Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Systemic colonization of potato plants resulting from potato haulm inoculation with Dickeya solani or Pectobacterium parmentieri
    Kastelein, P. ; Forch, M.G. ; Krijger, M.C. ; Zouwen, P.S. van der; Berg, W. van den; Wolf, J.M. van der - \ 2020
    Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology = Revue Canadienne de Phytopathologie (2020). - ISSN 0706-0661 - p. 1 - 15.
    blackleg - Confocal laser scanning microscopy - fluorescence microscopy - GFP-tagged strains - haulm destruction - leaf wounding - slow wilt
    In two glasshouse experiments, colonization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants by the bacterial pathogens Dickeya solani and Pectobacterium parmentieri was studied after leaf infection. Leaves, whether or not artificially wounded, were spray-inoculated with various densities of green-fluorescent protein tagged strains of the pathogens, avoiding contamination of soil during inoculation. Microscopy analysis indicated that both pathogens were able to penetrate and colonize hydathodes, stomata and wounds of inoculated leaves. Dickeya solani was detected at 42 days after inoculation in leaves, stems, stolons and occasionally in tubers, whereas P. parmentieri was restricted to leaves, stems and stolons, and could not be detected in tubers. The infection percentage was higher for plants with wounded leaves than for plants with untouched leaves, and higher at higher inoculum densities. Nevertheless, infection of leaves could also occur at low densities of D. solani (102 cfu mL−1). We further investigated the risks for translocation of the pathogens from infected haulms through soil into progeny tubers after haulm destruction. In a glasshouse experiment, populations of the pathogens increased in haulms in the first week after chemical or mechanical destruction, but decreased in the second week. For P. parmentieri, transmission occurred from destroyed haulms via soil into progeny tubers in soil, but not for D. solani.
    Development and validation of IPM strategies for the cultivation of cisgenically modified late blight resistant potato
    Kessel, Geert J.T. ; Mullins, Ewen ; Evenhuis, Albartus ; Stellingwerf, Jeroen ; Cortes, Vilma Ortiz ; Phelan, Sinead ; Bosch, Trudy van den; Förch, Marieke G. ; Goedhart, Paul ; Voet, Hilko van der; Lotz, Lambertus A.P. - \ 2018
    European Journal of Agronomy 96 (2018). - ISSN 1161-0301 - p. 146 - 155.
    Cisgenic modification - GM potato - Host resistance - Integrated pest management - Phytophthora infestans
    Potato late blight disease remains the primary stressor of commercial potato production across the EU, typically requiring >10 fungicide applications per growing season to offset crop losses. In response, the goal of this study was to test and validate a novel, more durable, control strategy for potato late blight. This IPM2.0 strategy is based on the principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) which sees the deployment of a late blight resistant potato genotype, a cisgenically modified, Desiree based resistant potato line here, in conjunction with pathogen population monitoring for virulence to the resistance genes (R genes) deployed and a “do not spray unless”, low input fungicide spray strategy. Field evaluations were completed in the Netherlands and in Ireland in 2013, 2014 and in Ireland in 2015. Comparators used in this study included the original but susceptible potato variety Desiree and the conventional but highly resistant variety Sarpo Mira. The novel IPM2.0 strategy was compared to local common practice (fungicide applications on a near weekly basis) and an untreated control. Overall, the IPM2.0 control strategy validated here reduced the average fungicide input by 80–90% without compromising control efficacy. Corresponding environmental side-effects were reduced proportionally. The results underline the pragmatic role host resistance can provide to commercial potato production systems and to society at large if employed as part of an integrated late blight control system.
    Governance of food systems across scales in times of social-ecological change : a review of indicators
    Delaney, Aogán ; Evans, Tom ; McGreevy, John ; Blekking, Jordan ; Schlachter, Tyler ; Korhonen-Kurki, Kaisa ; Tamás, Peter A. ; Crane, Todd A. ; Eakin, Hallie ; Förch, Wiebke ; Jones, Lindsey ; Nelson, Donald R. ; Oberlack, Christoph ; Purdon, Mark ; Rist, Stephan - \ 2018
    Food Security 10 (2018)2. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 287 - 310.
    Evidence synthesis - Food security - Food systems - Governance - Research methods - Socio-ecological change
    Governance of food systems is a poorly understood determinant of food security. Much scholarship on food systems governance is non-empirical, while existing empirical research is often case study-based and theoretically and methodologically incommensurable. This complicates aggregation of evidence and generalization. This paper presents a review of literature to identify a core set of methodological indicators to study food systems governance in future research. Indicators were identified from literature gathered through a structured consultation and sampling from recent systematic reviews and were classified according to governance levels and the food system activity domain they investigate. We found a concentration of indicators in food production at local to national levels and with less literature investigating how food governance affects food distribution and consumption. Many indicators of institutional structure were found, while indicators capturing social agency and indicators of cross-scale dynamics were moderately represented but critical perspectives on governance were lacking. These gaps present an opportunity for future empirical research to investigate more comprehensively the diverse components of food systems and how governance arrangements at different scales affect them.
    Reduced efficacy of fluazinam against Phytophthora infestans in the Netherlands
    Schepers, H.T.A.M. ; Kessel, G.J.T. ; Lucca, F. ; Förch, M.G. ; Den Bosch, G.B.M. van; Topper, C.G. ; Evenhuis, A. - \ 2018
    European Journal of Plant Pathology 151 (2018)4. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 947 - 960.
