or detrimental to the individual. This type of effect involving multiple genes is called epistasis. Epistatic interactions can affect growth, fertility traits or even cause complete lethality. However, detecting epistasis in genomewide studies is challenging as multiple-testing approaches are underpowered. We develop a method for reconstructing an underlying network of genomic signatures of high dimensional epistatic selection from multilocus genotype data. The network captures the conditionally dependent short- and long-range linkage disequilibrium structure and thus reveals 'aberrant' marker-marker associations that are due to epistatic selection rather than gametic linkage. The network estimation relies on penalized Gaussian copula graphical models, which can account for a large number of markers p and a small number of individuals n. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method on simulated data sets as well as on genotyping data in Arabidopsis thaliana and maize.

Functionalized Anion-Exchange Membranes Facilitate Electrodialysis of Citrate and Phosphate from Model Dairy Wastewater
Paltrinieri, Laura ; Huerta, Elisa ; Puts, Theo ; Baak, Willem Van; Verver, Albert B. ; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. De - \ 2018
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2018). - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 2396 - 2404.

In this study, the preparation of a new, functional anion-exchange membrane (AEM), containing guanidinium groups as the anion-exchanging sites (Gu-100), is described as well as the membrane characterization by XPS, water uptake, permselectivities, and electrical resistances. The functional membrane was also employed in pH-dependent electrodialysis experiments using model dairy wastewater streams. The properties of the new membrane are compared to those of a commercially available anion-exchange membrane bearing conventional quaternary ammonium groups (Gu-0). Guanidinium was chosen for its specific binding properties toward oxyanions: e.g., phosphate. This functional moiety was covalently coupled to an acrylate monomer via a facile two-step synthesis to yield bulk-modified membranes upon polymerization. Significant differences were observed in the electrodialysis experiments for Gu-0 and Gu-100 at pH 7, showing an enhanced phosphate and citrate transport for Gu-100 in comparison to Gu-0. At pH 10 the difference is much more pronounced: for Gu-0 membranes almost no phosphate and citrate transport could be detected, while the Gu-100 membranes transported both ions significantly. We conclude that having guanidinium groups as anion-exchange sites improves the selectivity of AEMs. As the presented monomer synthesis strategy is modular, we consider the implementation of functional groups into a polymer-based membrane via the synthesis of tailor-made monomers as an important step toward selective ion transport, which is relevant for various fields, including water treatment processes and fuel cells.

Ontwikkeling van een concept voor de bepaling van de gezondheidsstatus van vleeskuikens (onderdeel 2)
Emous, R.A. van; Jansman, A.J.M. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1138) - 21
In dit rapport worden de resultaten gepresenteerd van de ontwikkeling van een concept voor de bepaling van de gezondheidsstatus van vleeskuikens op bedrijfsniveau. Het doel van het onderzoek was om een methodiek te ontwikkelen waarbij aan de hand van verschillende parameters de gezondheidsstatus van vleeskuikenbedrijven inzichtelijk gemaakt kan worden. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd door Wageningen Livestock Research, in het kader van de PPS ‘Breed&Feed4Food’ (AF-14215), medegefinancierd door het Ministerie van LNV (BO-47-001-008) en door de Vereniging Diervoederonderzoek Nederland (VDN). Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat de volgende parameters beschikbaar en bruikbaar zijn voor het concept: uitval (%), groei/dier/dag (g), VC1500 en incidentie en ernst van voetzoollaesies. Deze gegevens op bedrijfsniveau zijn gebruikt voor een “spinnenweb” concept voor categorisatie van vleeskuikenbedrijven ten aanzien van hun gezondheidsstatus.
Wie eine niederländische Universität an der zweiten Grünen Revolution arbeitet
Ende, Ernst van den; Marcelis, Leo ; Kema, Gert ; Zedde, Rick van de; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2018

Wageningen ist ein unwahrscheinlicher Ort für eine Revolution. Die Kleinstadt liegt etwas abseits an einem Seitenarm des Rheins, etwa 50 Kilometer östlich von Utrecht. Es gibt eine kleine backsteinerne Kirche, ein paar Festungsruinen aus dem 16. Jahrhundert und 37000 Einwohner. Nicht einmal einen eigenen Bahnhof hat die Stadt. Aber laut dem QS World University Ranking die beste Landwirtschaftsuniversität der Welt: die Wageningen University & Research. 11000 Studierende und 5000 Angestellte arbeiten dort, um sicherzustellen, dass die Menschen auch künftig genug zu essen haben.

Es wird daran geforscht, wie sich Algen als Treibstoff und Lebensmittel nutzen lassen; wie man chemische Pestizide durch Insekten ersetzt; wie Hightech-Gewächshäuser entstehen können, die ohne Erde auskommen. Aber kaum ein Thema gilt derzeit als so vielversprechend wie die Robotik.

Als Rick van der Zedde, 38, nach seinem Vortrag bei der jährlichen Messe für Agrar-Investoren die Bühne verlässt, dauert es fast eine halbe Stunde, bis er sich von all den Leuten losreißen kann, die zu ihm kommen. Vertreter großer Industrieroboterhersteller stecken ihm ihre Visitenkarten zu, Wissenschaftler wollen über Projekte reden - und über Robotik. Dabei geht es weniger um Automatisierung und mehr um Informationen, die über Kameras und Sensoren gesammelt werden können. 60 Forscher arbeiten in Wageningen inzwischen in dem Bereich.

Wer über die Zukunft der Landwirtschaft redet, kommt am Fleisch nicht vorbei: an der fast grotesken Ineffizienz der Fleischproduktion, die unglaubliche Flächen in Anspruch nimmt. Fast 30 Prozent der eisfreien Erdoberfläche dienen der Viehwirtschaft, ein gutes Drittel aller Nutzpflanzen wird an Tiere verfüttert, 15500 Liter Wasser werden benötigt, um ein Kilo Fleisch herzustellen. Trotz dieses Aufwands trägt Fleisch nur mit 18 Prozent zur weltweiten Kalorienzufuhr des Menschen bei. Das Problem: Wir mögen es zu gern.

"Sehr viele Menschen schätzen die Textur von Fleisch, diese bestimmte Art der Faserigkeit, wie weich es ist und saftig", sagt Atze Jan van der Goot. "Wenn wir ihnen etwas bieten können, das sich genauso anfühlt, dann werden sie eher bereit sein, darauf zu verzichten." Van der Goot ist Lebensmittelingenieur und arbeitet seit 16 Jahren an einer Maschine, die etwas schafft, was lange nahezu unmöglich schien: die Konsistenz eines Steaks zu imitieren. Acht verschiedene Versionen des Apparates hat er in den vergangenen Jahren gebaut, alle sehen aus wie die Hightech-Versionen eines Mixers. In einem Tiefkühler bewahrt er das künstliche Fleisch auf, hergestellt aus Sojaproteinen. Es sind große, rechteckige Lappen, die eine etwas gräuliche Färbung haben.

Verkenning potentiële bijdrage pacht natuurgrasland aan natuurinclusieve landbouw : Een modelmatige bedrijfseconomische analyse
Koeijer, Tanja de; Blokland, Pieter Willem ; Bos, Ernst ; Greijdanus, Auke ; Smits, Marie Jose - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Economic Research (Wageningen Economic Research rapport 2018-058) - ISBN 9789463434133 - 69
In the context of the development towards nature-inclusive agriculture, the relationship between the costs and benefits of management of natural areas by Staatsbosbeheer (national forest service) in conjunction with nature-inclusive measures on individual farmland areas was investigated. The analysis was completed for two representative dairy farms and a sample farm for suckler cows. The analysis reveals that, when the proportion of nature-inclusive agriculture increases, it becomes economically attractive for beef farmers to lease a larger area of natural grassland in order to compensate for the decrease of individual roughage production as a result of the nature-inclusive agricultural measures. Additionally, the factors of success or failure in the management of a profitable business were outlined in a qualitative analysis. Interviews support the insights gained from the model analysis in that the lease costs, the agricultural utility value, and the absent need for investment play an important role from a business economy standpoint in the optimum size of leased natural grassland in conjunction with nature-inclusive agriculture.
Mango firmness modeling as affected by transport and ethylene treatments
Schouten, Rob E. ; Fan, Shuang ; Verdonk, Julian C. ; Wang, Yuchen ; Kasim, Nur Fauzana Mohd ; Woltering, Ernst J. ; Tijskens, L.M.M. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 871 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Firmness - Kinetic modeling - Mango - Softening - Sources of variation - Sourcing - Transport simulation

More and more, tropical fruit are subjected to accelerated ripening at receiving markets until “ready to eat.” We propose a kinetic model that incorporates the effects of temperature and ethylene on the firmness behavior of “Keitt” and “Kent” mangoes. Stiffness of individual mangoes, as measured by the acoustic firmness tester, was measured repeatedly over time. The firmness model assumes fixed levels of ethylene, established after the climacteric peak, that steadily induces production of softening enzymes that subsequently denaturalize. The initial level of these enzymes is assumed to be zero due to either the tree factor for freshly harvested mangoes, or due to chilling injury for reefer transported mangoes. The kinetic parameter set for “Keitt” mangoes was estimated based on a Spanish batch, freshly harvested and ripened under dynamic temperature scenarios, combined with a reefer transported Brazilian batch stored at four constant temperatures. Firmness data from reefer transported batches, from Brazil, Ivory Coast and Mali, stored at four constant temperatures were used to estimate a set of kinetic parameters for the “Kent” mangoes. Only a partial set of “Kent” kinetic parameters could be established due to the often already advanced stage of softening at the time of arrival. The effect of ethylene was investigated by applying external ethylene levels, varying from 0 to 100 μL L−1. The effect of external application of ethylene was modeled by estimating EF, the ethylene factor, being a reflection of the internal ethylene level and ethylene sensitivity. The effect of ethylene application on softening was sometimes huge. For an Israeli “Keitt” batch a fifty times higher EF was found when the firmness behavior of low- (without ethylene application) and high temperature (with ethylene application) stored sub-batches were compared. However, this effect was sometimes also small, especially for reefer transported mangoes. For commercial application, a reliable prediction of the time until “ready to eat” is not possible because of the current inability to assess EF. Nevertheless, the proposed model described mango softening accurately, irrespective of the sourcing area and includes the effects of storage temperature and ethylene application.

Innovatie in de verdrukking: Europese uitspraak over CRISPR-Cas heeft grote gevolgen
Ende, Ernst van den - \ 2018
Hybrid polyelectrolyte-anion exchange membrane and its interaction with phosphate
Paltrinieri, Laura ; Poltorak, Lukasz ; Chu, Liangyong ; Puts, Theo ; Baak, Willem van; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de - \ 2018
Reactive and Functional Polymers 133 (2018). - ISSN 1381-5148 - p. 126 - 135.
Anion-exchange membrane - Electrodialysis - Interaction - Phosphate - Sulfate

We have investigated in detail properties of hybrid polyelectrolyte-anion exchange membranes (AEMs) having different amounts of a guanidinium-modified poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH-Gu) derivative (2, 5, and 8 wt%). The presence of guanidinium groups at the membrane surface was confirmed by XPS. For 2 and 5 wt% the blended membranes are homogeneous, while at 8 wt% segregation is observed by AFM. The membrane permselectivity and ionic electrical resistance for phosphate reduce upon incorporation of the PAH-Gu in the membrane, reflecting an increased co-ion (H+ and Na+) permeation. We conclude that PAH-Gu loaded in the AEM favors an interaction with phosphate. In electrodialysis, using sodium sulfate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate at equal concentrations in the source phase a slight preference for phosphate was observed. Our work shows that this facile membrane fabrication procedure shows great potential in terms of tuning the membrane properties. One way to boost selective ion transport could be by increasing the number of functional groups in the membrane.

