Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Werkt ontwikkelingshulp? Test het als medicijnen
Bulte, Erwin - \ 2019
Making them visible and usable — vegetation-plot observations from Fennoscandia based on historical species-quantity scales
Pätsch, Ricarda ; Jašková, Anni ; Chytrý, Milan ; Kucherov, Ilya B. ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Bergmeier, Erwin ; Janssen, John A.M. - \ 2019
Applied Vegetation Science (2019). - ISSN 1402-2001
cover abundance scales - data standardization - Drude scale - European vegetation - Hult–Sernander scale - Norrlin scale - north European countries - phytosociology - plant density measures - scale transformation - species abundance - vegetation records

Aims: Present-day large-scale and plot-based vegetation analyses contribute to the transnational characterization and interpretation of biodiversity patterns and to habitat typologies, which are important for planning, monitoring and decision making in nature conservation. Many historical vegetation surveys applied cover abundance, relative occurrence or density scales (species-quantity scales) that are nowadays poorly known and consequently disregarded or misinterpreted. Therefore, it is worthwhile to put effort into making them compatible with the datasets sampled using mainstream methods. Within Europe, this especially applies to historical data from Fennoscandia. Here, we aim to propose how to transform the species-quantity scales frequently used in Fennoscandia into percentage cover scales, based on the conversion of their individual grades. Study area: Fennoscandia, including Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Fennoscandian part of Russia (Republic of Karelia, Karelian Isthmus, Murmansk Region). Methods and results: We inventoried Fennoscandian vegetation plot studies and identified that the most frequently applied species-quantity scales were those of Norrlin, Hult–Sernander and Drude. We reviewed the definitions and applications of these scales in the literature and, if not available, calculated hypothetical species covers to approximate realistic conversions to the percentage scale. As a result, we propose alternative ways of conversion of the individual scale grades to mid-percentage cover values. Conclusion: Historical vegetation plot data from Fennoscandia can be used as quantitative information for vegetation research if their grades are consistently transformed into percentage cover values using the proposals presented in this paper.

Legal pluralism in post-conflict Sierra Leone
Naso, Pedro ; Bulte, Erwin ; Swanson, Tim - \ 2019
European Journal of Political Economy (2019). - ISSN 0176-2680
Africa - Civil war - Enforcement externalities - Legal dualism

We examine the interaction between two legal systems in post-conflict Sierra Leone. To do that, we measure the impact of competition between state and non-state legal authorities on the number of disputes and on the amount of fines charged per dispute. Our results suggest a potential negative externality between regimes for civil disputes that is, an increase in the cost of apprehending a person and a reduction in the amount of fines per dispute collected when two regimes operate in the same village. This indicates that a potential benefit to the local people from multiple competing regimes is a reduction on expected authoritative expropriation.

A protocol to develop Shared Socio-economic Pathways for European agriculture
Mitter, Hermine ; Techen, Anja K. ; Sinabell, Franz ; Helming, Katharina ; Kok, Kasper ; Priess, Jörg A. ; Schmid, Erwin ; Bodirsky, Benjamin L. ; Holman, Ian ; Lehtonen, Heikki ; Leip, Adrian ; Mouël, Chantal Le; Mathijs, Erik ; Mehdi, Bano ; Michetti, Melania ; Mittenzwei, Klaus ; Mora, Olivier ; Øygarden, Lillian ; Reidsma, Pytrik ; Schaldach, Rüdiger ; Schönhart, Martin - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Management 252 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4797
Climate change - Consistent storylines - Eur-Agri-SSP - Integrated assessment - Narrative - Social environmental system

Moving towards a more sustainable future requires concerted actions, particularly in the context of global climate change. Integrated assessments of agricultural systems (IAAS) are considered valuable tools to provide sound information for policy and decision-making. IAAS use storylines to define socio-economic and environmental framework assumptions. While a set of qualitative global storylines, known as the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), is available to inform integrated assessments at large scales, their spatial resolution and scope is insufficient for regional studies in agriculture. We present a protocol to operationalize the development of Shared Socio-economic Pathways for European agriculture – Eur-Agri-SSPs – to support IAAS. The proposed design of the storyline development process is based on six quality criteria: plausibility, vertical and horizontal consistency, salience, legitimacy, richness and creativity. Trade-offs between these criteria may occur. The process is science-driven and iterative to enhance plausibility and horizontal consistency. A nested approach is suggested to link storylines across scales while maintaining vertical consistency. Plausibility, legitimacy, salience, richness and creativity shall be stimulated in a participatory and interdisciplinary storyline development process. The quality criteria and process design requirements are combined in the protocol to increase conceptual and methodological transparency. The protocol specifies nine working steps. For each step, suitable methods are proposed and the intended level and format of stakeholder engagement are discussed. A key methodological challenge is to link global SSPs with regional perspectives provided by the stakeholders, while maintaining vertical consistency and stakeholder buy-in. We conclude that the protocol facilitates systematic development and evaluation of storylines, which can be transferred to other regions, sectors and scales and supports inter-comparisons of IAAS.

