Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Anaplasma phagocytophilum evolves in geographical and biotic niches of vertebrates and ticks
    Jaarsma, Ryanne I. ; Sprong, Hein ; Takumi, Katsuhisa ; Kazimirova, Maria ; Silaghi, Cornelia ; Mysterud, Atle ; Rudolf, Ivo ; Beck, Relja ; Földvári, Gábor ; Tomassone, Laura ; Groenevelt, Margit ; Everts, Reinard R. ; Rijks, Jolianne M. ; Ecke, Frauke ; Hörnfeldt, Birger ; Modrý, David ; Majerová, Karolina ; Votýpka, Jan ; Estrada-Peña, Agustín - \ 2019
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)
    Anaplasma phagocytophilum - Ticks - Ixodidae - Molecular epidemiology - Transmission dynamics - Network analysis
    Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is currently regarded as a single species. However, molecular studies indicate that it can be subdivided into ecotypes, each with distinct but overlapping transmission cycle. Here, we evaluate the interactions between and within clusters of haplotypes of the bacterium isolated from vertebrates and ticks, using phylogenetic and network-based methods. Methods The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in ticks and vertebrate tissue samples. A fragment of the groEl gene was amplified and sequenced from qPCR-positive lysates. Additional groEl sequences from ticks and vertebrate reservoirs were obtained from GenBank and through literature searches, resulting in a dataset consisting of 1623 A. phagocytophilum field isolates. Phylogenetic analyses were used to infer clusters of haplotypes and to assess phylogenetic clustering of A. phagocytophilum in vertebrates or ticks. Network-based methods were used to resolve host-vector interactions and their relative importance in the segregating communities of haplotypes. Results Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 199 haplotypes within eight network-derived clusters, which were allocated to four ecotypes. The interactions of haplotypes between ticks, vertebrates and geographical origin, were visualized and quantified from networks. A high number of haplotypes were recorded in the tick Ixodes ricinus. Communities of A. phagocytophilum recorded from Korea, Japan, Far Eastern Russia, as well as those associated with rodents had no links with the larger set of isolates associated with I. ricinus, suggesting different evolutionary pressures. Rodents appeared to have a range of haplotypes associated with either Ixodes trianguliceps or Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi. Haplotypes found in rodents in Russia had low similarities with those recorded in rodents in other regions and shaped separate communities. Conclusions The groEl gene fragment of A. phagocytophilum provides information about spatial segregation and associations of haplotypes to particular vector-host interactions. Further research is needed to understand the circulation of this bacterium in the gap between Europe and Asia before the overview of the speciation features of this bacterium is complete. Environmental traits may also play a role in the evolution of A. phagocytophilum in ecotypes through yet unknown relationships.
    Anaplasma phagocytophilum evolves in geographical and biotic niches of vertebrates and ticks
    Jaarsma, Ryanne I. ; Sprong, Hein ; Takumi, Katsuhisa ; Kazimirova, Maria ; Silaghi, Cornelia ; Mysterud, Atle ; Rudolf, Ivo ; Beck, Relja ; Földvári, Gábor ; Tomassone, Laura ; Groenevelt, Margit ; Everts, Reinard R. ; Rijks, Jolianne M. ; Ecke, Frauke ; Hörnfeldt, Birger ; Modrý, David ; Majerová, Karolina ; Votýpka, Jan ; Estrada-Peña, Agustín - \ 2019
    Parasites & Vectors 12 (2019). - ISSN 1756-3305
    Anaplasma phagocytophilum - Ixodidae - Molecular epidemiology - Network analysis - Ticks - Transmission dynamics

    Background: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is currently regarded as a single species. However, molecular studies indicate that it can be subdivided into ecotypes, each with distinct but overlapping transmission cycle. Here, we evaluate the interactions between and within clusters of haplotypes of the bacterium isolated from vertebrates and ticks, using phylogenetic and network-based methods. Methods: The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in ticks and vertebrate tissue samples. A fragment of the groEl gene was amplified and sequenced from qPCR-positive lysates. Additional groEl sequences from ticks and vertebrate reservoirs were obtained from GenBank and through literature searches, resulting in a dataset consisting of 1623 A. phagocytophilum field isolates. Phylogenetic analyses were used to infer clusters of haplotypes and to assess phylogenetic clustering of A. phagocytophilum in vertebrates or ticks. Network-based methods were used to resolve host-vector interactions and their relative importance in the segregating communities of haplotypes. Results: Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 199 haplotypes within eight network-derived