Lipid bilayers cushioned with polyelectrolyte-based films on doped silicon surfaces
Poltorak, Lukasz ; Verheijden, Mark L. ; Bosma, Duco ; Jonkheijm, Pascal ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. - \ 2018
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Biomembranes 1860 (2018)12. - ISSN 0005-2736 - p. 2669 - 2680.
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy - Layer-by-layer deposition - Silicon semiconductor - Supported lipid bilayer - Thin polymeric cushion

Silicon semiconductors with a thin surface layer of silica were first modified with polyelectrolytes (polyethyleneimine, polystyrene sulfonate and poly(allylamine)) via a facile layer-by-layer deposition approach. Subsequently, lipid vesicles were added to the preformed polymeric cushion, resulting in the adsorption of intact vesicles or fusion and lipid bilayer formation. To study involved interactions we employed optical reflectometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and fluorescent recovery after photobleaching. Three phospholipids with different charge of polar head groups, i.e. 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (DOPS) and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) were used to prepare vesicles with varying surface charge. We observed that only lipid vesicles composed from 1:1 (mole:mole) mixture of DOPC/DOPS have the ability to fuse onto an oppositely charged terminal layer of polyelectrolyte giving a lipid bilayer with a resistance of >100 kΩ. With optical reflectometry we found that the vesicle surface charge is directly related to the amount of mass adsorbed onto the surface. An interesting observation was that zwitterionic polar head groups of DOPC allow the adsorption on both positively and negatively charged surfaces. As found with fluorescent recovery after photobleaching, positively charged surface governed by the presence of poly(allylamine) as the terminal layer resulted in intact DOPC lipid vesicles adsorption whereas in the case of a negatively charged silica surface formation of lipid bilayers was observed, as expected from literature.

Cultivating change: How a Dutch university is working on a new agricultural revolution – to feed the world
Ende, Ernst van den; Marcelis, Leo ; Kema, Gert ; Zedde, Rick van de; Goot, Atze Jan van der - \ 2018
Poly (maleic anhydride-alt-1-alkenes) directly grafted to γ-alumina for high-performance organic solvent nanofiltration membranes
Amirilargani, Mohammad ; Merlet, Renaud B. ; Nijmeijer, Arian ; Winnubst, Louis ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. - \ 2018
Journal of Membrane Science 564 (2018). - ISSN 0376-7388 - p. 259 - 266.
Alternating copolymer - Alumina membrane - Grafting - Organic solvent nanofiltration

In this study we describe a novel and simple method to couple covalently poly (maleic anhydride-alt-1-alkenes) to γ-alumina nanofiltration membranes for the first time. The 1-alkenes varied from 1-hexene, 1-decene, 1-hexadecane to 1-octadecene. The grafting reaction was between the reactive anhydride moieties of the polymer and surface hydroxyl groups, resulting in highly stable bonds. The modified membranes were investigated for their permeation and rejection performance of Sudan Black (SB, Mw 457 Da) in either toluene or ethyl acetate (EA) solution, and very high rejections (> 90%) and high permeation flux were observed compared to unmodified membranes. Initially, the SB in toluene solution was found to bind strongly to the surface hydroxyl groups of the unmodified membranes, an effect not observed in EA solution.

Stability estimation of autoregulated genes under Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics
Arani, Babak M.S. ; Mahmoudi, Mahdi ; Lahti, Leo ; González, Javier ; Wit, Ernst C. - \ 2018
Physical Review. E, Statistical nonlinear, and soft matter physics 97 (2018)6. - ISSN 2470-0045

Feedback loops are typical motifs appearing in gene regulatory networks. In some well-studied model organisms, including Escherichia coli, autoregulated genes, i.e., genes that activate or repress themselves through their protein products, are the only feedback interactions. For these types of interactions, the Michaelis-Menten (MM) formulation is a suitable and widely used approach, which always leads to stable steady-state solutions representative of homeostatic regulation. However, in many other biological phenomena, such as cell differentiation, cancer progression, and catastrophes in ecosystems, one might expect to observe bistable switchlike dynamics in the case of strong positive autoregulation. To capture this complex behavior we use the generalized family of MM kinetic models. We give a full analysis regarding the stability of autoregulated genes. We show that the autoregulation mechanism has the capability to exhibit diverse cellular dynamics including hysteresis, a typical characteristic of bistable systems, as well as irreversible transitions between bistable states. We also introduce a statistical framework to estimate the kinetics parameters and probability of different stability regimes given observational data. Empirical data for the autoregulated gene SCO3217 in the SOS system in Streptomyces coelicolor are analyzed. The coupling of a statistical framework and the mathematical model can give further insight into understanding the evolutionary mechanisms toward different cell fates in various systems.

Nanosheets of Nonlayered Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks through a Surfactant-Assisted Method
Pustovarenko, Alexey ; Goesten, Maarten G. ; Sachdeva, Sumit ; Shan, Meixia ; Amghouz, Zakariae ; Belmabkhout, Youssef ; Dikhtiarenko, Alla ; Rodenas, Tania ; Keskin, Damla ; Voets, Ilja K. ; Weckhuysen, Bert M. ; Eddaoudi, Mohamed ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Kapteijn, Freek ; Seoane, Beatriz ; Gascon, Jorge - \ 2018
Advanced Materials 30 (2018)26. - ISSN 0935-9648
Chemical sensing - Crystal design - Gas separation - Metal-organic framework nanolamellae - Molecular recognition

During the last decade, the synthesis and application of metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets has received growing interest, showing unique performances for different technological applications. Despite the potential of this type of nanolamellar materials, the synthetic routes developed so far are restricted to MOFs possessing layered structures, limiting further development in this field. Here, a bottom-up surfactant-assisted synthetic approach is presented for the fabrication of nanosheets of various nonlayered MOFs, broadening the scope of MOF nanosheets application. Surfactant-assisted preorganization of the metallic precursor prior to MOF synthesis enables the manufacture of nonlayered Al-containing MOF lamellae. These MOF nanosheets are shown to exhibit a superior performance over other crystal morphologies for both chemical sensing and gas separation. As revealed by electron microscopy and diffraction, this superior performance arises from the shorter diffusion pathway in the MOF nanosheets, whose 1D channels are oriented along the shortest particle dimension.

Enhanced vapour sensing using silicon nanowire devices coated with Pt nanoparticle functionalized porous organic frameworks
Cao, Anping ; Shan, Meixia ; Paltrinieri, Laura ; Evers, Wiel H. ; Chu, Liangyong ; Poltorak, Lukasz ; Klootwijk, Johan H. ; Seoane, Beatriz ; Gascon, Jorge ; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. De - \ 2018
Nanoscale 10 (2018)15. - ISSN 2040-3364 - p. 6884 - 6891.
Recently various porous organic frameworks (POFs, crystalline or amorphous materials) have been discovered, and used for a wide range of applications, including molecular separations and catalysis. Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been extensively studied for diverse applications, including as transistors, solar cells, lithium ion batteries and sensors. Here we demonstrate the functionalization of SiNW surfaces with POFs and explore its effect on the electrical sensing properties of SiNW-based devices. The surface modification by POFs was easily achieved by polycondensation on amine-modified SiNWs. Platinum nanoparticles were formed in these POFs by impregnation with chloroplatinic acid followed by chemical reduction. The final hybrid system showed highly enhanced sensitivity for methanol vapour detection. We envisage that the integration of SiNWs with POF selector layers, loaded with different metal nanoparticles will open up new avenues, not only in chemical and biosensing, but also in separations and catalysis.
Chitosan-limonene coating in combination with modified atmosphere packaging preserve postharvest quality of cucumber during storage
Maleki, Gisoo ; Sedaghat, Naser ; Woltering, Ernst J. ; Farhoodi, Mehdi ; Mohebbi, Mohebbat - \ 2018
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 12 (2018)3. - ISSN 2193-4126 - p. 1610 - 1621.
Chitosan - Coating - Cucumber - MAP - Postharvest
Since cucumbers suffer from a short postharvest life, applying different technologies is increasingly used as effective ways to increase their shelf life and quality. In this study a combination of chitosan-limonene coating and MAP storage has been used as a postharvest treatment to maintain cucumber quality. Samples were stored in three different packages: A (21% O2, macro-perforated package to be in equilibrium with air); package B (active MAP, starting concentrations 10% O2 + 5% CO2); package C (passive MAP starting concentrations 21% O2 + 0.1% CO2); they were stored at three temperatures (20, 10, and 4 °C). Quality parameters of cucumber such as weight loss, firmness, color, pH, fungal growth, Tg, organoleptic properties were determined. Interactive effects of coating, package, temperature, and storage time showed that coating and MAP in general had positive effects on several quality aspects. Coating combined with active MAP had the most positive effect on most postharvest attributes. However, using active MAP at higher temperature led to quality problems and is only useful if storage time is short. The combined usage of active MAP and chitosan-based coating on cucumber represents an innovative and interesting method for commercial application.
Groei versus groen : drie casestudy’s over de waarde van het stadsgroen in Amsterdam
Bos, Ernst ; Vogelzang, Theo - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel (Wageningen University & Research, Wetenschapswinkel rapport 344) - ISBN 9789463437585 - 48
The wound response in fresh-cut lettuce involves programmed cell death events
Iakimova, Elena T. ; Woltering, Ernst J. - \ 2018
Protoplasma 255 (2018)4. - ISSN 0033-183X - p. 1225 - 1238.
Cell death - Hydrogen peroxide - Lactuca sativa L. - Senescence - Wounding
In this work, the involvement of programmed cell death (PCD) in the wound-induced postharvest browning disorder and senescence in butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fresh-cuts was studied. At the wounded (cut, bruised) sites, rapid browning, loss of chlorophyll and massive cell death, accompanied with accumulation of reactive oxygen species and increased electrolyte leakage occurred in a narrow strip of tissue adjacent the injury. The dead cell morphology (protoplast and nuclei shrinkage) together with the biochemical and physiological changes resembled necrotic PCD type. With a slight delay post-wounding, senescence associated with similar cell death features was initiated in distant non-wounded sites. In addition to necrotic PCD, both in wounded and senescing tissue, the appearance of empty cell corpses was observed, indicating that part of the cells might undergo vacuolar PCD (self-digestion of cellular content after vacuole collapse). The wounding-induced local cell death at the primary site of damage suggested that PCD may serve as a mechanism to seal-off the wound by building a physical barrier of dead cells. However, the cell death at sites remote from the wound suggests the distribution of long-distance senescence-inducing wound messengers. Trichomes in unwounded tissue often were the first to show H2O2 accumulation and dead cells; thereafter, the elevated H2O2 and cell death appeared in connecting cells and senescence progressed over larger areas. This suggests that trichomes may contribute to mediating the wound signalling leading to subsequent senescence. Our findings demonstrate that PCD is an integral part of the wound syndrome in fresh-cut lettuce.
Deze korrels zijn er om voedselverspilling te voorkomen
Timmermans, Toine ; Woltering, Ernst ; Zwietering, Marcel - \ 2018

Er wordt jaarlijks vijf miljard euro aan voedsel verspild. Slowd wil het weggooien van groente en fruit tegengaan.