Molecular ecology of the yet uncultured bacterial Ct85-cluster in the mammalian gut
Hynönen, Ulla ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Virtala, Anna Maija K. ; Shetty, Sudarshan ; Hasan, Shah ; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia ; Vos, Willem M. de; Palva, Airi - \ 2019
Anaerobe (2019). - ISSN 1075-9964
16S rRNA - IBS - Intestinal microbiota - Typing - Uncultured

In our previous studies on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) –associated microbiota by molecular methods, we demonstrated that a particular 16S rRNA gene amplicon was more abundant in the feces of healthy subjects or mixed type IBS (IBS-M) –sufferers than in the feces of individuals with diarrhea-type IBS (IBS-D). In the current study, we demonstrated that this, so called Ct85-amplicon, consists of a cluster of very heterogeneous 16S rRNA gene sequences, and defined six 16S rRNA gene types, a to f, within this cluster, each representing a novel species-, genus- or family level taxon. We then designed specific PCR primers for these sequence types, mapped the distribution of the Ct85-cluster sequences and that of the newly defined sequence types in several animal species and compared the sequence types present in the feces of healthy individuals and IBS sufferers using two IBS study cohorts, Finnish and Dutch. Various Ct85-cluster sequence types were detected in the fecal samples of several companion and production animal species with remarkably differing prevalences and abundances. The Ct85 sequence type composition of swine closely resembled that of humans. One of the five types (d) shared between humans and swine was not present in any other animals tested, while one sequence type (b) was found only in human samples. In both IBS study cohorts, one type (e) was more prevalent in healthy individuals than in the IBS-M group. By revealing various sequence types in the widespread Ct85-cluster and their distribution, the results improve our understanding of these uncultured bacteria, which is essential for future efforts to cultivate representatives of the Ct85-cluster and reveal their roles in IBS.

Participatory impact assessment of sustainability and resilience of EU farming systems
Paas, W.H. ; Accatino, Francesco ; Antonioli, F. ; Appel, Franziska ; Bardají, Isabel ; Coopmans, Isabeau ; Courtney, Paul ; Gavrilescu, Camelia ; Heinrich, Florian ; Krupin, Vitalli ; Manevska-Tasevska, Gordana ; Neumeister, D. ; Peneva, Mariya ; Rommel, Jens ; Severini, Simone ; Soriano, Bárbara ; Tudor, Monica ; Urquhart, Julie ; Wauters, Erwin ; Zawalińska, Katarzyna ; Meuwissen, M.P.M. ; Reidsma, P. - \ 2019
- 66 p.
Tied Labour, Savings and Rural Labour Market Wages: Evidence from a Framed Field Experiment
Nanyiti, Aisha ; Pamuk, Haki ; Bulte, Erwin - \ 2019
Journal of African Economies 28 (2019)4. - ISSN 0963-8024 - p. 435 - 454.
rural labour markets - savings - tied labour

How does the introduction of tied labour or a saving product affect labour market decisions and wages in rural agricultural labour markets? We develop a theoretical model of labour tying that incorporates diminishing marginal returns to consumption and inequality (behindness) aversion in the context of a rural agricultural labour market with seasonally fluctuating demand for labour, and test model predictions using a framed field experiment (modified ultimatum game) in rural Uganda. Our main findings are that (1) wages fluctuate with productivity, (2) access to tied contracts decreases wages for casual labour and (3) access to a saving technology does not improve wages for tied labour. Consistent with model predictions and earlier theory, we empirically find that income for workers goes down (and income for landlords goes up) if an institutional innovation enables consumption smoothing by workers (tied contracts or a saving technology).