clusters, which were allocated to four ecotypes. The interactions of haplotypes between ticks, vertebrates and geographical origin, were visualized and quantified from networks. A high number of haplotypes were recorded in the tick Ixodes ricinus. Communities of A. phagocytophilum recorded from Korea, Japan, Far Eastern Russia, as well as those associated with rodents had no links with the larger set of isolates associated with I. ricinus, suggesting different evolutionary pressures. Rodents appeared to have a range of haplotypes associated with either Ixodes trianguliceps or Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi. Haplotypes found in rodents in Russia had low similarities with those recorded in rodents in other regions and shaped separate communities. Conclusions: The groEl gene fragment of A. phagocytophilum provides information about spatial segregation and associations of haplotypes to particular vector-host interactions. Further research is needed to understand the circulation of this bacterium in the gap between Europe and Asia before the overview of the speciation features of this bacterium is complete. Environmental traits may also play a role in the evolution of A. phagocytophilum in ecotypes through yet unknown relationships.

    Domesticated equines differ in their faecal microbiota composition
    Edwards, J.E. ; Schennink, Angeline ; Burden, F. ; Long, S. ; Doorn, D.A. van; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Saccenti, E. ; Everts, H. ; Smidt, H. - \ 2018
    - 1 p.
    Caprine in utero learning and feed neophobia
    Phan Vu, Hai - \ 2017
    Utrecht University. Promotor(en): W.H. Hendriks, co-promotor(en): J.Th. Schonewille; H. Everts. - Utrecht : Utrecht University - 126 p.
    Domesticated equines have fundamental differences in faecal microbial concentrations
    Edwards, J.E. ; Berg, Paul van den; Burden, F. ; Doorn, D.A. van; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Everts, H. ; Smidt, H. - \ 2017
    - 2 p.
    Domesticated equines have fundamental differences in faecal microbial concentrations
    Edwards, J.E. ; Berg, Paul van den; Burden, F. ; Doorn, D.A. van; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Everts, H. ; Smidt, H. - \ 2017
    Nutritional studies have shown that horses and donkeys differ, with donkeys having a higher dry matter digestibility (DMD) of dietary material and a longer gut retention time of dietary particles1,2. As analysis of the equine gut microbiome to date has primarily focussed on horses3, however, it is unclear to what extent these differences are mediated by differences in the physiology and/or hindgut microbiota of these domesticated equines (Figure 1). A preliminary study was therefore conducted in order to assess the faecal concentrations of bacteria, archaea and anaerobic fungi in horses, donkeys and hybrids (mules & hinnies) .
    Production and glyco-engineering of immunomodulatory helminth glycoproteins in plants
    Wilbers, Ruud H.P. ; Westerhof, Lotte B. ; Noort, Kim Van; Obieglo, Katja ; Driessen, Nicole N. ; Everts, Bart ; Gringhuis, Sonja I. ; Schramm, Gabriele ; Goverse, Aska ; Smant, Geert ; Bakker, Jaap ; Smits, Hermelijn H. ; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria ; Schots, Arjen ; Hokke, Cornelis H. - \ 2017
    Scientific Reports 7 (2017). - ISSN 2045-2322
    Helminth parasites control host-immune responses by secreting immunomodulatory glycoproteins. Clinical trials and mouse model studies have demonstrated the potential of helminth-derived glycoproteins for the treatment of immune-related diseases, like allergies and autoimmune diseases. Studies are however hampered by the limited availability of native parasite-derived proteins. Moreover, recombinant protein production systems have thus far been unable to reconstitute helminth-like glycosylation essential for the functionality of some helminth glycoproteins. Here we exploited the flexibility of the N-glycosylation machinery of plants to reconstruct the helminth glycoproteins omega-1 and kappa-5, two major constituents of immunomodulatory Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens. Fine-tuning transient co-expression of specific glycosyltransferases in Nicotiana benthamiana enabled the synthesis of Lewis X (LeX) and LDN/LDN-F glycan motifs as found on natural omega-1 and kappa-5, respectively. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the introduction of native LeX motifs on plant-produced omega-1 confirmed that LeX on omega-1 contributes to the glycoprotein’s Th2-inducing properties. These data indicate that mimicking the complex carbohydrate structures of helminths in plants is a promising strategy to allow targeted evaluation of therapeutic glycoproteins for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. In addition, our results offer perspectives for the development of effective anti-helminthic vaccines by reconstructing native parasite glycoprotein antigens.
