Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Waddenzeevis en swimway
    Tulp, Ingrid ; Bolle, Loes ; Winter, Erwin ; Couperus, Bram - \ 2020
    Pain patterns in chronic pancreatitis : a nationwide longitudinal cohort study
    Kempeneers, Marinus A. ; Issa, Yama ; Verdonk, Robert C. ; Bruno, Marco ; Fockens, P. ; Goor, Harry van; Alofs, Eline ; Bollen, Thomas L. ; Bouwense, Stefan ; Dalen, Anne S.H.M. van; Dieren, Susan van; Dullemen, Hendrik M. van; Geenen, Erwin Jan van; Hoge, Chantal ; Hooft, Jeanin E. van; Kager, Liesbeth M. ; Keulemans, Yolande ; Nooijen, Lynn E. ; Poley, Jan Werner ; Seerden, Tom C.J. ; Tan, Adriaan ; Thijs, Willem ; Timmer, Robin ; Vleggaar, Frank ; Witteman, Ben ; Ahmed Ali, Usama ; Besselink, Marc G. ; Boermeester, Marja A. ; Santvoort, Hjalmar C. van - \ 2020
    Gut (2020). - ISSN 0017-5749 - 10 p.
    chronic pancreatitis - endoscopy - intractable pain - pancreatic surgery - quality of life

    Objective: Pain in chronic pancreatitis is subdivided in a continuous or intermittent pattern, each thought to represent a different entity, requiring specific treatment. Because evidence is missing, we studied pain patterns in a prospective longitudinal nationwide study. Design: 1131 patients with chronic pancreatitis (fulfilling M-ANNHEIM criteria) were included between 2011 and 2018 in 30 Dutch hospitals. Patients with continuous or intermittent pain were compared for demographics, pain characteristics, quality of life (Short-Form 36), imaging findings, disease duration and treatment. Alternation of pain pattern and associated variables were longitudinally assessed using a multivariable multinomial logistic regression model. Results: At inclusion, 589 patients (52%) had continuous pain, 231 patients (20%) had intermittent pain and 311 patients (28%) had no pain. Patients with continuous pain had more severe pain, used more opioids and neuropathic pain medication, and had a lower quality of life. There were no differences between pain patterns for morphological findings on imaging, disease duration and treatment. During a median follow-up of 47 months, 552 of 905 patients (61%) alternated at least once between pain patterns. All alternations were associated with the Visual Analogue Scale pain intensity score and surgery was only associated with the change from pain to no pain. Conclusion: Continuous and intermittent pain patterns in chronic pancreatitis do not seem to be the result of distinctly different pathophysiological entities. The subjectively reported character of pain is not related to imaging findings or disease duration. Pain patterns often change over time and are merely a feature of how severity of pain is experienced.

    Tree mode of death and mortality risk factors across Amazon forests
    Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Chao, Kuo Jung ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Higuchi, Niro ; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanne ; Lloyd, Jon ; Liu, Haiyan ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Poorter, Lourens ; Silveira, Marcos ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Dávila, Esteban Alvarez ; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon del; Almeida, Everton ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Baisie, Michel ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Blanc, Lilian ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Boot, René ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerome ; Comiskey, James ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Costa, Antonio Lola da; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Erwin, Terry ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Herrera, Rafael ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Killeen, Timothy ; Laurance, Susan ; Laurance, William ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Ladvocat, Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaço ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Meir, Patrick ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Morandi, Paulo ; Neill, David ; Nogueira Lima, Adriano José ; Vargas, Percy Nuñez ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Pardo, Guido ; Peacock, Julie ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Prieto, Adriana ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Quesada, Carlos ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Rejou-Machain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Rudas, Agustín ; Salomão, Rafael ; Serrano, Julio ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Silva, Natalino ; Singh, James ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Swamy, Varun ; Talbot, Joey ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Toledo, Marisol ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Meer, Peter van der; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Vos, Vincent ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zuidema, Pieter ; Galbraith, David - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    The carbon sink capacity of tropical forests is substantially affected by tree mortality. However, the main drivers of tropical tree death remain largely unknown. Here we present a pan-Amazonian assessment of how and why trees die, analysing over 120,000 trees representing > 3800 species from 189 long-term RAINFOR forest plots. While tree mortality rates vary greatly Amazon-wide, on average trees are as likely to die standing as they are broken or uprooted—modes of death with different ecological consequences. Species-level growth rate is the single most important predictor of tree death in Amazonia, with faster-growing species being at higher risk. Within species, however, the slowest-growing trees are at greatest risk while the effect of tree size varies across the basin. In the driest Amazonian region species-level bioclimatic distributional patterns also predict the risk of death, suggesting that these forests are experiencing climatic conditions beyond their adaptative limits. These results provide not only a holistic pan-Amazonian picture of tree death but large-scale evidence for the overarching importance of the growth–survival trade-off in driving tropical tree mortality.