Effectmodules in het Deltaprogramma Zoetwater : van hydrologisch effect naareconomisch effect van droogte
Schasfoort, Femke ; Jong, Jurjen de; Meijers, Erwin ; Mulder, Martin - \ 2019
Delft : Deltares - 98
Sugar Beet Pectin Supplementation Did Not Alter Profiles of Fecal Microbiota and Exhaled Breath in Healthy Young Adults and Healthy Elderly
An, Ran ; Wilms, Ellen ; Smolinska, Agnieszka ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Masclee, Ad A.M. ; Vos, Paul de; Schols, Henk A. ; Schooten, Frederik J. van; Smidt, Hauke ; Jonkers, Daisy M.A.E. ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Troost, Freddy J. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2072-6643
aging - dietary fiber - elderly - exhaled air - microbiota - pectin - young adults

Aging is accompanied with increased frailty and comorbidities, which is potentially associated with microbiome perturbations. Dietary fibers could contribute to healthy aging by beneficially impacting gut microbiota and metabolite profiles. We aimed to compare young adults with elderly and investigate the effect of pectin supplementation on fecal microbiota composition, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. Fifty-two young adults and 48 elderly consumed 15 g/day sugar beet pectin or maltodextrin for four weeks. Fecal and exhaled breath samples were collected before and after the intervention period. Fecal samples were used for microbiota profiling by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and for analysis of SCFAs by gas chromatography (GC). Breath was used for VOC analysis by GC-tof-MS. Young adults and elderly showed similar fecal SCFA and exhaled VOC profiles. Additionally, fecal microbiota profiles were similar, with five genera significantly different in relative abundance. Pectin supplementation did not significantly alter fecal microbiota, SCFA or exhaled VOC profiles in elderly or young adults. In conclusion, aside from some minor differences in microbial composition, healthy elderly and young adults showed comparable fecal microbiota composition and activity, which were not altered by pectin supplementation.

Unconditional Transfers and Tropical Forest Conservation: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial in Sierra Leone
Wilebore, Beccy ; Voors, Maarten ; Bulte, Erwin H. ; Coomes, David ; Kontoleon, Andreas - \ 2019
American Journal of Agricultural Economics 101 (2019)3. - ISSN 0002-9092 - p. 894 - 918.
Africa - conservation - field experiments - land cover classification - randomized control trials - Sierra Leone - tropical deforestation - unconditional payments

Unconditional conservation payments are increasingly used by non-governmental conservation organizations to further their environmental objectives. One key objective in many conservation projects that use such unconditional payments schemes is the protection of tropical forest ecosystems in buffer zone areas around protected parks where the scope of instating mandatory restrictions is more limited. We use a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impact of unconditional livelihood payments to local communities on land use outside a protected area-the Gola Rainforest National Park-which is a biodiversity hotspot on the border of Sierra Leone and Liberia. High resolution RapidEye satellite imagery from before and after the intervention was used to determine land use changes in treated and control villages. We find support for the hypothesis that unconditional payments, in this setting, increase land clearance in the short run. The study constitutes one of the first attempts to use evidence from a randomized control trial to evaluate the efficacy of conservation payments and provides insights for further research.

Het monster van Loch Ness was echt geen reuzenpaling
Winter, Erwin - \ 2019
Microbial communities in a dynamic in vitro model for the human ileum resemble the human ileal microbiota
Stolaki, Maria ; Minekus, Mans ; Venema, Koen ; Lahti, Leo ; Smid, Eddy J. ; Kleerebezem, Michiel ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. - \ 2019
FEMS microbiology ecology 95 (2019)8. - ISSN 0168-6496
in vitro model - gut health - ileum - microbial diversity - microbiota - short chain fatty acids

The important role for the human small intestinal microbiota in health and disease has been widely acknowledged. However, the difficulties encountered in accessing the small intestine in a non-invasive way in healthy subjects have limited the possibilities to study its microbiota. In this study, a dynamic in vitro model that simulates the human ileum was developed, including its microbiota. Ileostomy effluent and fecal inocula were employed to cultivate microbial communities within the in vitro model. Microbial stability was repetitively achieved after 10 days of model operation with bacterial concentrations reaching on average 107 to 108 16S rRNA copy numbers/ml. High diversities similar to those observed in in vivo ileum samples were achieved at steady state using both fecal and ileostomy effluent inocula. Functional stability based on Short Chain Fatty Acid concentrations was reached after 10 days of operation using fecal inocula, but was not reached with ileostomy effluent as inoculum. Principal Components and cluster analysis of the phylogenetic profiles revealed that in vitro samples at steady state clustered closest to two samples obtained from the terminal ileum of healthy individuals, independent of the inoculum used, demonstrating that the in vitro microbiota at steady state resembles that of the human ileum.