    Mimicking immunomodulatory helminth glycoproteins in plants to enable treatment of inflammatory diseases
    Wilbers, R.H.P. ; Westerhof, L.B. ; Noort, Kim van; Obieglo, K. ; Driessen, N.N. ; Everts, B. ; Goverse, A. ; Smant, G. ; Bakker, J. ; Smits, H.H. ; Yazdanbakhsh, M. ; Schots, A. ; Hokke, C.H. - \ 2017
    Helminth parasites control host-immune responses by secreting immunomodulatory glycoproteins. Clinical trials and mouse model studies have demonstrated the potential of helminths and helminth-derived glycoproteins for the treatment of immune-related diseases, like allergies and autoimmune diseases. Studies are however hampered by the limited availability of native parasite-derived proteins. Moreover, recombinant protein production systems have thus far been unable to reconstitute helminth-like glycosylation essential for the functionality of helminth glycoproteins. Here we exploited the flexibility of the N-glycosylation machinery of plants to reconstruct two helminth glycoproteins, omega-1 and kappa-5, major constituents of immunomodulatory Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg antigens. Fine-tuning transient co-expression of specific glycosyltransferases in Nicotiana benthamiana enabled the synthesis of Lewis X (LeX) and LDN/LDN-F glycan motifs as found on natural omega-1 and kappa-5, respectively. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the introduction of native LeX motifs on plant-produced omega-1 confirmed that LeX on omega-1 contributes to the glycoprotein’s Th2-inducing properties. These data indicate that mimicking the complex carbohydrate structures of helminths in plants is a promising strategy to allow targeted evaluation of therapeutic glycoproteins for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. In addition, our results offer perspectives for the development of effective anti-helminthic vaccines by reconstructing native parasite glycoprotein antigens.
    Anaerobic fungi are a key unexplored taxon for optimizing fibre utilisation in equines
    Edwards, J.E. ; Doorn, D.A. van; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Everts, H. ; Burden, F. ; Smidt, H. - \ 2016
    Anaerobic fungi are a key unexplored taxa for optimizing lignocellulosic fibre utilisation in equines
    Edwards, J.E. ; Doorn, D.A. van; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Everts, H. ; Burden, F. ; Smidt, H. - \ 2016
    The hindgut microbiota of equines enables them to utilize forage/grazing based diets which contain a substantial proportion of lignocellulosic fibres. These fibres are a structural barrier that gut bacteria need to overcome when accessing plant nutrients, as well as being a challenging and structurally complex substrate that can be utilized. The limited dietary energy available from these ‘natural’ diets however means that many equines are supplemented with energy-dense concentrate feeds in order to fulfil their dietary energy requirements. Use of energy-dense concentrate feeds however can change the equine hindgut microbiome, and lead to the development of gut-mediated diseases (i.e. fermentative acidosis, laminitis, colic and stomach ulcers). There is therefore a clear need to optimize the utilization of lignocellulosic fibres in the equine hindgut in order to minimize the need for dietary supplementation. The most effective of the fibre-degrading gut microbes, anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota), are known to be a normal member of the equine gut microbiota. Despite this however, they have been largely overlooked in equine gut microbiology studies to date. Research being conducted within the EU funded EQUIANFUN project will therefore establish baseline knowledge of the phylogeny, community structure, physiology and nutritional impact of anaerobic fungi in the equine hindgut. The insights gained will inform the development of novel strategies to promote indigenous anaerobic fungal communities in the equine hindgut, enabling optimization of the use of dietary forage as an energy source in equids. Reduction of the use of energy–dense diets and applying targeted nutritional strategies for optimizing microbial health may counteract processes in the gastrointestinal tract that have been associated with disease. Anaerobic fungi therefore offer the potential to enable significant advances to be made in the optimisation of the nutrition, health and welfare of all domesticated equids.