Light regulates ascorbate in plants : An integrated view on physiology and biochemistry
Ntagkas, Nikolaos ; Woltering, Ernst J. ; Marcelis, Leo F.M. - \ 2018
Environmental and Experimental Botany 147 (2018). - ISSN 0098-8472 - p. 271 - 280.
Ascorbate - Light regulation - Vitamin C - Vitamin C biochemistry - Vitamin C physiology
l-ascorbate (vitamin. C, ASC) is an antioxidant that is essential for the proper function not only of plants but also animals. Light is a major regulatory factor for ASC levels in plants. In this paper, we review the regulation of ASC by light and the involved biochemical and physiological processes. Several biochemical pathways for ASC biosynthesis have been proposed to exist in plants. We aim to determine the contribution of these biochemical pathways on ASC levels and, locate the steps of them that are affected by light. From biochemical and genetic studies only evidence for ASC biosynthesis occurring via the d-mannose/L-galactose biosynthetic pathway was found. Alternative pathways might account for ASC biosynthesis only in transgenic plants. Apart from biosynthesis, recycling and turnover of ASC might affect the size of the ASC pool. Light regulation of ASC levels in plants occurs primarily via effects on biosynthesis. In addition, light affects ASC homeostasis and translocation within the plant. Light regulation of ASC has been studied for individual physiological processes without taking into account possible interactions. By establishing the physiological network behind light regulation of ASC for both leaves and fruit, we developed a novel hypothesis on interactions between the physiological processes that regulate ASC. We conclude that respiration and photosynthesis interact in light regulation of ASC biosynthesis via carbohydrate availability.
Effect of cold storage on stomatal functionality, water relations and flower performance in cut roses
Woltering, Ernst J. ; Paillart, Maxence J.M. - \ 2018
Postharvest Biology and Technology 136 (2018). - ISSN 0925-5214 - p. 66 - 73.
Cold storage - Cut flowers - Rose - Stomatal functionality - Water relations

Symptoms of water stress are the most frequent cause for the “end of vase life” in prior stored roses. It was hypothesized that dark storage may alter the stomatal functionality and may cause water balance problems during the subsequent vase life period. The effect of short- and long-term storage on functionality of stomatal and subsequent flower performance was investigated in two rose cultivars (cvs) (‘Akito’ and ‘Grand Prix’) with presumed different sensitivity for development of water stress symptoms during the vase life. Compared to no storage, both short term storage (2.3 d at 6 °C) and long term storage (28 d at 0.5 °C) negatively affected the stomatal functionality in cultivar (cv) Akito. Stomatal functionality parameters such as the rapidity of the closing response upon dehydration and the relative water content at which stomata are fully closed showed good correlations with flower performance parameters (flower weight changes and vase life). This indicates that in cv Akito, the decreased stomatal functionality is one of the factors involved in the poor vase life of prior stored flowers. In cv Grand Prix, however, storage did not greatly affect the stomatal functionality but storage negatively affected flower performance in a comparable way as in cv Akito. A pre-treatment with abscisic acid prior to storage slightly improved stomatal functionality in both cvs, but no clear effect on flower performance was observed. Addition of the bactericide 8-HQC to the vase water improved flower performance in both cvs but could not alleviate the negative effect of cold storage on flower performance. Results show that in roses cold storage may, depending on the cultivar, negatively affect stomatal functionality and this may contribute to water stress and ultimately flower failure. In addition, cold storage may negatively affect xylem water conducting properties through processes not related to bacterial contamination.

Scenarios thinking for the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Region
Lovecraft, A.L. ; Preston, B.L. ; Absar, S.M. ; Blair, Berill ; Cost, D. ; Ernst, K.M. ; Fresco, N. ; Hillmer-Pegram, K. ; Hum, R. ; Lee, O. ; Machavariani, G. ; Wesche, S. - \ 2017
In: Adaptation Actions for a Changing Arctic Oslo : - ISBN 9788279711032 - p. 217 - 238.
A number of biophysical and socio-economic drivers will have a significant influence on future vulnerability, risk, resilience, and adaptation planning in the Bering-Chuckchi-Beaufort (BCB) region ( Chapters 4-7). The trajectories of some of those drivers are amenable to modeling, forecasting, or projection. However, the future is inherently uncertain, particularly over long time horizons. Scenarios have been used for over 50 years as a tool for exploring such uncertainty in order to identify key driving forces and critical unknowns, as well as to generate shared understanding among stakeholders regarding the potential for, and implications of, alternative futures (van Notten et al., 2003; Bishop et al., 2007; Avango et al., 2013). This chapter provides a general overview of scenarios and their value for understanding the implications of a changing climate within the broader context of global change. The chapter includes a review of how scenarios have been used previously to understand climate change vulnerability, risk, and resilience, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic. It also introduces a new series of qualitative regional and subregional socio­economic scenarios for the BCB region, peering into the future to 2050, and discusses their implications for climate change impacts as well as adaptation planning and implementation.
Spot on: het landschap als vestigingsvoorwaarde
Bootsma, Jeroen ; Henk, Baas ; Bos, Ernst ; Gerretsen, Paul ; Nefs, Merten ; Geuze, Adriaan ; Nijhuis, Steffen ; Veen, An van; Boeschoten, Harry - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789076630205 - 113
Ernst, Bobbie en hoe je kleuter aan de wortel krijgt
Zeinstra, Gertrude - \ 2017
Kort interview over ernst essentaksterfte
Hiemstra, Jelle - \ 2017
Bèta onderzoek lijdt onder groeiend aantal studenten
Ende, Ernst van den - \ 2017
This tiny country feeds the world
Ende, Ernst van den; Veloo, Ruud - \ 2017
Stalboekje Pluimvee 2017 : Handboek voor natuurlijke pluimveegezondheidzorg met kruiden en andere natuurproducten
Groot, Maria ; Puls-van der Kamp, Ineke ; Asseldonk, Tedje van - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT uitgave 2017.701) - 107
pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - medicinale planten - geneeskrachtige kruiden - dierziektepreventie - dierlijke productie - biologische landbouw - handboeken - vleeskuikens - hennen - poultry farming - poultry - animal health - animal welfare - medicinal plants - herbal drugs - animal disease prevention - animal production - organic farming - handbooks - broilers - hens
De stalboekjes zijn oorspronkelijk gemaakt voor de biologische veehouderij (versies 2009 en 2011) in het kader van onderzoek voor Biokennis. Deze uitgave is in 2014 en 2015 aangevuld met nieuwe middelen en inzichten en aangepast voor toepassing in de gangbare pluimveehouderij. Dit betekent o.a. dat een hoofdstuk over vleeskuikens is toegevoegd en het leghennen stuk is uitgebreid. Het streven om het gebruik van antibiotica terug te dringen vraagt om een ander management. Goede voeding, huisvesting en hygiëne zijn hierbij belangrijk. In dit boekje worden aanwijzingen gegeven om met natuurlijke middelen de gezondheid van de dieren te bevorderen en zo ziektes te voorkomen. Tevens kunnen middelen worden ingezet om de ernst van de ziekte te reduceren. Doel is tevens om de dierenartsen te informeren over de mogelijkheden van natuurproducten en de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing hiervan inzichtelijk te maken.
Beheeradvies De Schorren, Texel : OBN-Deskundigenteam Duin- en Kustlandschap
Esselink, Peter ; Groot, Alma de; Lofvers, Ernst ; Bakker, Chris ; Temmink, Ralph ; Heide, Tjisse van der; Terlouw, Sander - \ 2017
Driebergen : VBNE, Vereniging van Bos- en Natuurterreineigenaren - 36
Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with a guanidinium-functionalized polyelectrolyte extend the pH range for phosphate binding
Paltrinieri, Laura ; Wang, Min ; Sachdeva, Sumit ; Besseling, Nicolaas A.M. ; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. De - \ 2017
Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for energy and sustainability 5 (2017)35. - ISSN 2050-7488 - p. 18476 - 18485.

In this work commercially available Fe3O4 NPs were coated with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) and PAH functionalized with guanidinium groups (PAH-Gu) for investigating the phosphate adsorption properties under alkaline conditions. The coating can be prepared easily and rapidly and results in Fe3O4 NPs with improved properties related to phosphate binding and colloidal stability. At a low initial phosphate concentration (2 mg L-1), the novel Fe3O4@PAH-Gu material was able to remove phosphate rather independently of the pH condition (4.0, 3.6 and 3.7 mg g-1 at pH = 5, 8 and 10, respectively), whereas for the uncoated Fe3O4 NPs the amount of adsorbed phosphate drops by >75% upon changing from acidic to alkaline conditions (0.84 mg g-1 at pH = 10). Under alkaline conditions, the fastest adsorption was observed for Fe3O4@PAH-Gu followed by Fe3O4@PAH and Fe3O4. This can be related to the additional interaction forces due to the presence of primary amine groups (in PAH and PAH-Gu) and Gu groups (in PAH-Gu only) in coatings. Over 80% of the phosphate adsorbed on the novel Fe3O4@PAH-Gu material was successfully desorbed and the coated NPs were re-used over three adsorption/desorption cycles. This work will stimulate the design and preparation of functionalized polyelectrolytes for an extended area of applications, especially for the selective removal of target compounds from wastewater.

Biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning in a 15-year grassland experiment : Patterns, mechanisms, and open questions
Weisser, Wolfgang ; Roscher, Christiane ; Meyer, Sebastian T. ; Ebeling, Anne ; Luo, Guangjuan ; Allan, Eric ; Beßler, Holger ; Barnard, Romain L. ; Buchmann, Nina ; Buscot, François ; Engels, Christof ; Fischer, Christine ; Fischer, Markus ; Gessler, Arthur ; Gleixner, Gerd ; Halle, Stefan ; Hildebrandt, Anke ; Hillebrand, Helmut ; Kroon, Hans de; Lange, Markus ; Leimer, Sophia ; Roux, Xavier Le; Milcu, Alexandru ; Mommer, Liesje ; Niklaus, Pascal A. ; Oelmann, Yvonne ; Proulx, Raphael ; Roy, Jacques ; Scherber, Christoph ; Scherer-lorenzen, Michael ; Scheu, Stefan ; Tscharntke, Teja ; Wachendorf, Michael ; Wagg, Cameron ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Wilcke, Wolfgang ; Wirth, Christian ; Schulze, Ernst Detlef ; Schmid, Bernhard ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2017
Basic and Applied Ecology 23 (2017). - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 1 - 73.
Biomass - Carbon storage - Complementarity - Multi-trophic interactions - Nutrient cycling - Selection effect
In the past two decades, a large number of studies have investigated the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, most of which focussed on a limited set of ecosystem variables. The Jena Experiment was set up in 2002 to investigate the effects of plant diversity on element cycling and trophic interactions, using a multi-disciplinary approach. Here, we review the results of 15 years of research in the Jena Experiment, focussing on the effects of manipulating plant species richness and plant functional richness. With more than 85,000 measures taken from the plant diversity plots, the Jena Experiment has allowed answering fundamental questions important for functional biodiversity research.First, the question was how general the effect of plant species richness is, regarding the many different processes that take place in an ecosystem. About 45% of different types of ecosystem processes measured in the 'main experiment', where plant species richness ranged from 1 to 60 species, were significantly affected by plant species richness, providing strong support for the view that biodiversity is a significant driver of ecosystem functioning. Many measures were not saturating at the 60-species level, but increased linearly with the logarithm of species richness. There was, however, great variability in the strength of response among different processes. One striking pattern was that many processes, in particular belowground processes, took several years to respond to the manipulation of plant species richness, showing that biodiversity experiments have to be long-term, to distinguish trends from transitory patterns. In addition, the results from the Jena Experiment provide further evidence that diversity begets stability, for example stability against invasion of plant species, but unexpectedly some results also suggested the opposite, e.g. when plant communities experience severe perturbations or elevated resource availability. This highlights the need to revisit diversity-stability theory.Second, we explored whether individual plant species or individual plant functional groups, or biodiversity itself is more important for ecosystem functioning, in particular biomass production. We found strong effects of individual species and plant functional groups on biomass production, yet these effects mostly occurred in addition to, but not instead of, effects of plant species richness.Third, the Jena Experiment assessed the effect of diversity on multitrophic interactions. The diversity of most organisms responded positively to increases in plant species richness, and the effect was stronger for above- than for belowground organisms, and stronger for herbivores than for carnivores or detritivores. Thus, diversity begets diversity. In addition, the effect on organismic diversity was stronger than the effect on species abundances.Fourth, the Jena Experiment aimed to assess the effect of diversity on N, P and C cycling and the water balance of the plots, separating between element input into the ecosystem, element turnover, element stocks, and output from the ecosystem. While inputs were generally less affected by plant species richness, measures of element stocks, turnover and output were often positively affected by plant diversity, e.g. carbon storage strongly increased with increasing plant species richness. Variables of the N cycle responded less strongly to plant species richness than variables of the C cycle.Fifth, plant traits are often used to unravel mechanisms underlying the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. In the Jena Experiment, most investigated plant traits, both above- and belowground, were plastic and trait expression depended on plant diversity in a complex way, suggesting limitation to using database traits for linking plant traits to particular functions.Sixth, plant diversity effects on ecosystem processes are often caused by plant diversity effects on species interactions. Analyses in the Jena Experiment including structural equation modelling suggest complex interactions that changed with diversity, e.g. soil carbon storage and greenhouse gas emission were affected by changes in the composition and activity of the belowground microbial community. Manipulation experiments, in which particular organisms, e.g. belowground invertebrates, were excluded from plots in split-plot experiments, supported the important role of the biotic component for element and water fluxes.Seventh, the Jena Experiment aimed to put the results into the context of agricultural practices in managed grasslands. The effect of increasing plant species richness from 1 to 16 species on plant biomass was, in absolute terms, as strong as the effect of a more intensive grassland management, using fertiliser and increasing mowing frequency. Potential bioenergy production from high-diversity plots was similar to that of conventionally used energy crops. These results suggest that diverse 'High Nature Value Grasslands' are multifunctional and can deliver a range of ecosystem services including production-related services.A final task was to assess the importance of potential artefacts in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships, caused by the weeding of the plant community to maintain plant species composition. While the effort (in hours) needed to weed a plot was often negatively related to plant species richness, species richness still affected the majority of ecosystem variables. Weeding also did not negatively affect monoculture performance; rather, monocultures deteriorated over time for a number of biological reasons, as shown in plant-soil feedback experiments.To summarize, the Jena Experiment has allowed for a comprehensive analysis of the functional role of biodiversity in an ecosystem. A main challenge for future biodiversity research is to increase our mechanistic understanding of why the magnitude of biodiversity effects differs among processes and contexts. It is likely that there will be no simple answer. For example, among the multitude of mechanisms suggested to underlie the positive plant species richness effect on biomass, some have received limited support in the Jena Experiment, such as vertical root niche partitioning. However, others could not be rejected in targeted analyses. Thus, from the current results in the Jena Experiment, it seems likely that the positive biodiversity effect results from several mechanisms acting simultaneously in more diverse communities, such as reduced pathogen attack, the presence of more plant growth promoting organisms, less seed limitation, and increased trait differences leading to complementarity in resource uptake. Distinguishing between different mechanisms requires careful testing of competing hypotheses. Biodiversity research has matured such that predictive approaches testing particular mechanisms are now possible.
Gas Phase Sensing of Alcohols by Metal Organic Framework-Polymer Composite Materials
Sachdeva, Sumit ; Koper, Sander J.H. ; Sabetghadam, Anahid ; Soccol, Dimitri ; Gravesteijn, Dirk J. ; Kapteijn, Freek ; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Gascon, Jorge ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. De - \ 2017
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces 9 (2017)29. - ISSN 1944-8244 - p. 24926 - 24935.
capacitive detection - composites - gas sensors - impedance spectroscopy - metal organic frameworks - mixed matrix membranes
Affinity layers play a crucial role in chemical sensors for the selective and sensitive detection of analytes. Here, we report the use of composite affinity layers containing Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) in a polymeric matrix for sensing purposes. Nanoparticles of NH2-MIL-53(Al) were dispersed in a Matrimid polymer matrix with different weight ratios (0-100 wt %) and drop-casted on planar capacitive transducer devices. These coated devices were electrically analyzed using impedance spectroscopy and investigated for their sensing properties toward the detection of a series of alcohols and water in the gas phase. The measurements indicated a reversible and reproducible response in all devices. Sensor devices containing 40 wt % NH2-MIL-53(Al) in Matrimid showed a maximum response for methanol and water. The sensor response time slowed down with increasing MOF concentration until 40 wt %. The half time of saturation response (τ0.5) increased by ∼1.75 times for the 40 wt % composition compared to devices coated with Matrimid only. This is attributed to polymer rigidification near the MOF/polymer interface. Higher MOF loadings (≥50 wt %) resulted in brittle coatings with a response similar to the 100 wt % MOF coating. Cross-sensitivity studies showed the ability to kinetically distinguish between the different alcohols with a faster response for methanol and water compared to ethanol and 2-propanol. The observed higher affinity of the pure Matrimid polymer toward methanol compared to water allows also for a higher uptake of methanol in the composite matrices. Also, as indicated by the sensing studies with a mixture of water and methanol, the methanol uptake is independent of the presence of water up to 6000 ppm of water. The NH2-MIL-53(Al) MOFs dispersed in the Matrimid matrix show a sensitive and reversible capacitive response, even in the presence of water. By tuning the precise compositions, the affinity kinetics and overall affinity can be tuned, showing the promise of this type of chemical sensors.
Ernst Jünger’s philosophy of technology : Heidegger and the poetics of the anthropocene
Blok, Vincent - \ 2017
Taylor and Francis Inc. - ISBN 9781138737594 - 153 p.
This book examines the work of Ernst Jünger and its effect on the development of Martin Heidegger’s influential philosophy of technology. Vincent Blok offers a unique treatment of Jünger’s philosophy and his conception of the age of technology, in which both world and man appear in terms of their functionality and efficiency. The primary objective of Jünger’s novels and essays is to make the transition from the totally mobilized world of the 20th century toward a world in which a new type of man represents the gestalt of the worker and is responsive to this new age. Blok proceeds to demonstrate Jünger’s influence on Heidegger’s analysis of the technological age in his later work, as well as Heidegger’s conceptions of will, work and gestalt at the beginning of the 1930s. At the same time, Blok evaluates Heidegger’s criticism of Jünger and provides a novel interpretation of the Jünger-Heidegger connection: that Jünger’s work in fact testifies to a transformation of our relationship to language and conceptualizes the future in terms of the Anthropocene. This book, which arrives alongside several new English-language translations of Jünger’s work, will interest scholars of 20th-century continental philosophy, Heidegger, and the history of philosophy of technology.
Sensitive and Reversible Detection of Methanol and Water Vapor by In Situ Electrochemically Grown CuBTC MOFs on Interdigitated Electrodes
Sachdeva, Sumit ; Venkatesh, Manjunath R. ; Mansouri, Brahim El ; Wei, Jia ; Bossche, Andre ; Kapteijn, Freek ; Zhang, Guo Qi ; Gascon, Jorge ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. - \ 2017
Small 13 (2017)29. - ISSN 1613-6810
Capacitive sensing - Electrochemical synthesis - Interdigitated electrodes - Metal-organic frameworks
The in situ electrochemical growth of Cu benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (CuBTC) metal-organic frameworks, as an affinity layer, directly on custom-fabricated Cu interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) is described, acting as a transducer. Crystalline 5-7 μm thick CuBTC layers are grown on IDEs consisting of 100 electrodes with a width and a gap of both 50 μm and a height of 6-8 μm. These capacitive sensors are exposed to methanol and water vapor at 30 °C. The affinities show to be completely reversible with higher affinity toward water compared to methanol. For exposure to 1000 ppm methanol, a fast response is observed with a capacitance change of 5.57 pF at equilibrium. The capacitance increases in time followed diffusion-controlled kinetics (k = 2.9 mmol s-0.5 g-1 CuBTC). The observed capacitance change with methanol concentration follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm, with a value for the equilibrium affinity Ke = 174.8 bar-1. A volume fraction fMeOH = 0.038 is occupied upon exposure to 1000 ppm of methanol. The thin CuBTC affinity layer on the Cu-IDEs shows fast, reversible, and sensitive responses to methanol and water vapor, enabling quantitative detection in the range of 100-8000 ppm.
Effect of charge of quaternary ammonium cations on lipophilicity and electroanalytical parameters : Task for ion transfer voltammetry
Poltorak, Lukasz ; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de - \ 2017
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 796 (2017). - ISSN 1572-6657 - p. 66 - 74.
Acetylcarrnitine - Gallamine - ITIES - Muscle relaxants - Partition coefficient - Succinylcholine
The electrochemical behavior of three differently charged drug molecules (zwitter-ionic acetylcarnitine, bi-cationic succinylcholine and tri-cationic gallamine) was studied at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions. Tetramethylammonium was used as a model mono cationic molecule and internal reference. The charge and molecular structure were found to play an important role in the drug lipophilicity. The studied drugs gave a linear correlation between the water – octanol (logPoctanol) partition coefficients and the electrochemically measured water – 1,2-dichloroethane (logPDCE) partition coefficients. Comparison with tetraalkylammonium cations indicating that the correlation between logPoctanol and logPDCE is molecular structure dependent. The highest measured sensitivity and lowest limit of detection were found to be 0.543 mA·dm3·mol− 1 and 6.25 μM, respectively, for the tri-cationic gallamine. The sensitivity for all studied ions was found to be a linear function of molecular charge. The dissociation constant of the carboxylic group of zwiter-ionic acetylcarnitine was calculated based on voltammetric parameters and was found to be 4.3. This study demonstrates that electrochemistry at the liquid – liquid interface is powerful technique when it comes to electroanalytical or pharmacokinetic drug assessment.
Metal-organic polyhedra-coated si nanowires for the sensitive detection of trace explosives
Cao, Anping ; Zhu, Wei ; Shang, Jin ; Klootwijk, Johan H. ; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R. ; Huskens, Jurriaan ; Smet, Louis C.P.M. de - \ 2017
Nano Letters 17 (2017)1. - ISSN 1530-6984 - 7 p.
Charge-transfer interaction - Explosives detection - Metal-organic polyhedra - Molecular recognition - Silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistor

Surface-modified silicon nanowire-based field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) have proven to be a promising platform for molecular recognition in miniature sensors. In this work, we present a novel nanoFET/device for the sensitive and selective detection of explosives based on affinity layers of metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs). The judicious selection of the \ geometric and electronic characteristics of the assembly units (organic ligands and unsaturated metal site) embedded within the MOP cage allowed for the formation of multiple charge-transfer (CT) interactions to facilitate the selective explosive inclusion. Meanwhile, the host-stabilized CT complex inside the cage acted as an effective molecular gating element to strongly modulate the electrical conductance of the silicon nanowires. By grafting the MOP cages onto a SiNW-FET device, the resulting sensor showed a good electrical sensing capability to various explosives, especially 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), with a detection limit below the nanomolar level. Importantly, coupling MOPs-which have tunable structures and properties- to SiNW-based devices may open up new avenues for a wide range of sensing applications, addressing various target analytes.