Liquidity constraints, informal institutions, and the adoption of weather insurance: A randomized controlled Trial in Ethiopia
Belissa, Temesgen ; Bulte, Erwin ; Cecchi, Francesco ; Gangopadhyay, Shubhashis ; Lensink, Robert - \ 2019
Journal of Development Economics 140 (2019). - ISSN 0304-3878 - p. 269 - 278.

We report the results of a drought insurance experiment in Ethiopia, and examine whether uptake of index-based insurance is enhanced if we allow farmers to pay after harvest (addressing a liquidity constraint). We also test to what extent uptake can be enhanced by promoting insurance via informal risk-sharing institutions (Iddirs), to reduce trust and information problems. The delayed payment insurance product increases uptake substantially when compared to standard insurance, from 8% to 24%, and leveraging informal institutions results in even greater uptake (43%). We also find suggestive evidence that the delayed premium product is indeed better at targeting the liquidity constrained. However, default rates associated with delayed payments are relatively high and concentrated in a small number of Iddirs – potentially compromising the economic viability of the novel product. We discuss how default rates can be reduced.

The Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison phase 1 simulation dataset
Müller, Christoph ; Elliott, Joshua ; Kelly, David ; Arneth, Almut ; Balkovic, Juraj ; Ciais, Philippe ; Deryng, Delphine ; Folberth, Christian ; Hoek, Steven ; Izaurralde, Roberto C. ; Jones, Curtis D. ; Khabarov, Nikolay ; Lawrence, Peter ; Liu, Wenfeng ; Olin, Stefan ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Reddy, Ashwan ; Rosenzweig, Cynthia ; Ruane, Alex C. ; Sakurai, Gen ; Schmid, Erwin ; Skalsky, Rastislav ; Wang, Xuhui ; Wit, Allard de; Yang, Hong - \ 2019
Scientific Data 6 (2019). - ISSN 2052-4463 - 22 p.

The Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) phase 1 dataset of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) provides an unprecedentedly large dataset of crop model simulations covering the global ice-free land surface. The dataset consists of annual data fields at a spatial resolution of 0.5 arc-degree longitude and latitude. Fourteen crop modeling groups provided output for up to 11 historical input datasets spanning 1901 to 2012, and for up to three different management harmonization levels. Each group submitted data for up to 15 different crops and for up to 14 output variables. All simulations were conducted for purely rainfed and near-perfectly irrigated conditions on all land areas irrespective of whether the crop or irrigation system is currently used there. With the publication of the GGCMI phase 1 dataset we aim to promote further analyses and understanding of crop model performance, potential relationships between productivity and environmental impacts, and insights on how to further improve global gridded crop model frameworks. We describe dataset characteristics and individual model setup narratives.

Farm-household financial interactions: A case-study from Flanders, Belgium
Wauters, Erwin ; Mey, Yann de - \ 2019
Agricultural Systems 174 (2019). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 63 - 72.
Diversification - Farm-household financial interactions - Off-farm income - Pluri-activity - Risk balancing

Farm-household financial interactions (FHFI), the intermingling of business finances with household finances, is a largely uninvestigated phenomenon in Europe. This is partly because of data scarcity as the main farm-level accounting database, the FADN, does not include financial information at the household level. Based on primary survey data from Flanders (Belgium), we develop a proxy indicator for FHFI and explore its determinants and impact on future farm performance. Our results show substantive FHFI within Flemish farm households. The results further suggest that it could be interpreted as a deliberate risk management strategy, as we observe greater FHFI in farms operated by more risk averse farmers and with higher levels of financial risk. Nevertheless, more intense FHFI are associated with lower future farm performance. Hence, questions relating to its effect on long-term survival and adaptive capacity remain.

Trust, regulation and participatory forest management : Micro-level evidence on forest governance from Ethiopia
Kahsay, Goytom Abraha ; Bulte, Erwin - \ 2019
World Development 120 (2019). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 118 - 132.
Forest management - Forest user groups - Institutions - Social capital - Trust

A small literature investigates the co-evolution of culture and institutions (formal regulation). We present new micro-level evidence on the relationship between culture and institutions in forest resource management. Using data on forest user groups in Ethiopia, we document a negative correlation between various measures of trust and the degree of formalization of forest monitoring and extraction. Additional analysis suggests the nature of this relation is causal: groups with low level of trust implement more extensive rules to govern monitoring and extraction of their forest resource. This is consistent with the idea that trust and rules are substitutes in natural resource management.