    Exposure to a novel feedstuff by goat dams during pregnancy and lactation versus pregnancy alone does not further improve post-weaning acceptance of this feedstuff by their kids
    Hai, P.V. ; Schonewille, J.T. ; Tien, D.V. ; Everts, H. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2016
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 96 (2016)6. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 2215 - 2219.
    BACKGROUND
    Previous experiments demonstrated the existence of in utero learning in goats. However, in contrast to other animal species, in goats there is no information about the potential of flavour transmission from maternal feed to goat kids during lactation. The aim of the current study was to assess the role of post-natal exposure of Chromonaela odorata leaf meal (COLM) in relation to the preferences to this feedstuff by goat kids after weaning. It was hypothesised that exposure of COLM to the dams during both pregnancy and lactation versus pregnancy alone, additionally affects post-weaning intake of COLM by their offspring.
    RESULTS
    Consumption of COLM by the goat kids was similar during the first week post-weaning for all treatments. However, after 4 weeks the intake of COLM was at least 1.8 times greater when kids were exposed to COLM during pregnancy whereas it remained virtually unchanged when kids were exposed to COLM during lactation only. The increase in COLM consumption was in line with the observations on latency to eat and meal size.
    CONCLUSION
    Transmission of feeding behaviour from goat dams to offspring does not occur during lactation. However, the concept of in utero learning in goats was confirmed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry
    Engineering of plants for the expression of helminth glycoproteins with their native N-glycan structures
    Wilbers, Ruud - \ 2016
    Engineering plants for the expression of helminth glycoproteins with their native N-glycan structures Ruud H.P. Wilbers1, Lotte B. Westerhof 1, Bart Everts2, Kim van Noort 1, Debbie R. van Raaij1, Dieu-Linh Nguyen2, Maria Yazdanbakhsh2, Cornelis H. Hokke2 and Arjen Schots1 1 Laboratory of Nematology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands 2 Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic trematode that, like other helminths, secretes immunomodulatory proteins. These secreted proteins are main topics of research as they are possible vaccine candidates or may have therapeutic potential to treat inflammatory disorders. Many helminth secretory proteins carry complex N-glycans, but the exact role of these N-glycans on immunomodulatory properties remains to be elucidated. As the purification of a single glycoprotein from S. mansoni is inefficient and unsustainable, a platform is required that enables production of such glycoproteins. Here we show that S. mansoni-derived glycoproteins can be efficiently produced in plants. Furthermore, we have engineered the plant glycosylation machinery to synthesise N-glycans carrying structures like Lewis X or LDNF. Altogether, our results demonstrate that plants are an excellent platform for the expression of helminth glycoproteins with their native N-glycans. This opens up a new field of research and might lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets.
    Engineering of plants for the expression of helminth glycoproteins with their native N-glycan structures
    Wilbers, R.H.P. ; Westerhof, L.B. ; Noort, Kim van; Nguyen, D.L. ; Smant, G. ; Bakker, J. ; Hokke, C.H. ; Schots, A. - \ 2016
    - 1 p.
    Engineering plants for the expression of helminth glycoproteins with their native N-glycan structures


    Ruud H.P. Wilbers1, Lotte B. Westerhof 1, Bart Everts2, Kim van Noort 1, Debbie R. van Raaij1, Dieu-Linh Nguyen2, Maria Yazdanbakhsh2, Cornelis H. Hokke2 and Arjen Schots1

    1 Laboratory of Nematology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
    2 Department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands


    Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic trematode that, like other helminths, secretes immunomodulatory proteins. These secreted proteins are main topics of research as they are possible vaccine candidates or may have therapeutic potential to treat inflammatory disorders. Many helminth secretory proteins carry complex N-glycans, but the exact role of these N-glycans on immunomodulatory properties remains to be elucidated. As the purification of a single glycoprotein from S. mansoni is inefficient and unsustainable, a platform is required that enables production of such glycoproteins. Here we show that S. mansoni-derived glycoproteins can be efficiently produced in plants. Furthermore, we have engineered the plant glycosylation machinery to synthesise N-glycans carrying structures like Lewis X or LDNF. Altogether, our results demonstrate that plants are an excellent platform for the expression of helminth glycoproteins with their native N-glycans. This opens up a new field of research and might lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets.