    Disentangling native and alien plant diversity in coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide
    Tordoni, Enrico ; Bacaro, Giovanni ; Weigelt, Patrick ; Cameletti, Michela ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario ; Bagella, Simonetta ; Filligheddu, Rosella ; Bergmeier, Erwin ; Buckley, Hannah L. ; Ciccarelli, Daniela ; Forey, Estelle ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Lubke, Roy A. ; Mahdavi, Parastoo ; Peet, Robert K. ; Peinado, Manuel ; Sciandrello, Saverio ; Kreft, Holger - \ 2020
    Journal of Vegetation Science (2020). - ISSN 1100-9233 - 13 p.
    Aims: (a) To disentangle the global patterns of native and alien plant diversity on coastal sand dune ecosystems across habitats and floristic kingdoms; (b) to determine the main drivers of variation in species richness in native and alien species in these endangered ecosystems; and (c) to test for an interaction between spatial scale and native–alien richness patterns, as predicted by the invasion paradox.
    Location: Global.
    Methods: We collated a dataset of 14,841 vegetation plots in coastal sand dune ecosystems from around the world. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) and Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) were used to assess the patterns and main ecological determinants underlying native and alien species richness. Variation partitioning revealed the relative importance of environmental and anthropogenic variables.
    Results: GLMs revealed strong differences among both habitats and floristic kingdoms in the number of native and alien species. Specifically, native species richness increased along the sea–inland gradient and was higher in the Cape and Paleotropical kingdoms. In contrast, alien species richness was relatively similar across habitats and kingdoms, though some differences were detected. There were strong differences between the drivers of native and alien richness; anthropogenic factors such as gross domestic product were positively associated with alien richness whereas native richness was more strongly related to environmental factors. Furthermore, we found a weak support for an invasion paradox effect.
    Conclusions: Our results revealed the complexity of causal processes underpinning coastal sand dune plant biodiversity and highlight the importance of considering native and alien species separately. Recognizing these differences while researching variation in biodiversity patterns and processes at multiple spatial scales will lead to a better mechanistic understanding of the causes of invasion worldwide, and in coastal ecosystems in particular, allowing the development of more focused control and management measures.
    Associations between Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Gastro-Intestinal Microbiota, Diet, and Cognitive Functioning in Dutch Healthy Older Adults: The NU-AGE Study
    Soest, Annick P.M. Van; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; De Rest, Ondine Van; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Fuentes, Susana ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Vos, Willem M. De - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)11. - ISSN 2072-6643 - p. 1 - 19.
    Dietary modulation of the gastro-intestinal microbiota is a potential target in improving healthy ageing and age-related functional outcomes, including cognitive decline.We explored the association between diet, gastro-intestinal microbiota and cognition in Dutch healthy older adults of the ‘New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of the elderly population for healthy
    aging in Europe’ (NU-AGE) study. The microbiota profile of 452 fecal samples from 226 subjects was determined using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-targeted microarray. Dietary intake was assessed by 7-day food records. Cognitive functioning was measured with an extensive cognitive test battery.
    We observed a dietary and microbial pro- to anti-inflammatory gradient associated with diets richer in animal- or plant-based foods. Fresh fruits, nuts, seeds and peanuts, red and processed meat and grain products were most strongly associated to microbiota composition. Plant-rich diets containing fresh fruits, nuts, seeds and peanuts were positively correlated with alpha-diversity,
    various taxa from the Bacteroidetes phylum and anti-inflammatory species, including those related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale and E. biforme. Animal product-rich diets associated with pro-inflammatory species, including those related to Ruminococcus gnavus and Collinsella spp..
    Cognition was neither associated with microbiota composition nor alpha-diversity. In conclusion, diets richer in animal- and plant-based foods were related to a pro- and anti-inflammatory microbial profile, while cognition was associated with neither.
    Waterkwaliteit en nutriëntenbalansen Waterschap Hollandse Delta : Analyse van de nutriëntenbelasting, herkomst, achtergrondbelasting en effecten van landbouwmaatregelen in het beheergebied van Waterschap Hollandse Delta
    Boekel, Erwin van; Renaud, Leo ; Schipper, Peter - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2995) - 91
    De Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) schrijft voor dat het oppervlaktewater in 2027 voldoende schoon en ecologisch gezond is. In veel Nederlandse wateren is de nutriëntenbelasting (nog) te hoog om de KRW-doelen te halen. Het Waterschap Hollandse Delta analyseert haar watersystemen om beter inzicht te krijgen in de (on)mogelijkheden om de ecologische toestand te verbeteren. Ter ondersteuning van deze analyse is in dit onderzoek de nutriëntenbelasting en herkomst voor de periode 2006-2013 gekwantificeerd voor de regionale wateren in Voorne-Putten, Hoeksche Waard en Goeree-Overflakkee. Hiertoe zijn in samenwerking met het waterschap de ruimtelijke grenzen van de afwateringsgebieden bepaald en is met de methode ECHO voor deze gebieden een water- en nutriëntenbalans opgesteld. Voor de afwateringsgebieden op IJsselmonde en het Eiland van Dordrecht zijn de belasting en herkomst op een meer globaal niveau gekwantificeerd.Op basis van de herkomst in het zomerhalfjaar zijn voor de KRW-waterlichamen de achtergrondbelasting en achtergrondconcentraties afgeleid door onderscheid te maken tussen antropogene bronnen en overige bronnen die beleidsmatig