Impact van verschillende visserijvormen op trekvissen
Rijssel, Jacco van; Puijenbroek, Marinka van den; Schilder, Karen ; Winter, Erwin - \ 2019
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C046/19) - 183
sPlot – A new tool for global vegetation analyses
Bruelheide, Helge ; Dengler, Jürgen ; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja ; Purschke, Oliver ; Hennekens, Stephan M. ; Chytrý, Milan ; Pillar, Valério D. ; Jansen, Florian ; Kattge, Jens ; Sandel, Brody ; Aubin, Isabelle ; Biurrun, Idoia ; Field, Richard ; Haider, Sylvia ; Jandt, Ute ; Lenoir, Jonathan ; Peet, Robert K. ; Peyre, Gwendolyn ; Sabatini, Francesco Maria ; Schmidt, Marco ; Schrodt, Franziska ; Winter, Marten ; Aćić, Svetlana ; Agrillo, Emiliano ; Alvarez, Miguel ; Ambarlı, Didem ; Angelini, Pierangela ; Apostolova, Iva ; Arfin Khan, Mohammed A.S. ; Arnst, Elise ; Attorre, Fabio ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Beckmann, Michael ; Berg, Christian ; Bergeron, Yves ; Bergmeier, Erwin ; Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Bondareva, Viktoria ; Borchardt, Peter ; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán ; Boyle, Brad ; Breen, Amy ; Brisse, Henry ; Byun, Chaeho ; Cabido, Marcelo R. ; Casella, Laura ; Cayuela, Luis ; Černý, Tomáš ; Chepinoga, Victor ; Csiky, János ; Curran, Michael ; Ćušterevska, Renata ; Dajić Stevanović, Zora ; Bie, Els De; Ruffray, Patrice de; Sanctis, Michele De; Dimopoulos, Panayotis ; Dressler, Stefan ; Ejrnæs, Rasmus ; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.E.R.M. ; Enquist, Brian ; Ewald, Jörg ; Fagúndez, Jaime ; Finckh, Manfred ; Font, Xavier ; Forey, Estelle ; Fotiadis, Georgios ; García-Mijangos, Itziar ; Gasper, André Luis de; Golub, Valentin ; Gutierrez, Alvaro G. ; Hatim, Mohamed Z. ; He, Tianhua ; Higuchi, Pedro ; Holubová, Dana ; Hölzel, Norbert ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Indreica, Adrian ; Işık Gürsoy, Deniz ; Jansen, Steven ; Janssen, John ; Jedrzejek, Birgit ; Jiroušek, Martin ; Jürgens, Norbert ; Kącki, Zygmunt ; Kavgacı, Ali ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kessler, Michael ; Knollová, Ilona ; Kolomiychuk, Vitaliy ; Korolyuk, Andrey ; Kozhevnikova, Maria ; Kozub, Łukasz ; Krstonošić, Daniel ; Kühl, Hjalmar ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Kuzemko, Anna ; Küzmič, Filip ; Landucci, Flavia ; Lee, Michael T. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Li, Ching Feng ; Liu, Hongyan ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lysenko, Tatiana ; Macanović, Armin ; Mahdavi, Parastoo ; Manning, Peter ; Marcenò, Corrado ; Martynenko, Vassiliy ; Mencuccini, Maurizio ; Minden, Vanessa ; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold ; Moretti, Marco ; Müller, Jonas V. ; Munzinger, Jérôme ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Nobis, Marcin ; Noroozi, Jalil ; Nowak, Arkadiusz ; Onyshchenko, Viktor ; Overbeck, Gerhard E. ; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Pauchard, Anibal ; Pedashenko, Hristo ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Pérez-Haase, Aaron ; Peterka, Tomáš ; Petřík, Petr ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Prokhorov, Vadim ; Rašomavičius, Valerijus ; Revermann, Rasmus ; Rodwell, John ; Ruprecht, Eszter ; Rūsiņa, Solvita ; Samimi, Cyrus ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Schmiedel, Ute ; Šibík, Jozef ; Šilc, Urban ; Škvorc, Željko ; Smyth, Anita ; Sop, Tenekwetche ; Sopotlieva, Desislava ; Sparrow, Ben ; Stančić, Zvjezdana ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Swacha, Grzegorz ; Tang, Zhiyao ; Tsiripidis, Ioannis ; Turtureanu, Pavel Dan ; Uğurlu, Emin ; Uogintas, Domas ; Valachovič, Milan ; Vanselow, Kim André ; Vashenyak, Yulia ; Vassilev, Kiril ; Vélez-Martin, Eduardo ; Venanzoni, Roberto ; Vibrans, Alexander Christian ; Violle, Cyrille ; Virtanen, Risto ; Wehrden, Henrik von; Wagner, Viktoria ; Walker, Donald A. ; Wana, Desalegn ; Weiher, Evan ; Wesche, Karsten ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Willner, Wolfgang ; Wiser, Susan ; Wohlgemuth, Thomas ; Yamalov, Sergey ; Zizka, Georg ; Zverev, Andrei - \ 2019
Journal of Vegetation Science 30 (2019)2. - ISSN 1100-9233 - p. 161 - 186.
biodiversity - community ecology - ecoinformatics - functional diversity - global scale - macroecology - phylogenetic diversity - plot database - sPlot - taxonomic diversity - vascular plant - vegetation relevé