    Energy requirement for maintenance in growing pigs
    Everts, H. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : WUR Livestock Research, Dept. Animal Nutrition (CVB-Documentation report nr. 57) - 19
    A new Dutch Net Energy formula for feed and feedstuffs for growing and fattening pigs
    Blok, M.C. ; Brandsma, Gerard ; Bosch, G. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Everts, H. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR Livestock Research (CVB-Documentation report 56) - 39
    Veen verschijnt en verdwijnt : Grondwaterstromen en veenvorming
    Makaske, A. ; Maas, G.J. ; Grootjans, A. ; Meijles, Erik ; Everts, H. ; Vries, Nico de - \ 2015
    In: Landschapsbiografie van de Drentsche Aa / Spek, Theo, Elerie, Hans, Bakker, Jan P., Noordhoff, Ineke, Assen : Koninklijke Van Gorcum - ISBN 9789023252719 - p. 54 - 81.
    Het geïntegreerde onderzoek van de laatste jaren laat zien dat het landschap van de Drentsche Aa zeer veranderlijk is. Wie de reconstructie van de tweede levensfase van het Drentsche Aa-gebied naast die uit de ijstijd legt, ziet dat ook direct. Er zijn aanwijzingen dat het landschap in het Atlanticum flink bebost is, alleen vlak langs beken ligt open veen. Later lijken de bomen het loodje te leggen. Ook de broekbossen die later zijn ontstaan hebben niet het eeuwige leven en ook de wouden uit de Middeleeuwen verdwijnen weer.
    Engineering plants for the expression of helminth glycoproteins with their native N-glycan structures
    Wilbers, R.H.P. ; Westerhof, L.B. ; Everts, B. ; Noort, Kim van; Raaij, D.R. van; Nguyen, D. ; Yazdanbakhsh, M. ; Hokke, C.H. ; Schots, A. - \ 2015
    Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic trematode that, like other helminths, secretes immunomodulatory proteins. These secreted proteins are main topics of research as they are possible vaccine candidates or may have therapeutic potential to treat inflammatory disorders. Many helminth secretory proteins carry complex N-glycans, but the exact role of these N-glycans on immunomodulatory properties remains to be elucidated. As the purification of a single glycoprotein from S. mansoni is inefficient and unsustainable, a platform is required that enables production of such glycoproteins. Here we show that S. mansoni-derived glycoproteins can be efficiently produced in plants. Furthermore, we have engineered the plant glycosylation machinery to synthesise N-glycans carrying structures like Lewis X or LDNF. Altogether, our results demonstrate that plants are an excellent platform for the expression of helminth glycoproteins with their native N-glycans. This opens up a new field of research and might lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets.
    Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture
    Dansen, O. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Jacobs, M.P.T. ; Everts, H. ; Doorn, D.A. van - \ 2015
    Journal of Animal Science 93 (2015)4. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1916 - 1922.