als natuurlijke of seminatuurlijk kunnen worden beschouwd. Ook is gekwantificeerd hoeveel de af- en uitspoeling uit landbouwgronden afneemt aan het einde van de KRW-planperiode, uitgaande van het generieke mestbeleid conform het 5e NAP en is een scenario berekend waarin diverse DAW-maatregelen worden genomen. De nutriëntenbelasting komt voor een groot deel door af- en uitspoeling van nutriënten vanuit landbouwgronden. Voor stikstof wordt de af- en uitspoeling vooral bepaald door actuele bemesting en in iets mindere mate door (seminatuurlijke) nalevering van de bodem. Voor fosfor wordt de af- en uitspoeling vooral bepaald door historische mestgiften, nalevering uit de landbouwbodem en kwel. RWZI’s hebben slechts in een paar afwateringsgebieden invloed. Andere belangrijke bronnen zijn inlaatwater en stikstofdepositie op open water. In het zomerhalfjaar wordt op Goeree-Overflakkee en Voorne-Putten veel water ingelaten, waardoor de bijdrage hiervan relatief groot is. Op basis van de herkomstanalyse zijn hoge percentages berekend voor de achtergrondbelasting en hiermee ook hoge achtergrondconcentraties van het oppervlaktewater. Met het generieke mestbeleid conform het 5e NAP neemt de af- en uitspoeling uit landbouwgronden tot enkele procenten af. Voor stikstof kan – met een hoge implementatiegraad van Deltaplan Agrarisch Waterbeheer (DAW)-maatregelen – de af- en uitspoeling duidelijk verder afnemen, maar voor fosfor biedt dit weinig potentie.
    Herkomst nutriënten Waterschap Drents Overijsselse Delta : Analyse van de herkomst van nutriënten in het oppervlaktewater, KRW-reductie opgave en maatregelen om de belasting te verminderen
    Boekel, Erwin van; Schipper, Peter ; Renaud, Leo - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2996) - 109
    De Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) schrijft voor dat het oppervlaktewater in 2027 voldoende schoon en ecologisch gezond is. De waterschappen maken hiervoor stroomgebiedsbeheerplannen (SGBP’s) waarin ze beschrijven welke maatregelen ze nemen om deze waterkwaliteitsdoelen te behalen. Inmiddels bereiden de waterschappen zich voor op de besluitvorming voor SGBP3 (2022-2027). Waterschap Drents Overijsselse Delta (WDOD) wil in dit kader beter inzicht krijgen in de nutriëntenbelasting en de herkomst van de nutriënten in hun wateren. Vanuit dit inzicht wil het waterschap weten hoe de belasting met maatregelen effectief kan worden teruggedrongen.In dit onderzoek is de nutriëntenbelasting van het oppervlaktewater voor de periode 2010-2017 gekwantificeerd voor de waterlichamen Drentse Kanalen, Meppelerdiep, Wold Aa, Reest, Oude Vaart, Oude Diep, Raalterwetering en Nieuwe Wetering (Boven- en Benedenloop). Voor deze waterlichamen zijn de vanggebieden (afwateringsgebieden) geografisch bepaald en is in nauwe samenwerking met de hydrologen van het waterschap de stromings- en afwateringsrichting in de zomer en winter bepaald. Met deze informatie is de bronnenanalyse uitgevoerd met de methode ECHO. Hiermee zijn de nutriëntenbelasting van het oppervlaktewater, de herkomst daarvan en de retentie van de nutriënten in het oppervlaktewater gekwantificeerd. De belangrijkste bronnen zijn uit- en afspoeling vanuit landbouwgronden, RWZI’s en inlaat. De verhoudingen hiervan verschillen sterk per deelstroomgebied. In de zomer wordt water ingelaten, hetgeen invloed heeft op zowel de stromingsrichting (tegenstelde richting als in het winterhalfjaar) als de nutriëntenbelasting (vracht en herkomst). Vanuit deze inzichten is berekend wat het effect is van twee typen emissie-reducerende maatregelen op de nutriëntenbelasting: verbetering van rioolwaterzuiveringen (RWZI’s) (schoner effluent) en maatregelen die passen in het Deltaplan Agrarisch Waterbeheer.
    Water-en nutriëntenbalansen oppervlaktewater Flevoland : Water-en nutriëntenbalans en aansluitende analyse herkomst stikstof-en fosforbelasting oppervlaktewaterlichamen in het beheergebied van Waterschap Zuiderzeeland
    Schipper, Peter ; Boekel, Erwin van; Jeurissen, Leonne ; Renaud, Leo ; Hendriks, Rob - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 3009) - 91
    De Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) schrijft voor dat het oppervlaktewater in 2027 voldoende schoon en ecologisch gezond is. De waterschappen stellen samen met gebiedspartners doelen en maatregelprogramma’s op, die opgenomen worden in de nationale stroomgebiedbeheerplannen (SGBP’s). Inmiddels bereiden de waterschappen zich voor op de besluitvorming voor SGBP3 (2022-2027). Waterschap Zuiderzeeland wil in dit kader beter inzicht krijgen in de nutriëntenbelasting en de herkomst van de nutriënten in hun lijnvormige oppervlaktewateren. Vanuit dit inzicht wil het waterschap weten hoe de belasting met maatregelen effectief kan worden teruggedrongen. In dit onderzoek is eerst de water- en nutriëntenbalans opgesteld voor twee pilotgebieden waarvoor gedetailleerde gebieds- en bedrijfsinformatie over de periode 2015-2017 is verzameld door het waterschap. Vanuit de hierin opgedane ervaring is voor het gehele beheergebied van Waterschap Zuiderzeeland de water- en nutriëntenbalans opgesteld met de methode KRW-ECHO. Hierbij is een ruimtelijke indeling gehanteerd van twaalf afwateringsgebieden (vanggebieden) die nagenoeg samenvallen met de KRW-waterlichamen. De stikstof- en fosforbelasting en retentie zijn berekend voor de periode 2010-2017. De belasting wordt vooral bepaald door af- en uitspoeling uit landbouwgronden en in de zomer ook door waterinlaat. Na validatie van de berekende water- en nutriëntenbalansen aan de beschikbare metingen is de herkomst van de nutriënten verder uitgesplitst. De mestgiften zijn in veel gebieden de belangrijkste bron. Andere belangrijke bronnen zijn kwel, nalevering uit landbouwbodems, inlaat Rijkswater, uitspoeling uit natuurgronden en stedelijk gebieden afvalwaterzuiveringsinstallaties (AWZI’s). De verhoudingen hiervan verschillen per gebied.
    Increasing dietary fibre intake in healthy adults using personalised dietary advice compared with general advice : A single-blind randomised controlled trial
    Rijnaarts, Iris ; Roos, Nicole M. De; Wang, Taojun ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Top, Jan ; Timmer, Marielle ; Bouwman, Emily P. ; Hogenelst, Koen ; Witteman, Ben ; Wit, Nicole De - \ 2020
    Public Health Nutrition (2020). - ISSN 1368-9800
    Advice - Dietary fibre - Evaluation - Personalised - Tailored