Xylogenesis in zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell cultures : unravelling the regulatory steps in a complex developmental programmed cell death event
Iakimova, Elena T. ; Woltering, Ernst J. - \ 2017
Planta 245 (2017)4. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 681 - 705.
Cell culture - Experimental approaches - Programmed cell death - Signalling - Xylogenesis - Zinnia elegans
Main conclusion: Physiological and molecular studies support the view that xylogenesis can largely be determined as a specific form of vacuolar programmed cell death (PCD). The studies in xylogenic zinnia cell culture have led to many breakthroughs in xylogenesis research and provided a background for investigations in other experimental models in vitro andin planta. This review discusses the most essential earlier and recent findings on the regulation of xylem elements differentiation and PCD in zinnia and other xylogenic systems.Xylogenesis (the formation of water conducting vascular tissue) is a paradigm of plant developmental PCD. The xylem vessels are composed of fused tracheary elements (TEs)—dead, hollow cells with patterned lignified secondary cell walls. They result from the differentiation of the procambium and cambium cells and undergo cell death to become functional post-mortem. The TE differentiation proceeds through a well-coordinated sequence of events in which differentiation and the programmed cellular demise are intimately connected. For years a classical experimental model for studies on xylogenesis was the xylogenic zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell culture derived from leaf mesophyll cells that, upon induction by cytokinin and auxin, transdifferentiate into TEs. This cell system has been proven very efficient for investigations on the regulatory components of xylem differentiation which has led to many discoveries on the mechanisms of xylogenesis. The knowledge gained from this system has potentiated studies in other xylogenic cultures in vitro and in planta. The present review summarises the previous and latest findings on the hormonal and biochemical signalling, metabolic pathways and molecular and gene determinants underlying the regulation of xylem vessels differentiation in zinnia cell culture. Highlighted are breakthroughs achieved through the use of xylogenic systems from other species and newly introduced tools and analytical approaches to study the processes. The mutual dependence between PCD signalling and the differentiation cascade in the program of TE development is discussed.
Incomplete infection of secondarily infected potato plants – an environment dependent underestimated mechanism in plant virology
Bertschinger, Lukas ; Bühler, Lukas ; Dupuis, Brice ; Duffy, Brion ; Gessler, Cesare ; Forbes, Gregory A. ; Keller, Ernst R. ; Scheidegger, Urs C. ; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2017
Frontiers in Plant Science 8 (2017)FEBRUARY. - ISSN 1664-462X
Autoinfection - Climate change - Epigenetics - Food security - Gene-silencing - Plant viruses - Seed degeneration - Seed potato systems
The common assumption in potato virus epidemiology is that all daughter tubers produced by plants coming from infected mother tubers (secondary infection) will become infected via systemic translocation of the virus during growth. We hypothesize that depending on the prevalent environmental conditions, only a portion of the daughter tubers of a plant that is secondarily infected by viruses may become infected. To test this hypothesis experimental data from standardized field experiments were produced in three contrasting environments at 112, 3280, and 4000 m a.s.l. in Peru during two growing seasons. In these experiments, the percentage of infected daughter tubers produced by seed tubers that were infected with either potato potexvirus X (PVX), potato Andean mottle comovirus (APMoV), potato potyvirus Y (PVY) (jointly infected with PVX) or potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) was determined. Incomplete autoinfection was found in all cases, as the percentage of virus infected daughter tubers harvested from secondarily infected plants was invariably less than 100%, with the lowest percentage of infection being 30%. Changing the growing site to higher altitudes decreased autoinfection for all viruses. Therefore, the assumption of complete autoinfection of secondarily infected plants were rejected, while the hypothesis of environmentally dependent incomplete autoinfection was accepted. The findings help explain the occurrence of traditional seed management practices in the Andes and may help to develop locally adapted seed systems in environments of the world that have no steady access to healthy seed tubers coming from a formally certified seed system. The results obtained almost three decades ago are discussed in light of most recent knowledge on epigenetic regulation of host plant – virus interactions which allow for speculating about the underlying biological principles of the incomplete autoinfection. A research roadmap is proposed for achieving explicit experimental proof for the epigenetic regulation of incomplete autoinfection in the pathosystem under study.
An increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer surgery is associated with improved recovery of physical functioning : A prospective cohort study
Zutphen, Moniek van; Winkels, Renate M. ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van; Harten-Gerritsen, Suzanne A. van; Gils-Kok, Dieuwertje van; Duijvendijk, Peter van; Halteren, Henk K. van; Hansson, Bibi M.E. ; Kruyt, Flip M. ; Spillenaar Bilgen, Ernst J. ; Wilt, Johannes H.W. de; Dronkers, Jaap J. ; Kampman, Ellen - \ 2017
BMC Cancer 17 (2017)1. - ISSN 1471-2407
Colorectal cancer - Colorectal surgery - Epidemiology - Physical activity - Recovery of function - Rehabilitation
Background: The influence of physical activity on patient-reported recovery of physical functioning after colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery is unknown. Therefore, we studied recovery of physical functioning after hospital discharge by (a) a relative increase in physical activity level and (b) absolute activity levels before and after surgery. Methods: We included 327 incident CRC patients (stages I-III) from a prospective observational study. Patients completed questionnaires that assessed physical functioning and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity shortly after diagnosis and 6 months later. Cox regression models were used to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) of no recovery of physical functioning. All PRs were adjusted for age, sex, physical functioning before surgery, stage of disease, ostomy and body mass index. Results: At 6 months post-diagnosis 54% of CRC patients had not recovered to pre-operative physical functioning. Patients who increased their activity by at least 60 min/week were 43% more likely to recover physical function (adjusted PR 0.57 95%CI 0.39-0.82), compared with those with stable activity levels. Higher post-surgery levels of physical activity were also positively associated with recovery (P for trend = 0.01). In contrast, activity level before surgery was not associated with recovery (P for trend = 0.24). Conclusions: At 6 month post-diagnosis, about half of CRC patients had not recovered to preoperative functioning. An increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity after CRC surgery was associated with enhanced recovery of physical functioning. This benefit was seen regardless of physical activity level before surgery. These associations provide evidence to further explore connections between physical activity and recovery from CRC surgery after discharge from the hospital.
Belowground drivers of plant diversity
Putten, Wim H. Van Der - \ 2017
Science 355 (2017)6321. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 134 - 135.
Long before Ernst Haeckel coined the term “ecology” in 1866, nature explorers, such as Alexander von Humboldt, observed that vegetation composition changes with climate. However, it still remains unclear what determines the local composition and species richness of vegetation. Understanding the roles of belowground invertebrates and microbes is particularly challenging. On pages 173 and 181 of this issue, respectively, Teste et al. (1) and Bennett et al. (2) report field studies that elucidate the role of soil microorganisms as drivers of plant community composition.
On the validation of improved quality-decay models of potted plants
Tromp, Seth Oscar ; Harkema, Harmannus ; Hogeveen-van Echtelt, Esther ; Rijgersberg, Hajo ; Woltering, Ernst J. - \ 2017
Postharvest Biology and Technology 123 (2017). - ISSN 0925-5214 - p. 119 - 127.
Model - Potted plants - Quality decay - Storage - Transport - Validation

Storage experiments were carried out with potted plants: two Phalaenopsis cultivars and one Anthurium cultivar. The plants were stored in the dark for different storage times at different temperatures, to mimick a transport phase. Different quality aspects were scored immediately after the transport phase and after a subsequent display phase of 7 and 14 days at in-store conditions. Improved quality decay models compared to previous work were designed to quantify the effect of transport on the shelf life of potted plants. Of each cultivar, plants were obtained from two commercial growers in the Netherlands. Only the data from the first grower were used for improving the quality-decay models. The models were subsequently validated using the data from the second grower, as well as data from the first grower from year 2013 instead of 2015. So validation took place both in origin (a different grower) and in time (a different year). The validation showed that the behaviour of Anthurium ‘Arion’ was well predicted by the previously designed quality-decay models. For Phalaenopsis the performance of the quality-decay models differed per storage temperature. It was concluded that a quality-decay model first needs to be validated before it can be applied to predict the quality decay of a different production batch.

Improving the sustainability of fatty acid methyl esters (Fame – biodiesel) – assessment of options for industry and agriculture
Jungmeier, G. ; Pucker, J. ; Ernst, M. ; Haselbacher, P. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Kraft, A. ; Schulzke, T. ; Loo, E.N. van - \ 2016
Biodiesel - Greenhouse gases - Sustainability - SWOT analyses - Vegetable oils

The life cycle based greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME also called “Biodiesel”) from various resources have been set in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). Due to technology and scientific progress there are various options to improve the GHG balances of FAME. In this Supporting Action 10 most interesting options were assessed: 1) “Biomethanol”: Substitution of fossil methanol with biomethanol; 2) “Bioethanol”: Substitution of fossil methanol with bioethanol; 3) “CHP residues”: Use of residues and co-products in an CHP plant; 4) “New plant species”: Examination of new plants for vegetable oils, that could increase the biomass weight without any detrimental effect on the oil seed; 5) “Bioplastics and biochemicals”: Production of bioplastics and biochemicals from process residues; 6) “Advanced agriculture”: Advanced agricultural practices in terms of N2O emissions and soil carbon accumulation; 7) “Organic residues”: Use of organic versus mineral fertilizer for feedstock cultivation; 8) “FAME as fuel”: Use of FAME in machinery for cultivation, transportation and distribution; 9) “Retrofitting multi feedstock”: Retrofitting of single feedstock plants for blending fatty residues; and 10) “Green electricity”: Use of renewable electricity produced in a PV plant on site. The assessment approach started with the GHG standard values of the RED and the corresponding background data documented in BioGrace. For the most relevant FAME production possibilities in Europe, characterized by the feedstock (rapeseed, sunflower, palm oil, soybean, used cooking oil, animal fat) and FAME production capacity (50 - 200 kt/a), the technical and economic data of “Best Available Technology in 2015” (BAT) were used as starting point to assess the improvement options. Based on the calculation of GHG emissions (g CO2-eq/MJ) and production cost (€/tFAME) an overall assessment (incl SWOT-Analyses and Stakeholder involvement) of the options was made and summarized in “Fact Sheets”. A significant GHG reduction compared to the RED values in processing is possible, if best available technology (BAT) is applied. The GHG emissions of cultivation compared to RED are higher due to improved data on the correlation between fertilizer input and yields. The assessed GHG improvements options show that the potential to reduce emissions is relatively large in agriculture cultivation, but a relatively low in processing. The production cost analysis shows that revenues from co-produced animal feed and oil yield per hectare have a strong influence on total production costs, e.g. mainly animal feed from soybeans. The total FAME production cost of BAT are 280 – 1,000 €/tFAME, including revenues from co-products. Cost ranges arise due to different feedstock and capacities. The greenhouse gas analysis of the improvement options results in a GHG reduction potential of 0 - 37 g CO2-eq/MJ compared to BAT. The greenhouse gas mitigation costs of improvement options range between -260 and +1,000 €/t CO2-eq. Options with negative greenhouse gas mitigation costs generate economic benefits compared to the base case. Summing up the assessment one can conclude that the future FAME production has several options to further improve its GHG balance thus contributing substantially to a more sustainable transportation sector.

