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Future global pig production systems according to the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways
Lassaletta, Luis ; Estellés, Fernando ; Beusen, Arthur H.W. ; Bouwman, Lex ; Calvet, Salvador ; Grinsven, Hans J.M. Van; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Stehfest, Elke ; Uwizeye, Aimable ; Westhoek, Henk - \ 2019
Science of the Total Environment 665 (2019). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 739 - 751.
Global pork production has increased fourfold over the last 50 years and is expected to continue growing during the next three decades. This may have considerable implications for feed use, land requirements, and nitrogen
emissions. To analyze the development of the pig production sector at the scale of world regions, we developed the IMAGE-Pig model to describe changes in feed demand, feed conversion ratios (FCRs), nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and nitrogen excretion for backyard, intermediate and intensive systems during the past fewdecades as a basis to explore future scenarios. For each region and production system, total production, productive characteristics and dietary compositions were defined for the 1970–2005 period. The results showthat due to the growing pork production total feed demand has increased by a factor of two (from 229 to 471Tg DM). This is despite the improvement of FCRs during the 1970–2005 period, which has reduced the feed use per kg of product. The increase of nitrogen use efficiency was slower than the improvement of FCRs due to increasing protein content in the feed rations. As a result, total N excretion increased bymore than a factor of two in the 1970–2005 period
(from 4.6 to 11.1 Tg N/year). For the period up to 2050, the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) provide information on levels of human consumption, technical development and environmental awareness. The sustainability of pig production systems for the coming decades will be based not only on the expected efficiency
Strategies for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in Mediterranean agriculture: A review
Sanz-Cobena, A. ; Lassaletta, L. ; Aguilera, E. ; Prado, A. Del; Garnier, J. ; Billen, G. ; Iglesias, A. ; Sánchez, B. ; Guardia, G. ; Abalos Rodriguez, Diego ; Plaza-Bonilla, D. ; Puigdueta-bartolomé, I. ; Moral, R. ; Galán, E. ; Arriaga, H. ; Merino, P. ; Infante-Amate, J. ; Meijide, A. ; Pardo, G. ; Álvaro-Fuentes, J. ; Gilsanz, C. ; Báez, D. ; Doltra, J. ; González-Ubierna, S. ; Cayuela, M.L. ; Menéndez, S. ; Díaz-Pinés, E. ; Le-Noë, J. ; Quemada, M. ; Estellés, F. ; Calvet, S. ; Grinsven, H.J.M. Van; Westhoek, H. ; Sanz, M.J. ; Gimeno, B.S. ; Vallejo, A. ; Smith, P. - \ 2017
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 238 (2017). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 5 - 24.
An integrated assessment of the potential of different management practices for mitigating specific components of the total GHG budget (N2O and CH4 emissions and C sequestration) of Mediterranean agrosystems was performed in this study. Their suitability regarding both yield and environmental (e.g. nitrate leaching and ammonia volatilization) sustainability, and regional barriers and opportunities for their implementation were also considered. Based on its results best strategies to abate GHG emissions in Mediterranean agro-systems were proposed. Adjusting N fertilization to crop needs in both irrigated and rain-fed systems could reduce N2O emissions up to 50% compared with a non-adjusted practice. Substitution of N synthetic fertilizers by solid manure can be also implemented in those systems, and may abate N2O emissions by about 20% under Mediterranean conditions, with additional indirect benefits associated to energy savings and positive effects in crop yields. The use of urease and nitrification inhibitors enhances N use efficiency of the cropping systems and may mitigate N2O emissions up to 80% and 50%, respectively. The type of irrigation may also have a great mitigation potential in the Mediterranean region. Drip-irrigated systems have on average 80% lower N2O emissions than sprinkler systems and drip-irrigation combined with optimized fertilization showed a reduction in direct N2O emissions up to 50%. Methane fluxes have a relatively small contribution to the total GHG budget of Mediterranean crops, which can mostly be controlled by careful management of the water table and organic inputs in paddies. Reduced soil tillage, improved management of crop residues and agro-industry by-products, and cover cropping in orchards, are the most suitable interventions to enhance organic C stocks in Mediterranean agricultural soils. The adoption of the proposed agricultural practices will require farmers training. The global analysis of life cycle emissions associated to irrigation type (drip, sprinkle and furrow) and N fertilization rate (100 and 300 kg N ha−1 yr−1) revealed that these factors may outweigh the reduction in GHG emissions beyond the plot scale. The analysis of the impact of some structural changes on top-down mitigation of GHG emissions revealed that 3–15% of N2O emissions could be suppressed by avoiding food waste at the end-consumer level. A 40% reduction in meat and dairy consumption could reduce GHG emissions by 20–30%. Reintroducing the Mediterranean diet (i.e. ∼35% intake of animal protein) would therefore result in a significant decrease of GHG emissions from agricultural production systems under Mediterranean conditions.