    Objective:A high-fibre diet is associated with a lower risk for diseases. However, few adults meet the dietary fibre recommendation. Therefore, the effects and acceptance of an algorithm-generated personalised dietary advice (PDA) compared with general advice (GA) on fibre intake were investigated.Design:A 6-week, single-blind randomised controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up.Setting:PDA was based on habitual intake and provided fibre-rich alternatives using a website; GA contained brochures. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline, week 1, week 6 and 3-month follow-up. Both groups evaluated their advice at week 6. All participants had access to PDA from week 7 until 3-month follow-up.Participants:Two groups of healthy adults: PDA (n 34) and GA (n 47). For 3-month follow-up analysis, participants were re-divided into visitors (n 52) and non-visitors (n 26) of the PDA.Results:At week 6, energy intake remained stable in both groups, but fibre intake per 1000 kcal increased non-significantly in both groups (PDA = Δ0·5 ± 2·8; GA = Δ0·8 ± 3·1, P = 0·128). Importantly, a significantly higher percentage of PDA participants adhered to the recommendation compared with week 1 (PDA = 21 % increase; GA = 4 % increase, P ≤ 0·001). PDA participants evaluated the advice significantly better compared with GA participants. At 3-month follow-up, fibre intake increased compared with baseline (visitors = Δ2·2 ± 2·6, P < 0·001; non-visitors = Δ1·5 ± 1·9, P = 0·001), but was insignificantly different between groups. Visitors had a decrease and non-visitors had an increase in energy intake (visitors =Δ- 132 ± 525; non-visitors = Δ109 ± 507, P = 0·055).Conclusions:The algorithm-generated PDA was well accepted and stimulated adherence to the recommendations more than GA, indicating to be a suitable and cost-efficient method for improving dietary fibre intake in healthy adults.