Kweekvlees, insecten, zeewier - wat ligt er over vijf jaar op ons bord?
Dicke, Marcel ; Ende, Ernst van den; Woltering, Ernst ; Werf, Adrie van der - \ 2016

De groeiende wereldbevolking moet op zoek naar alternatieve voedselbronnen. NRC-redacteur Carlijn Vis bespreekt vier toekomstbestendige voedselsoorten.

Co-evolution of smart energy products and services: A novel approach towards smart grids
Reinders, Angele ; Respinis, Moreno de; Loon, Jorien van; Stekelenburg, Anton ; Bliek, Frits ; Schram, Wouter ; Sark, Wilfried van; Esteri, Tara ; Uebermasser, Stefan ; Lehfuss, Felix ; Gultekin, Esin ; Mierlo, Barbara Van; Markocic, Elena ; Hassewend, Brigitte ; Robledo, Carla ; Papaioannou, Ioulia ; Wijk, Ad van; Lagler, Mike ; Schmautzer, Ernst ; Hohn, Thomas ; Fickert, Lothar - \ 2016
In: 2016 Asian Conference on Energy, Power and Transportation Electrification, ACEPT 2016 IEEE - 6 p.
In this paper we present our project on interdisciplinary evaluations of existing smart grid environments regarding (1) the technical performance of smart energy products and services, (2) end users perceptions, (3) stakeholder processes and (4) market aspects. Our evaluations are based on data and information originating from real life pilots and demonstration projects in the field of smart grids in residential areas in the Netherlands and in Austria. The so-called CESEPS project is executed in the European ERA-Net Smart Grids Plus program. CESEPS stands for Co-Evolution of Smart Energy Product and Services. Its main objective is to support the development of smart energy products and services for local smart grids that better respond to the demands and concerns of all stakeholders in terms of performance, cost, reliability, safety and robustness, sustainability and energy-efficiency, and end users' comfort. Besides comparative data analyses and user surveys, this three year project comprises simulation activities to model existing and innovative smart grid energy products to evaluate their feasibility, given the aspects above mentioned. In this paper our approach will be explained and illustrated by several examples of ongoing subtopics of research and knowledge dissemination among stakeholders in the smart grid sector.
HIPPIE: High Performance Polymers from Isoidide
Hagberg, E. ; Poppe, Ernst ; Roelofs, Jules ; Knoop, J.R.I. - \ 2016
There is a general need for biobased polymers with improved properties compared to the current commercial biobased polymers. In particular there is a need for biobased materials with improved thermal and mechanical properties, comparable with (or superior to) current petrochemical based engineering plastics, like polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) or polycarbonate (PC). Such materials are not only suitable for packaging applications, but also for more demanding applications like (consumer) electronics, automotive, building & construction, where properties high temperature performance, high strength, impact resistance, or optical transparency are required.
Solidarity in water management
Keessen, A.M. ; Vink, M.J. ; Wiering, M. ; Boezeman, D. ; Ernst, W.W.P. ; Mees, H. ; Broekhoven, Saskia van; Eerd, Marjolein C.J. van - \ 2016
Ecology and Society 21 (2016)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
adaptation - climate change - collective action - governance - solidarity - water management
Adaptation to climate change can be an inclusive and collective, rather than an individual effort. The choice for collective arrangements is tied to a call for solidarity. We distinguish between one-sided (assisting community members in need) and two-sided solidarity (furthering a common interest) and between voluntary and compulsory solidarity. We assess the strength of solidarity as a basis for adaptation measures in six Dutch water management case studies. Traditionally, Dutch water management is characterized by compulsory two-sided solidarity at the water board level. Since the French times, the state is involved through compulsory national solidarity contributions to avoid societal disruption by major floods. In so far as this furthers a common interest, the contributions qualify as two-sided solidarity, but if it is considered assistance to flood-prone areas, they also qualify as one-sided solidarity. Although the Delta Programme explicitly continues on this path, our case studies show that solidarity continues to play an important role in Dutch water management in the process of adapting to a changing climate, but that an undifferentiated call for solidarity will likely result in debates over who should pay what and why. Such discussions can lead to cancellation or postponement of adaptation measures, which are not considered to be in the common interest or result in an increased reliance on local solidarity.
Dalende bodems, stijgende kosten : mogelijke maatregelen tegen veenbodemdaling in het landelijk en stedelijk gebied: beleidsstudie
Born, G.J. van den; Kragt, F. ; Henkens, D. ; Rijken, B. ; Bemmel, B. van; Sluis, S. van der; Polman, N. ; Bos, Ernst Jenno ; Kuhlman, Tom ; Kwakernaak, C. ; Akker, J. van den; Diogo, V. ; Koomen, E. ; Lange, G. de; Bakel, J. van; Brinke, W.B.M. ten - \ 2016
Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL-publicatie 1064) - 92
Het doel van deze studie is om bodemdaling, de gevolgen van bodemdaling en het effect van mogelijke maatregelen in de Nederlandse laagveengebieden op een transparante manier in beeld te brengen. Dat doen we voor zowel het landelijk als stedelijk gebied. Deze studie laat de handelingsopties voor bestuurders zien voor afgewogen keuzes in het landelijk en stedelijk gebied ten aanzien van dilemma’s in de laagveengebieden die nu al op hun bord liggen of mogelijk in de toekomst zullen gaan spelen. Daarvoor kijken we naar een breed scala van effecten van bodemdaling, zoals de effecten op de landbouw en voedselproductie, het waterbeheer, het klimaat (CO2-emissie), natuur en landschap, en de bebouwde omgeving inclusief de infrastructuur. We geven een beeld van de orde van grootte van de problemen die door bodemdaling worden veroorzaakt en geven inzicht in de kosten en baten van bodemdaling. We kijken daarbij naar de gevolgen voor natuur, klimaat, landbouw, (water)beheer, wonen en infrastructuur.
Climate Change Adaptation in the Carpathian Mountain Region
Werners, Saskia Elisabeth ; Szalai, Sándor ; Zingstra, Henk ; Kőpataki, Éva ; Beckmann, Andreas ; Bos, Ernst ; Civic, Kristijan ; Hlásny, Tomas ; Hulea, Orieta ; Jurek, Matthias ; Koch, Hagen ; Kondor, Attila Csaba ; Kovbasko, Aleksandra ; Lakatos, M. ; Lambert, Stijn ; Peters, Richard ; Trombik, Jiří ; De Velde, Ilse Van; Zsuffa, István - \ 2016
In: Climate Change Adaptation Strategies : An Upstream-downstream Perspective / Salzmann, Nadine, Huggel, Christian, Nussbaumer, Samuel U., Ziervogel, Gina, Springer International Publishing Switzerland - ISBN 9783319407715 - p. 79 - 99.
The Carpathian mountain region is one of the most significant natural refuges on the European continent. It is home to Europe’s most extensive tracts of montane forest, the largest remaining virgin forest and natural mountain beech-fir forest ecosystems. Adding to the biodiversity are semi-natural habitats such as hay meadows, which are the result of centuries of traditional land management. Like other mountain regions areas, the Carpathian mountain region provides important ecosystem goods and services such as water provision, food products, forest products and tourism. But these ecosystem services are feared to be under threat from climate change.

This chapter reports on climate trends, impacts and adaptation options. Analysis of climate trends show an increase in annual mean temperature of 1.1–2.0 °C over the last 50 years (1961–2010), further increasing by 3.5–4.0 °C towards the end of the century. Precipitation changes are dispersed with an increase of 300–400 mm in the north and decrease of 100–150 mm in the south regions. Summer precipitation is projected to reduce by 20 %, whereas winter precipitation is projected to increase in most areas by 5–20 % by the year 2100. Both future scenarios and observations show high spatial variability and uncertainty. The same holds for the impacts on the investigated sectors water resources, forests, wetlands, grasslands, agriculture and tourism.