    lactating dairy-cows - detergent fiber - enteric methane - horses - digestibility - cattle - performance - physiology - ruminants - nutrition
    Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1 kg DM cereal mix/d). For both diets, the same grass hay was used (898 g DM/kg and 4.5 MJ NEm/kg DM) and a commercial cereal mix was used in the RC diet (890 g DM/kg and 9.6 MJ NEm/kg DM). Ponies were housed in pairs in climate-controlled respiration chambers. Carbon dioxide production (CO2), oxygen (O2) consumption, and CH4 production were measured over 3 consecutive days. Heat production (HP) rates were calculated from gaseous exchange. Feces were collected quantitatively to determine dietary nutrient digestibility. Dry matter intake differed between diets (P <0.0001), but NE intake was equal for both diets (22.3 ± 0.07 MJ NEm/d). Organic matter digestibility was lower (P = 0.006) for the R diet (47.2%) than the RC diet (55.6%). Methane production was higher (P = 0.014) on the R diet (29.8 L·pony–1·d–1) compared to the RC diet (23.2 L·pony–1·d–1). Methane production expressed in liters/kilogram metabolic body weight (BW0.75) per day tended (P = 0.064) to decrease with 21% for the RC group compared with the R group. Heat production, O2 consumption, and CO2 production were not affected by diet. Diurnal patterns of CH4 production and HP were similar for both diets. Methane production increased slightly (P <0.652) after feeding and was numerically lower for the RC diet for all time points throughout the day. For both diets, HP was higher after feeding than before feeding and decreased again within approximately 3 h after feeding. Isoenergetic replacement of roughage by a cereal mix reduces CH4 production in ponies. No clear diurnal pattern in CH4 emission can be discerned in ponies fed at maintenance
    Factors contributing to the variation in feline urinary oxalate excretion
    Dijcker, J.C. ; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A. ; Everts, H. ; Queau, Y. ; Biourge, V.C. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2014
    Journal of Animal Science 92 (2014)3. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1029 - 1036.
    glycolate excretion - dietary-protein - ascorbic-acid - calcium - cats - hydroxyproline - vitamin-b-6 - fructose - requirement - absorption
    This study aimed to identify factors (season, animal, and diet) contributing to the variation in urinary oxalate (Uox) excretion rate, Uox concentration, and urine volume in healthy adult cats. A data set (1,940 observations) containing information on Uox excretion rate of 65 cats fed 252 diets (i.e., each diet was fed to a group of 6 to 8 cats), with known dietary oxalate concentrations, collected over a 6 yr period at a feline nutrition facility, were retrospectively analyzed. Data related to season, animal (i.e., age, gender, body weight, and breed), and diet (i.e., nutrient content) characteristics were subjected to stepwise multivariate regression analysis to identify factors significantly correlated to Uox excretion rate (µmol/(kg BW0.67·d)) and concentration (mmol/L) as well as urine volume (mL/(kg BW0.67·d)). Independent factors significantly (P <0.05) associated with lower Uox concentration (mmol/L) included greater ash, Ca, and Na intake and lower nitrogen-free extract, total dietary fiber, P, and oxalate intake, and a body weight
    Improved acceptance of Chromonaela odorata by goat kids after weaning is caused by in utero exposure during late but not early pregnancy
    Hai, P.V. ; Schonewille, J.T. ; Tien, D.V. ; Everts, H. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2014
    Applied Animal Behaviour Science 159 (2014). - ISSN 0168-1591 - p. 50 - 54.
    feeding-behavior - fetal sheep - chromolaena-odorata - food preference - amniotic-fluid - maternal diet - milk - consumption - fetus - rat
    The aim of the current experiment was to study the effect of the phase of pregnancy on in utero learning of Chromonaela odorata by the goat kids by comparing mid pregnancy (day 50–99, MP) with late pregnancy (day 100–145, LP). It was hypothesized that kids born to dams fed C. odorata during late pregnancy (day 100–145) would show an improved post-weaning consumption of this plant. Twenty four female goats (Co breed) were synchronized, inseminated and divided randomly into 4 equal groups. All pregnant goats were fed a diet either without (control) or with 50 g of C. odorata leave meal (COLM) at 10:00 am during 30 min during mid and late pregnancy. The COLM diet was fed either from 50 to 99 days of pregnancy (mid pregnancy, MP), or from 100 to 145 days of pregnancy (late pregnancy, LP) or from 50 to 145 days of pregnancy (MLP, positive control). After weaning (3 months old), one kid from each goat dam was selected to measure COLM intake for 30 min over a 4-week period. Feeding activities of the individually housed goat kids were monitored with a camera system. Post-weaning consumptions of COLM by the goat kids increased significantly (P <0.05) in the LP and MLP treatments and remained essentially unchanged in the control and MP treatments. The higher consumption of COLM by kids from the LP and MLP treatment was associated with a significantly (P <0.05) shorter latency to eat and a longer chewing time (P <0.05). It was concluded that transmission of feeding behaviour from mother to offspring occurs between day 100 to 145 of gestation and that it remains present at least 3 months after weaning in goats
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