    Empowerment and intimate partner violence : Domestic abuse when household income is uncertain
    Bulte, Erwin ; Lensink, Robert - \ 2020
    Review of Development Economics (2020). - ISSN 1363-6669
    domestic abuse - female empowerment - gender norms - spousal violence

    Intimate partner violence is an important global health problem that remains ill understood. Several studies have documented that female empowerment may increase violence against women—the so-called “male backlash.” We propose a utilitarian explanation for this phenomenon, based on the assumption that violence may be used as an instrument to affect the distribution of the household surplus between the spouses. Our main result is that promoting norms of gender equity (or otherwise enhancing the prospects of divorced women) may inadvertently promote violence against women in settings where production outcomes are uncertain.

    Stimulation of Gastric Transit Function Driven by Hydrolyzed Casein Increases Small Intestinal Carbohydrate Availability and Its Microbial Metabolism
    Shen, Junhua ; Mu, Chunlong ; Wang, Huisong ; Huang, Zan ; Yu, Kaifan ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Zhu, Weiyun - \ 2020
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2020). - ISSN 1613-4125
    carbohydrate metabolism - GI transit - ileal flow - peptides - small intestinal microbe

    Gastrointestinal (GI) functions affect gut nutrient flow and microbial metabolism. Dietary peptides modulate GI functions and improve small intestinal health, but the mechanism remains elusive. This study aims to investigate whether dietary peptides affect small intestinal microbial metabolism, and the underlying mechanisms. An ileal-cannulated pig model is adopted to explore the relationship between gut nutrient flow and microbial metabolism after treatment with hydrolyzed casein (peptides) or intact casein (Control)-based diet. The results demonstrate that hydrolyzed casein enhances microbial carbohydrate metabolism with higher Streptococcus abundance and higher lactate level in the ileum. Meanwhile, hydrolyzed casein increases ileal flows of nutrients, especially carbohydrate, leading to a higher carbohydrate availability in ileal digesta. To unveil the mechanisms, it is found that the hydrolyzed casein enhances the ghrelin signal and improves development of interstitial cells of Cajal and muscular layer in gastric corpus, indicating the enhanced upper GI transit function. In addition, hydrolyzed casein improves small intestinal health, as indicated by higher villus heights and luminal lactate concentrations in the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, hydrolyzed casein stimulates upper GI transit function, enhances gut nutrient flow, and increases small intestinal carbohydrate availability and its microbial metabolism, which favor the small intestinal health.

    Fermentation Kinetics of Selected Dietary Fibers by Human Small Intestinal Microbiota Depend on the Type of Fiber and Subject
    Trijp, Mara P.H. van; Rösch, Christiane ; An, Ran ; Keshtkar, Shohreh ; Logtenberg, Madelon J. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Schols, Henk A. ; Hooiveld, Guido J.E.J. - \ 2020
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 64 (2020)20. - ISSN 1613-4125
    fiber - in vitro fermentation - microbiota - prebiotics - small intestine

    Scope: An underexplored topic is the investigation of health effects of dietary fibers via modulation of human small intestine (SI) microbiota. A few previous studies hint at fermentation of some dietary fibers in the distal SI of humans and pigs. Here the potential of human SI microbiota to degrade dietary fibers and produce metabolites in vitro is investigated. Methods and Results: Fructans, galacto-oligosaccharides, lemon pectins, and isomalto/malto-polysaccharides are subjected to in vitro batch fermentations inoculated with ileostomy effluent from five subjects. Fiber degradation products, formation of bacterial metabolites, and microbiota composition are determined over time. Galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides are rapidly utilized by the SI microbiota of all subjects. At 5h of fermentation, 31%–82% of galacto-oligosaccharides and 29%–89% fructo-oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization DP4-8) are utilized. Breakdown of fructo-oligosaccharides/inulin DP ≥ 10, lemon pectin, and iso-malto/maltopolysaccharides only started after 7h incubation. Degradation of different fibers result in production of mainly acetate, and changed microbiota composition over time. Conclusion: Human SI microbiota have hydrolytic potential for prebiotic galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides. In contrast, the higher molecular weight fibers inulin, lemon pectin, and iso-malto/maltopolysaccharides show slow fermentation rate. Fiber degradation kinetics and microbiota responses are subject dependent, therefore personalized nutritional fiber based strategies are required.