The review of climate trends and adaptation options, inspired a strategic agenda on adaptation to be implemented under the regional Carpathian Convention. Planning for climate change adaptation benefits from transnational cooperation because many impacts relate to seasonal and geographical shifts across borders. This is true for the natural system (e.g. shifts in species distribution and snow cover) as well as for socio-economic activities like agriculture, forestry and tourism (e.g. shifting opportunities for growing crops and changes in the tourist season). Examples of adaptation exist, yet need to be communicated for wider adoption. Essential components of adaptation will be capacity building and information sharing, climate-proofing of infrastructure and investments, promotion of eco-system based adaptation measures and making biodiversity management more dynamic.
Stalboekje melkvee 2016 : handboek voor natuurlijke diergezondheidzorg met kruiden en andere natuurproducten
Groot, M.J. ; Kleijer-Ligtenberg, G. ; Asseldonk, T. van; Hansman, H. - \ 2016
Wageningen : RIKILT (RIKILT 2016.704) - 228 p.
melkvee - medicinale planten - geneeskrachtige kruiden - rundveeteelt - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - dierziektepreventie - melkveehouderij - dierlijke productie - biologische landbouw - handboeken - dairy cattle - medicinal plants - herbal drugs - cattle farming - animal health - animal welfare - animal disease prevention - dairy farming - animal production - organic farming - handbooks
In dit boekje worden handvaten gegeven om met natuurlijke middelen de gezondheid en de weerstand van de dieren te bevorderen en zo ziektes te voorkomen. Tevens kunnen middelen worden ingezet om de ernst van de ziekte te reduceren. Doel is tevens om de dierenartsen te informeren over de mogelijkheden van natuurproducten en de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing hiervan inzichtelijk te maken.
Risicoanalyse dierenwelzijn eierketen : Deskstudie en expert opinie
Visser, Kathalijne ; Ouweltjes, Wijbrand ; Jong, Ingrid de; Gerritzen, Marien ; Niekerk, Thea van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 888) - 60
Eén van de taken van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA) is het controleren ofregelgeving op het gebied van onder andere het welzijn van landbouwhuisdieren, diergezondheid envoedselveiligheid wordt nageleefd. Hiervoor voert de NVWA een risicoanalyse en risicoprofilering uitover al haar domeinen waarbij integraal plant- en diergezondheid, dierenwelzijn, voedsel- enproductveiligheid worden meegenomen. Doel van NVWA is het formuleren van maatregelen tervermindering van de risico’s inclusief het risk-based herijken van het toezicht. De NVWA voert dezerisicoanalyses uit vanuit een ketenbenadering (van primair bedrijf tot en met het slachthuis). Daarbijworden in ieder geval de volgende ketens onderscheiden: roodvleesketen, zuivelketen, witvleesketen,wildketen en eierketen.NVWA/ BuRO heeft Wageningen UR Livestock Research gevraagd om aan de hand van een deskstudieen expert opinie een risicoanalyse dierenwelzijn voor de eierketen uit te voeren waarbij de impact vanhet welzijnsprobleem op het dier in beeld wordt gebracht (op een schaal van 1-7) en de prevalentievan het welzijnsprobleem wordt geschat. Daarnaast is Wageningen UR Livestock Research gevraagdom ook aan te geven welke risicofactoren (‘hazards’) een bijdrage kunnen leveren aan het ontstaanvan het welzijnsprobleem.Als eerste stap in deze studie zijn de mogelijke dierenwelzijnsproblemen geïdentificeerd en zo concreetmogelijk omschreven. Het inventariseren is uitgevoerd door dierenwelzijnsonderzoekers vanWageningen UR Livestock Research. Zij hebben hun input in het project gebaseerd op opgebouwdekennis en expertise op hun specifieke vakgebied (diersoort en/of fase in het leven van de betreffendediersoort). Daarnaast hebben zij gebruik gemaakt van beschikbare (inter-)nationale rapporten enwetenschappelijke literatuur. De daaruit ontstane lijst met mogelijke welzijnsproblemen is hetresultaat van een inventarisatie van alléén de experts van de Wageningen UR Livestock Research.De lijst met geïdentificeerde welzijnsproblemen is ingedeeld aan de hand van de vier principes vanWelfare Quality® te weten: goede voeding, goede huisvesting, goede gezondheid en normaal gedrag.Daarna is in stap twee de impact van het welzijnsprobleem voor het dier uitgedrukt in een cijfertussen de 1 en 7. Het bepalen van de impact bestaat uit het inschatten van de ‘ernst’ van hetwelzijnsprobleem (=hoeveel last heeft het dier van het welzijnsprobleem) en het inschatten van de‘duur’ van het welzijnsprobleem. Voor het inschatten van de ‘duur’ is uitgegaan van de ‘duur’ van hetongerief per fase. Daarvoor zijn, voor de leghen de volgende fasen onderscheiden: broederij,opfokperiode, legperiode, transport en slachterij. Daarnaast is in de opfokperiode onderscheidgemaakt tussen de volgende huisvestingssystemen: biologisch, uitloop/scharrel, kooihuisvesting. Voorde legperiode is onderscheid gemaakt tussen: biologisch/uitloop, scharrel, kooihuisvesting.De volgende matrix, zoals deze is opgesteld in het rapport risicoanalyse dierenwelzijn zuivelketen, isook gebruikt om de impact op basis van ‘ernst’ en ‘duur’ voor de eierketen in te schatten: Het vóórkomen van welzijnsproblemen (prevalentie) en de impact van een welzijnsprobleem op hetdier (het lijden) zijn in deze deskstudie afzonderlijk van elkaar beschouwd. Voor wat betreft de impactop het dier is uit de expert opinie naar voren gekomen dat welzijnsproblemen met een sterke negatieve impact zich vooral voordoen bij gezondheid. Een deel van deze gezondheidsproblemen komtechter zeer weinig voor. Van de gezondheidsproblemen met een hoge negatieve impact op welzijnhebben de borstbeenbreuken en de parasitaire aandoeningen ook nog een hoge prevalentie. Dit zijnde belangrijkste knelpunten voor de eierketen. Daarnaast worden afwijkingen van het normalegedragspatroon door de experts ook beschouwd als welzijnsproblemen met een hoge negatieve impactop het dierenwelzijn. De belangrijkste achterliggende oorzaak voor veel van deze problemen is terugte vinden in de manier van huisvesting en management van de hennen. Huisvestingssystemen kunnenverschillen in mogelijkheden om bepaalde management maatregelen toe te passen. De impact van dewelzijnsproblemen wordt voor de verschillende huisvestingssystemen niet/nauwelijks verschillendingeschat. Wel is ingeschat dat bepaalde welzijnsproblemen veel meer voorkomen (hogere prevalentiehebben) bij het ene ten opzichte van het andere houderij systeem (zoals beperkt gedragsrepertoire enectoparasitaire aandoeningen), problemen die specifiek zijn voor een bepaalde fase (zoals na-effectenvan snavelbehandeling, borstbeenbreuken, bumble foot, opbranden en uitzichtloos lijden van hennen).Rondom transport en op de slachterij worden vleugelbreuken en –dislocaties gezien als ernstigongerief voor de dieren.Voor de belangrijkste welzijnsproblemen in de eierketen konden prevalenties worden bepaald.Problemen waarvoor nog nader onderzoek gedaan zou moeten worden om prevalenties te bepalen zijnverminderde voedingstoestand in de broederij (in feite spelen hier de omstandigheden tijdens hetbroedproces een belangrijke rol en is dit niet zozeer een probleem van de eierketen, maar meer in zijnalgemeenheid een aandachtspunt voor alle broederijen), het doden van dieren op het primaire bedrijf,ongerief als gevolg van beperkt gedragsrepertoire, problemen met de thermoregulatie tijdenstransport, vleugelbreuken en dislocaties op transport en in de slachterij en ongerief als gevolg vanhandelingen op de slachterij (zoals aanhaken en bij bewustzijn aansnijden).
'Natuurlijk is niet altijd duurzaam'
Ende, Ernst van den - \ 2015
ornamental bulbs - sustainability - sustainability criteria - agricultural research - organic farming - genetic engineering - returns - public opinion

Duurzaam produceren wordt voor de bollensector steeds belangrijker. In deze nieuwe serie benaderen we dit thema vanuit verschillende invalshoeken. Te beginnen met: wat is ‘duurzaam’? Er zijn nogal wat definities in omloop. Een neutraal antwoord met een wetenschappelijke basis van Ernst van den Ende, directeur Plant Sciences Group van de Wageningen Universiteit.

Genotypic and phenotypic analyses of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic bronchiectasis isolate reveal differences from cystic fibrosis and laboratory strains
Varga, J.J. ; Barbier, Mariette ; Mulet, Xavier ; Bielecki, Piotr ; Bartell, J.A. ; Owings, J.P. ; Martinez-Ramos, Inmaculada ; Hittle, L.E. ; Davis, M.R. ; Damron, F.H. ; Liechti, G.W. ; Puchałka, Jacek ; Martins dos Santos, Vitor ; Ernst, R.K. ; Papin, J.A. ; Albertí, Sebastian ; Oliver, Antonio ; Goldberg, J.B. - \ 2015
BMC Genomics 16 (2015)1. - ISSN 1471-2164 - 27 p.
Bronchiectasis - Comparative genomics - Cystic fibrosis - Metabolic model - Pseudomonas aeruginosa - Transcriptome

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an environmentally ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium and important opportunistic human pathogen, causing severe chronic respiratory infections in patients with underlying conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) or bronchiectasis. In order to identify mechanisms responsible for adaptation during bronchiectasis infections, a bronchiectasis isolate, PAHM4, was phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Results: This strain displays phenotypes that have been associated with chronic respiratory infections in CF including alginate over-production, rough lipopolysaccharide, quorum-sensing deficiency, loss of motility, decreased protease secretion, and hypermutation. Hypermutation is a key adaptation of this bacterium during the course of chronic respiratory infections and analysis indicates that PAHM4 encodes a mutated mutS gene responsible for a ~1,000-fold increase in mutation rate compared to wild-type laboratory strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. Antibiotic resistance profiles and sequence data indicate that this strain acquired numerous mutations associated with increased resistance levels to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones when compared to PAO1. Sequencing of PAHM4 revealed a 6.38 Mbp genome, 5.9 % of which were unrecognized in previously reported P. aeruginosa genome sequences. Transcriptome analysis suggests a general down-regulation of virulence factors, while metabolism of amino acids and lipids is up-regulated when compared to PAO1 and metabolic modeling identified further potential differences between PAO1 and PAHM4. Conclusions: This work provides insights into the potential differential adaptation of this bacterium to the lung of patients with bronchiectasis compared to other clinical settings such as cystic fibrosis, findings that should aid the development of disease-appropriate treatment strategies for P. aeruginosa infections.

Landscape painting adding a cultural value to the Dutch countryside
Bos, Ernst - \ 2015
Journal of Cultural Heritage 16 (2015)1. - ISSN 1296-2074 - p. 88 - 93.
Aesthetics - Awareness - Conservation - Cultural value - Landscape - Painting

This article argues that cultural values should be included in policy making for the Dutch countryside. Since the sixteenth century the Dutch landscape has been a valued subject for art painters. This inheritance offers our rural areas a unique cultural value. This article focuses on the region surrounding The Hague, where painters from the so-called The Hague School had brought a large number of sites to their canvases. This group of painters was mainly active at the end of the nineteenth century. For this study, some of these sites have been located. This article presents images of the historic paintings as well as photos of the current views. From comparing the scenery on the painting with the current situation it is clear that much of the nineteenth century rural landscapes surrounding The Hague nowadays has been eroded by urbanisation. It is especially during the last few decades that most of these sites have disappeared. Therefore, protecting this specific cultural aspect of the Dutch countryside is an urgent matter that should be put on the agenda of land-use policy making.