Measuring gas emissions from livestock buildings: A review on uncertainty analysis and error sources
Calvet, S. ; Gates, R.S. ; Zhang, G. ; Estelles, F. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Pedersen, S. ; Berckmans, D. - \ 2013
Biosystems Engineering 116 (2013)3. - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 221 - 231.
measuring ammonia emissions - fattening pig house - ventilation rate - carbon-dioxide - broiler houses - air-flow - rates - poultry - manure - performance
Measuring gaseous and particulate emissions from livestock houses has been the subject of intensive research over the past two decades. Currently, there is general agreement regarding appropriate methods to measure emissions from mechanically ventilated buildings. However, measuring emissions from naturally ventilated buildings remains an elusive target primarily because there is no reference method for measuring building ventilation rate. Ventilation rates and thus building emissions estimates for naturally ventilated buildings are likely to contain greater errors compared with those from mechanically ventilated buildings. This work reviews the origin and magnitude of errors associated with emissions from naturally ventilated buildings as compared to those typically found in mechanical ventilation. Firstly, some general concepts of error analysis are detailed. Then, typical errors found in the literature for each measurement technique are reviewed, and potential sources of relevant systematic and random errors are identified. The emission standard uncertainty in mechanical ventilation is at best 10% or more of the measured value, whereas in natural ventilation it may be considerably higher and there may also be significant unquantifiable biases. A reference method is necessary to obtain accurate emissions estimates, and for naturally ventilated structures this suggests the need for a new means of ventilation measurement. The results obtained from the analysis of information in this review will be helpful to establish research priorities, and to optimize research efforts in terms of quality of emission measurements.
Uncertainty modelling to evaluate nitrogen balances as a tool to determine N2 and N2O formation in ammonia bioscrubbers
Estelles, F. ; Calvet, S. ; Melse, R.W. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
Environmental Engineering Science 29 (2012)6. - ISSN 1092-8758 - p. 520 - 525.
sensitivity-analysis - biotrickling filter - ventilation rates - waste gases - air - removal - emissions - netherlands - buildings - europe
Biological scrubbers aim at reducing gaseous ammonia emissions by transferring it to a water phase followed by conversion to nitrite and nitrate. A small part of the removed nitrogen may be emitted as N2 and N2O produced as a result of denitrification processes. Due to the large greenhouse warming potential of N2O, even a small emission could be a point of concern. Determining these N losses in form of N2 and N2O via nitrogen balance is an alternative, but little is known about the uncertainty associated to this method. The main aim of this work was to develop an uncertainty model that evaluated N-balances in biological scrubbers in terms of result uncertainty. Secondary objectives were to provide a methodology to determine individual uncertainties involved, and to conduct a sensitivity analysis to identify the main contributors to the final uncertainty. For a defined scenario (biotrickling scrubber, 70% NH3 removal; 5% of inlet N-NH3 lost as N2 and N2O), the standard uncertainty expressed in relative terms of the average was 132% (released N in form of N2 and N2O). Main contributors to the final uncertainty were airflow rate and water volume in the scrubber basin. Uncertainty of the measurements of gaseous NH3 concentrations and N compounds in water had a reduced effect on the final uncertainty. Based on these results, N balances are not recommended to evaluate N2 and N2O formation in biological scrubbers, at least for the conditions considered in this work.
Evaluation of the NH3 removal efficiency of an acid packed bed scrubber using two methods: a case study in a pig facillity
Estellés, F. ; Melse, R.W. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Calvet, S. - \ 2011
Transactions of the ASABE / American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 54 (2011)5. - ISSN 2151-0032 - p. 1905 - 1912.