    Shared Socio-economic Pathways for European agriculture and food systems : The Eur-Agri-SSPs
    Mitter, Hermine ; Techen, Anja K. ; Sinabell, Franz ; Helming, Katharina ; Schmid, Erwin ; Bodirsky, Benjamin L. ; Holman, Ian ; Kok, Kasper ; Lehtonen, Heikki ; Leip, Adrian ; Mouël, Chantal Le; Mathijs, Erik ; Mehdi, Bano ; Mittenzwei, Klaus ; Mora, Olivier ; Øistad, Knut ; Øygarden, Lillian ; Priess, Jörg A. ; Reidsma, Pytrik ; Schaldach, Rüdiger ; Schönhart, Martin - \ 2020
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 65 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Consistency - Integrated assessment - Land use - Narrative - Scenario - Storyline development

    Scenarios describe plausible and internally consistent views of the future. They can be used by scientists, policymakers and entrepreneurs to explore the challenges of global environmental change given an appropriate level of spatial and sectoral detail and systematic development. We followed a nine-step protocol to extend and enrich a set of global scenarios – the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) – providing regional and sectoral detail for European agriculture and food systems using a one-to-one nesting participatory approach. The resulting five Eur-Agri-SSPs are titled (1) Agriculture on sustainable paths, (2) Agriculture on established paths, (3) Agriculture on separated paths, (4) Agriculture on unequal paths, and (5) Agriculture on high-tech paths. They describe alternative plausible qualitative evolutions of multiple drivers of particular importance and high uncertainty for European agriculture and food systems. The added value of the protocol-based storyline development process lies in the conceptual and methodological transparency and rigor; the stakeholder driven selection of the storyline elements; and consistency checks within and between the storylines. Compared to the global SSPs, the five Eur-Agri-SSPs provide rich thematic and regional details and are thus a solid basis for integrated assessments of agriculture and food systems and their response to future socio-economic and environmental changes.

    Zenderen van haaien en pijlstaartroggen: medewerking van vissers gevraagd
    Winter, Erwin ; Batsleer, Jurgen - \ 2020
    Microbiome-based stratification to guide dietary interventions to improve human health
    Liu, Zhuang ; Vries, Berna de; Gerritsen, Jacoline ; Smidt, Hauke ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. - \ 2020
    Nutrition Research 82 (2020). - ISSN 0271-5317 - p. 1 - 10.
    Diet - Gut - Health - Microbiome - Personalized nutrition - Stratification

    Diverse evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome is closely associated with overall human health. Modulation of the gut microbiome through nutritional intervention is recognized as a robust and attainable strategy to prevent disorders/diseases and improve human health. However, universal dietary recommendations demonstrated to have different, sometimes even opposite, effects due to the considerable inter-individual variability between subjects, especially in the gut microbiome. Hence, implementation of personalized nutrition or other treatment strategies have been suggested to tackle the individuality problem. A first step into this direction includes the stratification of subjects into specific groups based on their gut microbiome. The gut microbiome could serve as a pool of potential biomarkers for distinguishing “responders” and “non-responders” to specific treatments, which subsequently can be used to classify subjects with ambition to increase treatment efficacy. In this review, we explain the need for human gut microbiome stratification, introduce the concepts and show with specific examples potential options of microbiome-based stratifications. Finally, we propose a strategy for how microbiome-based stratification can be introduced to obtain improvements in dietary efficacy that can be implemented in real-life settings.