Ernst van den Ende : 'Durf visionair te zijn'
Dwarswaard, A. ; Ende, J.E. van den - \ 2015
BloembollenVisie (2015)315. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 10 - 11.
bloembollen - tuinbouw - productschappen - landbouwschap - landbouwkundig onderzoek - kennisoverdracht - ondernemerschap - belangengroepen - innovaties - investering - financiën - ornamental bulbs - horticulture - product boards - board of agriculture - agricultural research - knowledge transfer - entrepreneurship - interest groups - innovations - investment - finance
Sinds 1 januari 2015 is er geen Productschap Tuinbouw meer. Collectief geld voor onderzoek is aanmerkelijk minder vanzelfsprekend. Voor directeur Ernst van den Ende van de Plant Sciences Group van Wageningen UR geen onoverkomelijk probleem. 'Geen geld in Nederland? Dan komt het wel uit het buitenland.' Somberen past hem niet.
Large-Scale Phenomics Identifies Primary and Fine-Tuning Roles for CRKs in Responses Related to Oxidative Stress.
Bourdais, G. ; Burdiak, P. ; Gauthier, A. ; Nitsch, L.M.C. ; Salojärvi, J. ; Rayapuram, C. ; Idänheimo, N. ; Hunter, K. ; Kimura, S. ; Merilo, E. ; Vaattovaara, A. ; Oracz, K. ; Kaufholdt, D. ; Pallon, A. ; Anggoro, D.T. ; Glów, D. ; Lowe, J. ; Zhou, J. ; Mohammadi, O. ; Puukko, T. ; Albert, A. ; Lang, H. ; Ernst, D. ; Kollist, H. ; Brosché, M. ; Durner, J. ; Borst, J.W. ; Collinge, D.B. ; Karpinski, S. ; Lyngkjær, M.F. ; Robatzek, S. ; Wrzaczek, M. ; Kangasjärvi, J. - \ 2015
Plos Genetics 11 (2015)7. - ISSN 1553-7404
receptor-like kinase - multiple sequence alignment - arabidopsis-thaliana - cell-death - protein-kinase - transcriptional regulation - pseudomonas-syringae - flagellin perception - light acclimation - stomatal immunity
Cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs) are transmembrane proteins characterized by the presence of two domains of unknown function 26 (DUF26) in their ectodomain. The CRKs form one of the largest groups of receptor-like protein kinases in plants, but their biological functions have so far remained largely uncharacterized. We conducted a large-scale phenotyping approach of a nearly complete crk T-DNA insertion line collection showing that CRKs control important aspects of plant development and stress adaptation in response to biotic and abiotic stimuli in a non-redundant fashion. In particular, the analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related stress responses, such as regulation of the stomatal aperture, suggests that CRKs participate in ROS/redox signalling and sensing. CRKs play general and fine-tuning roles in the regulation of stomatal closure induced by microbial and abiotic cues. Despite their great number and high similarity, large-scale phenotyping identified specific functions in diverse processes for many CRKs and indicated that CRK2 and CRK5 play predominant roles in growth regulation and stress adaptation, respectively. As a whole, the CRKs contribute to specificity in ROS signalling. Individual CRKs control distinct responses in an antagonistic fashion suggesting future potential for using CRKs in genetic approaches to improve plant performance and stress tolerance.
Biomimicry. De natuur als inspiratiebron voor innovaties
Segeren, A. ; Vogelzang, T.A. - \ 2015
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI publicatie 14-129) - 35
innovaties - systeeminnovatie - duurzame ontwikkeling - aanpassing van de productie - ontwerp - biologie - technologie - bedrijven - biomimicry - innovations - system innovation - sustainable development - adjustment of production - design - biology - technology - businesses
LEI Wageningen UR heeft van het ministerie van Economische Zaken de opdracht gekregen om onderzoek te doen naar de stand van zaken en de mogelijkheden voor de verdere toepassing van biomimicry in Nederland. Deze brochure biedt een analyse van drie actuele praktijkvoorbeelden, inzicht in de impact op economie en duurzaamheid en een vertaling hiervan naar indicatoren. Daarnaast geeft het LEI perspectieven voor de toekomst, waarbij vooral is gekeken naar de rol van wetenschap, onderwijs en beleid.
Stalboekje pluimvee 2015 : handboek voor natuurlijke pluimveegezondheidszorg met kruiden en andere natuurproducten
Groot, M.J. ; Puls-van der Kamp, I. ; Asseldonk, T. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR - 112
pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - medicinale planten - geneeskrachtige kruiden - dierziektepreventie - dierlijke productie - biologische landbouw - handboeken - vleeskuikens - hennen - poultry farming - poultry - animal health - animal welfare - medicinal plants - herbal drugs - animal disease prevention - animal production - organic farming - handbooks - broilers - hens
In dit boekje worden aanwijzingen gegeven om met natuurlijke middelen de gezondheid van de dieren te bevorderen en zo ziektes te voorkomen. Tevens kunnen middelen worden ingezet om de ernst van de ziekte te reduceren. Doel is tevens om de dierenartsen te informeren over de mogelijkheden van natuurproducten en de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing hiervan inzichtelijk te maken
Storage technology perishable products
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
Voorverpakte fruitsalade: slimme keus?
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
How to prevent postharvest losses?
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
Light levels below the LCP prolong the shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
Ripening of fruit
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
Ethylene biology
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
Causes of postharvest losses
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
Ethylene in postharvest biology
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
Taste and aroma
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
Factors determining quality and quality loss in fruit and vegetables
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
Food Losses
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
Stalboekje vleeskalveren : handboek voor natuurlijke diergezondheidzorg met kruiden en andere natuurproducten
Groot, M.J. ; Asseldonk, T. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR - 128
vleeskalveren - diergezondheid - dierziektepreventie - rundveehouderij - geneeskrachtige kruiden - medicinale planten - biologische landbouw - dierenwelzijn - veal calves - animal health - animal disease prevention - cattle husbandry - herbal drugs - medicinal plants - organic farming - animal welfare
In dit boekje worden handvaten gegeven om met natuurlijke middelen de gezondheid en de weerstand van de dieren te bevorderen en zo ziektes te voorkomen. Tevens kunnen middelen worden ingezet om de ernst van de ziekte te reduceren. Doel is tevens om de dierenartsen te informeren over de mogelijkheden van natuurproducten en de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing hiervan inzichtelijk te maken.
Oorlog als komisch gebeuren: Idealisme, the war on terror en Ernst Jüngers ervaring van de eerste wereldoorlog
Blok, V. - \ 2014
Filosofie 24 (2014)5. - ISSN 0925-9449 - p. 14 - 19.
Tomato quality: from the field to the consumer : interactions between genotype, cultivation and postharvest conditions
Farneti, B. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ernst Woltering, co-promotor(en): Rob Schouten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570801 - 195
solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - voedselkwaliteit - kwaliteit na de oogst - behandeling na de oogst - lycopeen - plantenveredeling - solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - food quality - postharvest quality - postharvest treatment - lycopene - plant breeding

The preservation of product quality in the marketing chain is of great importance for the final financial result of all stakeholders and consumer satisfaction. Improve product quality management requires an understanding of the various aspects of product and requires the availability of techniques to measure quality in an easy and objective way. The aim of the study was to obtain more insight of the effect of both pre-and post-harvest factors on the quality of tomatoes as experienced by the consumer.

In this dissertation, the effect of growing conditions (especially in closed greenhouses) on post-harvest quality of different tomato varieties was discussed. It was also examined the effects of storage of fruits at low temperatures. For the measurement of volatile aroma compounds, essential for the taste, a new method was developed based on PTR-MS coupled to an “artificial mouth”. In this manner, the aroma substances profile could be measured as that released into the mouth during eating of the tomatoes. Cold storage leads to a rapid decrease of important flavor substances, and also shows the connection with the depletion of compounds important for the color red mainly lycopene. After warming up, not all flavors back to previous levels and less desirable substances (off-flavors) are also produced. The results provide guidance on how the cold tolerance of the varieties can be improved.

Signal transduction pathway(s) in guard cells after prolonged exposure to low vapour pressure deficit
Ali Niaei Fard, S. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ernst Woltering, co-promotor(en): Uulke van Meeteren. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570627 - 167
arabidopsis thaliana - vicia faba - dampdruk - verdroging - huidmondjes - abscisinezuur - signaaltransductie - plantenfysiologie - arabidopsis thaliana - vicia faba - vapour pressure - desiccation - stomata - abscisic acid - signal transduction - plant physiology

Keywords: Abscisic acid, Arabidopsis thaliana, calcium, CYP707As, desiccation, environmental factors, guard cells’ signalling pathway, hydrogen peroxide, natural variation, nitric oxide, photosystem II efficiency, RD29A, relative water content, secondary messengers, stomata, vapour pressure deficit, Vicia faba

In short-term, guard cells close stomata in response to an increase in vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and they open the stomata after exposure to low VPDs. However, in long-term responses to low VPD, adaptation processes occur which make stomata less sensitive to stimuli which usually induce stomatal closure (stomatal malfunctioning). Cellular mechanism(s) leading to occurrence of stomatal malfunctioning is (are) still unknown. The aim of this project was to elucidate the processes that are involved in the malfunctioning of stomata after long-term exposure to low VPD. To elucidate whether the problem of stomatal malfunctioning is due to alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signalling pathway, fava bean plants were grown at low or moderate VPDs and some plants that developed their leaves at moderate VPD were then transferred for four days to low VPD. Leaf anatomical and stomatal morphological alterations due to low VPD were not the main reason of stomatal malfunctioning in response to ABA and desiccation. Within one day exposure to low VPD, the level of foliar ABA decreased to the same level as in low VPD-grown plants, while the level of ABA-glucose ester was not affected. Spraying ABA during a 4-day exposure to low VPD maintained closing ability of the stomata after 4-day low VPD-exposure. Therefore, alteration in the signalling pathways due to low foliar ABA level was recognized as the main reason for stomatal malfunctioning after long-term low VPD-exposure. Coincidence in changes of Ca2+, ABA receptors, and positive and negative regulators of ABA signalling are proposed as early steps for stomatal malfunctioning induced by low VPD-exposure. Transcriptional activators, transcriptional repressors as well as E3 ligases are proposed for long-term adaptation of cellular processes which consequently cause decreased stomatal response to closing stimuli afterwards. In order to find the molecular mechanism(s) of stomatal malfunctioning, possible variation in stomatal response to closing stimuli was studied among Arabidopsis thaliana accessions after a 4-day low VPD-exposure. Accessions could be grouped to very sensitive, moderately sensitive and less sensitive to closing stimuli using principle component analysis. A positive correlation was found between foliar ABA level (before desiccation) and stomatal closure response to ABA (but not to desiccation) after exposure to different VPDs. Stomatal response to desiccation was positively correlated with the foliar ABA level after desiccation. In order to elucidate the molecular network underlying stomatal malfunctioning in response to ABA due to long-term low VPD-exposure, two groups of Arabidopsis accessions were used as accessions that maintained responsiveness to ABA after low VPD-exposure and accessions with low VPD induced non-ABA-responsive stomata. The foliar ABA content in all accessions correlated with the stomatal response to ABA: only when the ABA level was above a threshold value, stomata responded to ABA. After low VPD-exposure, mainly due to catabolism of ABA, the foliar ABA content decreased. This decrease in ABA level resulted in down regulation of RD29A, which caused decreased stomatal responsiveness to ABA.

Hout- en bastkevers bij jonge eiken
Sluis, B.J. van der - \ 2014
quercus - plantenplagen - houtboorders - coleoptera - maatregelen - plantgezondheid - preventie - openbaar groen - plant pests - wood borers - measures - plant health - prevention - public green areas
Zowel de boomkwekerijsector, als groenbeheerders, ondervinden problemen met stamschade in eik door hout- en bastboorders. Bomen met duidelijke symptomen (gaatjes) zijn grotendeels onverkoopbaar en dit leidt tot aanzienlijke financiële schade in de laanboomsector. Mogelijke oplossingen zijn niet of beperkt ontwikkeld. Doel van dit onderzoek was om de ernst van het hout- en bastboorders probleem bij Quercus in kaart te brengen, zowel op de kwekerijen als bij de eindgebruiker. Bestaande informatie uit de literatuur is verzameld en er is een aanzet voor een beheers strategie gegeven.
Its life ... but not as we know it : innovations in postharvest technology to support global trade of fresh produce
Woltering, Ernst - \ 2014
fresh products - storage losses - storage decay - agro distribution - international trade - international transport - controlled atmospheres
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