Aims: Vegetation-plot records provide information on the presence and cover or abundance of plants co-occurring in the same community. Vegetation-plot data are spread across research groups, environmental agencies and biodiversity research centers and, thus, are rarely accessible at continental or global scales. Here we present the sPlot database, which collates vegetation plots worldwide to allow for the exploration of global patterns in taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity at the plant community level. Results: sPlot version 2.1 contains records from 1,121,244 vegetation plots, which comprise 23,586,216 records of plant species and their relative cover or abundance in plots collected worldwide between 1885 and 2015. We complemented the information for each plot by retrieving climate and soil conditions and the biogeographic context (e.g., biomes) from external sources, and by calculating community-weighted means and variances of traits using gap-filled data from the global plant trait database TRY. Moreover, we created a phylogenetic tree for 50,167 out of the 54,519 species identified in the plots. We present the first maps of global patterns of community richness and community-weighted means of key traits. Conclusions: The availability of vegetation plot data in sPlot offers new avenues for vegetation analysis at the global scale.

Women's empowerment and domestic abuse: Experimental evidence from Vietnam
Bulte, Erwin ; Lensink, Robert - \ 2019
European Economic Review 115 (2019). - ISSN 0014-2921 - p. 172 - 191.
Domestic abuse - Gender training - Spousal violence

Intimate partner violence is an important global health problem that policy makers seek to address by a variety of interventions, including efforts to promote “women's empowerment.” We use data from a randomized control trial in Vietnam and find that this strategy may backfire: women who participated in a gender and entrepreneurship training program suffer more frequent abuse than women in the control group. We conjecture that increased female income is the mechanism linking the training program to domestic violence. We also make a methodological contribution and show that the outcomes of our impact analysis depend on how we measure intimate partner violence.

State-of-the-art global models underestimate impacts from climate extremes
Schewe, Jacob ; Gosling, Simon N. ; Reyer, Christopher ; Zhao, Fang ; Ciais, Philippe ; Elliott, Joshua ; Francois, Louis ; Huber, Veronika ; Lotze, Heike K. ; Seneviratne, Sonia I. ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. Van; Vautard, Robert ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Breuer, Lutz ; Büchner, Matthias ; Carozza, David A. ; Chang, Jinfeng ; Coll, Marta ; Deryng, Delphine ; Wit, Allard De; Eddy, Tyler D. ; Folberth, Christian ; Frieler, Katja ; Friend, Andrew D. ; Gerten, Dieter ; Gudmundsson, Lukas ; Hanasaki, Naota ; Ito, Akihiko ; Khabarov, Nikolay ; Kim, Hyungjun ; Lawrence, Peter ; Morfopoulos, Catherine ; Müller, Christoph ; Müller Schmied, Hannes ; Orth, René ; Ostberg, Sebastian ; Pokhrel, Yadu ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Sakurai, Gen ; Satoh, Yusuke ; Schmid, Erwin ; Stacke, Tobias ; Steenbeek, Jeroen ; Steinkamp, Jörg ; Tang, Qiuhong ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tittensor, Derek P. ; Volkholz, Jan ; Wang, Xuhui ; Warszawski, Lila - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723
Global impact models represent process-level understanding of how natural and human systems may be affected by climate change. Their projections are used in integrated assessments of climate change. Here we test, for the first time, systematically across many important systems, how well such impact models capture the impacts of extreme climate conditions. Using the 2003 European heat wave and drought as a historical analogue for comparable events in the future, we find that a majority of models underestimate the extremeness of impacts in important sectors such as agriculture, terrestrial ecosystems, and heat-related human mortality, while impacts on water resources and hydropower are overestimated in some river basins; and the spread across models is often large. This has important implications for economic assessments of climate change impacts that rely on these models. It also means that societal risks from future extreme events may be greater than previously thought.
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