    EUNIS Habitat Classification: Expert system, characteristic species combinations and distribution maps of European habitats
    Chytrý, Milan ; Tichý, Lubomír ; Hennekens, Stephan M. ; Knollová, Ilona ; Janssen, John A.M. ; Rodwell, John S. ; Peterka, Tomáš ; Marcenò, Corrado ; Landucci, Flavia ; Danihelka, Jiří ; Hájek, Michal ; Dengler, Jürgen ; Novák, Pavel ; Zukal, Dominik ; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja ; Mucina, Ladislav ; Abdulhak, Sylvain ; Aćić, Svetlana ; Agrillo, Emiliano ; Attorre, Fabio ; Bergmeier, Erwin ; Biurrun, Idoia ; Boch, Steffen ; Bölöni, János ; Bonari, Gianmaria ; Braslavskaya, Tatiana ; Bruelheide, Helge ; Campos, Juan Antonio ; Čarni, Andraž ; Casella, Laura ; Ćuk, Mirjana ; Ćušterevska, Renata ; Bie, Els De; Delbosc, Pauline ; Demina, Olga ; Didukh, Yakiv ; Dítě, Daniel ; Dziuba, Tetiana ; Ewald, Jörg ; Gavilán, Rosario G. ; Gégout, Jean Claude ; Giusso del Galdo, Gian Pietro ; Golub, Valentin ; Goncharova, Nadezhda ; Goral, Friedemann ; Graf, Ulrich ; Indreica, Adrian ; Isermann, Maike ; Jandt, Ute ; Jansen, Florian ; Jansen, Jan ; Jašková, Anni ; Jiroušek, Martin ; Kącki, Zygmunt ; Kalníková, Veronika ; Kavgacı, Ali ; Khanina, Larisa ; Yu. Korolyuk, Andrey ; Kozhevnikova, Mariya ; Kuzemko, Anna ; Küzmič, Filip ; Kuznetsov, Oleg L. ; Laiviņš, Māris ; Lavrinenko, Igor ; Lavrinenko, Olga ; Lebedeva, Maria ; Lososová, Zdeňka ; Lysenko, Tatiana ; Maciejewski, Lise ; Mardari, Constantin ; Marinšek, Aleksander ; Napreenko, Maxim G. ; Onyshchenko, Viktor ; Pérez-Haase, Aaron ; Pielech, Remigiusz ; Prokhorov, Vadim ; Rašomavičius, Valerijus ; Rodríguez Rojo, Maria Pilar ; Rūsiņa, Solvita ; Schrautzer, Joachim ; Šibík, Jozef ; Šilc, Urban ; Škvorc, Željko ; Smagin, Viktor A. ; Stančić, Zvjezdana ; Stanisci, Angela ; Tikhonova, Elena ; Tonteri, Tiina ; Uogintas, Domas ; Valachovič, Milan ; Vassilev, Kiril ; Vynokurov, Denys ; Willner, Wolfgang ; Yamalov, Sergey ; Evans, Douglas ; Palitzsch Lund, Mette ; Spyropoulou, Rania ; Tryfon, Eleni ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. - \ 2020
    Applied Vegetation Science (2020). - ISSN 1402-2001
    coastal habitat - diagnostic species - distribution map - dune vegetation - European Nature Information System (EUNIS) - European Vegetation Archive (EVA) - expert system - forest - grassland - habitat classification - man-made habitat - shrubland - vegetation database - vegetation plot - wetland

    Aim: The EUNIS Habitat Classification is a widely used reference framework for European habitat types (habitats), but it lacks formal definitions of individual habitats that would enable their unequivocal identification. Our goal was to develop a tool for assigning vegetation-plot records to the habitats of the EUNIS system, use it to classify a European vegetation-plot database, and compile statistically-derived characteristic species combinations and distribution maps for these habitats. Location: Europe. Methods: We developed the classification expert system EUNIS-ESy, which contains definitions of individual EUNIS habitats based on their species composition and geographic location. Each habitat was formally defined as a formula in a computer language combining algebraic and set-theoretic concepts with formal logical operators. We applied this expert system to classify 1,261,373 vegetation plots from the European Vegetation Archive (EVA) and other databases. Then we determined diagnostic, constant and dominant species for each habitat by calculating species-to-habitat fidelity and constancy (occurrence frequency) in the classified data set. Finally, we mapped the plot locations for each habitat. Results: Formal definitions were developed for 199 habitats at Level 3 of the EUNIS hierarchy, including 25 coastal, 18 wetland, 55 grassland, 43 shrubland, 46 forest and 12 man-made habitats. The expert system classified 1,125,121 vegetation plots to these habitat groups and 73,188 to other habitats, while 63,064 plots remained unclassified or were classified to more than one habitat. Data on each habitat were summarized in factsheets containing habitat description, distribution map, corresponding syntaxa and characteristic species combination. Conclusions: EUNIS habitats were characterized for the first time in terms of their species composition and distribution, based on a classification of a European database of vegetation plots using the newly developed electronic expert system EUNIS-ESy. The data provided and the expert system have considerable potential for future use in European nature conservation planning, monitoring and assessment.