livestock buildings - northern europe - ammonia - emissions - operations - rates
The use of air cleaning systems to reduce ammonia emissions from animal houses is increasing. These systems are normally used in order to comply with local or national regulations of ammonia emission. Therefore, accurate determination of the proportion of ammonia being removed by these systems is crucial. There are two main methods available to measure ammonia removal efficiency of scrubbers: air balance (based on the measurement of ammonia concentrations in air) and combined water-air balance (in which it is also necessary to determine the amount of nitrogen recovered in the liquid phase). The first method is simpler to establish, while the second method might provide deeper information about the processes occurring. The main aim of this work was to assess, in terms of the variability of the results, the use of these two methods to evaluate the efficiency of an acid packed bed scrubber on a pig farm. An acid packed bed scrubber (70% NH3 removal) was monitored during ten complete 24 h cycles for ammonia concentrations, airflow rates, and nitrogen accumulation in the acid solution basin. The average efficiency calculated using the air balance method was 71% (Â±4%), close to the design value of 70%, while the average efficiency when using the combined water-air balance method was 255% (Â±53%). The accumulation and precipitation of ammonium salts in the packing material seem to be the main cause of the high variability and inaccuracy of the combined water-air balance method observed for this type of scrubber. According to these results, it is recommended to use the air balance method when determining the ammonia removal efficiency for acid packed bed scrubbers similar to the one studied here. According to the variability of the results observed in this work, at least 24 measurement days are needed in order to keep the relative error below 5% when using the air balance method to determine the ammonia removal efficiency of an acid packed bed scrubber
Analysis of the reactive nitrogen (Nr) balance as a tool for assessing the performance of air scrubbers at livestock facilities
Estellés, F. ; Melse, R.W. ; Starmans, D.A.J. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 376) - 34
veehouderij - emissie - dierlijke meststoffen - ammoniak - geurstoffen - broeikasgassen - milieubeheer - eu regelingen - wetgeving - milieubeleid - luchtreinigers - maatregelen - fijn stof - livestock farming - emission - animal manures - ammonia - odours - greenhouse gases - environmental management - eu regulations - legislation - environmental policy - air cleaners - measures - particulate matter
The environmental impact from livestock production is one of the main problems of this sector. Local and international regulations have been defined to reduce the environmental load of livestock farms. There are several techniques available aimed to the abatement of airborne emissions in farms. Among these techniques end-of-the-pipe approaches, such as air scrubbers, have turned into off-the-shelf techniques in Northern European countries such as The Netherlands. From the model calculations it follows that both balance methods are accurate, i.e. the systematic errors are very small. However, the air-based balance yields a considerably higher precision (i.e. the random error is small) than the combined balance. This difference in precision level depends on the removal efficiency and the applied ammonia measurement method
Effects of diurnal emission patterns and sampling frequency on precision of measurement methods for daily ammonia emissions from animal houses
Estelles, F. ; Calvet, S. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2010
Biosystems Engineering 107 (2010)1. - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 16 - 24.
livestock buildings - poultry houses - rates - facilities
Ammonia concentrations and airflow rates are the main parameters needed to determine ammonia emissions from animal houses. It is possible to classify their measurement methods into two main groups according to the sampling frequency: semi-continuous and daily average measurements. In the first method, ammonia concentrations and airflow rates are monitored during a certain period and instant emission rates are calculated. When using daily average methods, 24-h average ammonia concentrations and airflow rates are used to determine the average daily emission rate. As less information is used in the second method, an error may be expected. The aim of this work was to determine the nature and magnitude of this error. Three databases containing data from semi-continuous ammonia emissions measurements from different animal houses (pigs, poultry and rabbits) in three European countries (Denmark, The Netherlands and Spain) were used to characterise this error. An average systematic deviation between methods of 1.5% was found. The magnitude of this bias was directly related to the daily variation of ammonia concentration and airflow rate. The magnitude of this bias, and also the random component of the error, were modelled. The developed model adequately described variation in bias in the studied dataset (R2 = 0.85) and can be used as a tool to decide which type of measurement methods can be used.
Air scrubbing techniques for the reduction of gaseous emissions from livestock farms. Actual knowledge in the Netherlands and possibilities for implementation on Spanish farms.
Estellés, F. ; Melse, R.W. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Torres, A.G. - \ 2009
In The Netherlands, packed-bed biotrickling filters and acid scrubbers for removal of ammonia from exhaust air of animal houses are off-the-shelf techniques for ammonia removal. At the moment a new generation of so-called "multi-pollutant scrubbers" is being developed and tested that also removes odour and particulate matter from the air. Air cleaning systems are unusual in Spanish farms. The study of these techniques and their adaptation to Spanish farms, can be an interesting issue in order to achieve the national gas emission reduction commitments, and also to reduce social nuisances.