    Bodemscans voor precisielandbouw : Vergelijking van sensorsystemen in Slootdorp 2019
    Tigchelhoff, Ferry ; Kempenaar, C. ; Esssen, Gilian van; Kleijne, Guus de; Russcher, Erwin ; Nysten, Sylvan - \ 2020
    Dronten : Aeres Hogeschool - 62 p.
    Vanuit de ondernemers van Nationale Proeftuin Precisie Landouw (NPPL) kwam de vraag om verschillende sensorsystemen voor het maken van bodemscans/-kaarten te vergelijken op één en hetzelfde perceel. De vraag speelt met name in op wat de nauwkeurigheid van de bodemscans is en wat mogelijke toepassingen van de verkregen bodeminformatie zijn. Er zijn op het moment diverse leveranciers van bodemscans. Zij gebruiken daarvoor verschillende sensorsystemen, maar wat de precieze mogelijkheden zijn van deze kaarten is niet altijd duidelijk voor de eindgebruikers. Door op één perceel de sensorsystemen te vergelijken, is getracht om dit in een praktijksituatie inzichtelijk te maken. Hierbij zijn de volgende sensorsystemen en leveranciers van bodemscans/-kaarten meegenomen, op een zelfde wijze als in een onderzoek in 2018:• Passieve Gamma Bodemscanner – Loonstra & van der Weide• Veris MSP3 – Vantage Agrometius• BioScope remote sensing – Bioscope• SoilXplorer – CNH• Dualem 21 S – Loonwerk GPS (overgegaan naar Soil Masters per 2020)Om de nauwkeurigheid van de bodemscans te analyseren, zijn er op één perceel met tarwestoppel van een akkerbouwbedrijf in de Wieringenmeer in augustus 2019 een aantal bodemscans uitgevoerd. Daarbij is de leveranciers gevraagd om, indien mogelijk, digitale kaarten van de ruimtelijke variatie in organische stof, lutum en pH op te leveren. In dezelfde periode zijn op het perceel grondmonsters genomen en deze zijn geanalyseerd op organische stof, lutum en pH in een bodemanalyse-laboratorium. De nauwkeurigheid van geleverde kaarten is bepaald met regressieanalyse. De data van de bodemscans is vergeleken met de data van de referentiemonsters. Per kaart zijn twee statistische parameters bepaald: de RMSE en R2. Aan de hand van deze parameters plaatsen we de nauwkeurigheid van de bodescan-kaarten in perspectief.Drie van de vijf sensorsystemen konden pH, lutum en/of organische stof kaarten leveren. De belangrijkste conclusie is dat de absolute fouten, zoals bepaald met de statistische parameter RMSE, klein zijn in de pH, het o.s en het lutum kaarten. Dit betreft met name het Veris sensorsysteem (EC-, NIR en pH sensor) en het systeem van Loonstra & van der Weide (gammastraling-sensor). Het bodemscansysteem van Veris komt als beste uit de analyse, op kleine afstand gevolgd door het systeem van Loonstra & van der Weide. Wat betreft lutum-kaarten scoorden deze twee systemen vergelijkbaar. Opvallend is dat met remote sensing door het bedrijf BioScope ook een redelijk goede lutum-kaart geleverd kan worden. Ook op organische-stof- en pH-kaarten scoorde Veris qua nauwkeurigheid het beste, waarbij aangetekend dat pH-kaarten het minst nauwkeurig waren van de drie bodemparameters die onderzocht werden. Hier is nog een verbeterslag gewenst.Loonwerk GPS levert in principe een opbrengstpotentiekaart op basis van geleidbaarheidsmetingen. SoilXplorer levert kaarten die afgeleid zijn van de geleidbaarheidsmeting. Bij deze kaarten is een interpretatieslag door de boer of zijn adviseur nodig.In het rapport geven we tevens de andere kaarten die de kaartenleveranciers bieden. We hebben deze niet gevalideerd.
    The global abundance of tree palms
    Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1495 - 1514.
    above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density

    Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.

    Endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase-treatment of oat β-glucan enhances fermentability by infant fecal microbiota, stimulates dectin-1 activation and attenuates inflammatory responses in immature dendritic cells
    Akkerman, Renate ; Logtenberg, Madelon J. ; An, Ran ; Berg, Marco A. Van Den; Haan, Bart J. de; Faas, Marijke M. ; Zoetendal, Erwin ; Vos, Paul de; Schols, Henk A. - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)6. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Cytokine production - Dendritic cells - In vitro fermentation - Infant formula - Microbiota - Oat β-Glucan

    Background: Non-digestible carbohydrates are added to infant formula to mimic the effects of human milk oligosaccharide by acting as prebiotics and stimulating the immune system. Although not yet used in infant formulas, β-glucans are known to have beneficial health effects, and are therefore of potential interest for supplementation. Methods and results: We investigated the in vitro fermentation of native and endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase-treated oat β-glucan using pooled fecal inocula of 2-and 8-week-old infants. While native oat β-glucan was not utilized, both inocula specifically utilized oat β-glucan oligomers containing β(1→4)-linkages formed upon enzyme treatment. The fermentation rate was highest in the fecal microbiota of 2-week-old infants, and correlated with a high lactate production. Fermentation of media supplemented with native and enzyme-treated oat β-glucans increased the relative abundance of Enterococcus and attenuated proinflammatory cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα) in immature dendritic cells. This attenuating effect was more pronounced after enzyme treatment. This attenuation might result from the enhanced ability of fermented oat β-glucan to stimulate Dectin-1 receptors. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase treatment enhances the fermentability of oat β-glucan and attenuates pro-inflammatory responses. Hence, this study shows that especially enzyme-treated oat β-glucans have a high potential for supplementation of infant formula.

    Klimaatlat: Snelle mestafvoer noodzaak
    Mollenhorst, Erwin - \ 2020
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