    AUDPC - Clonal lineage - Control strategy - Fungicides - Late blight - Potato - Shirlan
    Phytophthora infestans is the causal organism of potato late blight, the most important disease in potato, the second most important arable crop in Europe. The P. infestans population in Europe is well known for its sudden changes in composition. Currently it is composed of a wide variety of genotypes, some of which are dominant clonal lines while others are rare or even unique to a year or location. Fungicides play a crucial role in the integrated control of late blight. Since its introduction in the Netherlands in 1992, fluazinam has been used in late blight control strategies in ware and starch potatoes. It has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against a range of diseases including potato late blight. Fluazinam interrupts the pathogen cell’s energy production process by an uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation. It is considered to have a low resistance risk. Until recently, reduced efficacy against fluazinam was not detected in P. infestans surveys in Europe. In this paper we present the finding of a new clonal lineage (EU_33_A2) of P. infestans in the Netherlands and the reduced efficacy of fluazinam to control one of the EU_33_A2 isolates in field experiments carried out in 2011 and 2015 under high disease pressure. The potential effects of this finding on practical late blight control strategies are discussed.
    Fifteenth EuroBlight Workshop
    Bosch, Trudy van den - \ 2015
    Added value of stacked R genes for the Potato Late Blight control strategy, Trudy van den Bosch, Marieke Förch, Bert Evenhuis, Maarten Holdinga, Florencia Lucca & Geert Kessel. Euroblight Workshop Brasov Romania 10-13 May 2015
    Fifteenth EuroBlight Workshop
    Kessel, Geert Jan - \ 2015
    Update on European P. infestans populations: new tools new insights. 10-5-2015, David Cooke, Geert Kessel, Poul Lassen, Sanmohan Baby, Jens G. Hansen, Marieke Förch, Trudy van den Bosch, Louise Sullivan, Eva Randall. Euroblight workshop Brasov.
    Fifteenth EuroBlight Workshop
    Forch, Marieke - \ 2015
    phytophthora - EU-monitoring - euroblight
    The eu-monitoring project, a view behind the scenes
    Phytophthora "Nieuwe wijn in oude zakken" of "alle hens aan dek"
    Kessel, Geert Jan - \ 2015
    Onderzoeksresultaten uit diverse Phytophthora projecten, verzameld door het onderzoeksteam: Geert Kessel, Trudy van den Bosch, David Cooke, Bert Evenhuis, Marieke Förch, Jens Grönbech Hansen, Huub Schepers
    Households and food security: lessons from food secure households in East Africa.
    Silvestri, Silvia ; Douxchamps, Sabine ; Kristjanson, Patti ; Förch, Wiebke ; Radeny, Maren ; Mutie, Lanetta ; Quiros, F.C. ; Herrero, M. ; Ndungu, Anthony ; Claessens, L.F.G. - \ 2015
    Agriculture & Food Security 4 (2015). - ISSN 2048-7010 - 15 p.
    Background
    What are the key factors that contribute to household-level food security? What lessons can we learn from food secure households? What agricultural options and management strategies are likely to benefit female-headed households in particular? This paper addresses these questions using a unique dataset of 600 households that allows us to explore a wide range of indicators capturing different aspects of performance and well-being for different types of households—female-headed, male-headed, food secure, food insecure—and assess livelihoods options and strategies and how they influence food security. The analysis is based on a detailed farm household survey carried out in three sites in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.
    Results
    Our results suggest that food insecurity may not be more severe for female-headed households than male-headed households. We found that food secure farming households have a wider variety of crops on their farms and are more market oriented than are the food insecure. More domestic assets do not make female-headed households more food secure. For the other categories of assets (livestock, transport, and productive), we did not find evidence of a correlation with food security. Different livelihood portfolios are being pursued by male versus female-headed households, with female-headed households less likely to grow high-value crops and more likely to have a less diversified crop portfolio.
    Conclusions
    These findings help identify local, national and regional policies and actions for enhancing food security of female-headed as well as male-headed households. These include interventions that improve households’ access to information, e.g., though innovative communication and knowledge-sharing efforts and support aimed at enhancing women’s and men’s agricultural market opportunities.
    Enhancing disease suppression in substrates for strawberry cultivation
    Postma, J. ; Forch, M.G. - \ 2015
    REFERTIL
    Compost
    The use of mycorrhiza for increasing compost and biochar quality : REFERTIL Newsletter, Issue March 2015, Page 4
    Postma, J. ; Nijhuis, E.H. ; Forch, M.G. - \ 2015
    REFERTIL
    Long term storage of Alternaria
    Bosch, G.B.M. van den; Forch, M.G. ; Evenhuis, A. - \ 2014
    - 1 p.
    First results of an Eu-wide genotype monitoring of Phytophthora infestans using FTA-cards
    Meier-Runge, F. ; Bosch, G.B.M. van den; Forch, M.G. ; Evenhuis, A. ; Kessel, G.J.T. - \ 2014
    In: Proceedings of the fourteenth Euroblight Workshop. - PPO (PPO-Special Report 16)
    Screening for Alternaria (solani or alternata)
    Forch, M.G. ; Bosch, G.B.M. van den - \ 2014
    Mycorrhiza for fighting Phytophthora in strawberries
    Postma, J. ; Förch, M.G. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    Mycorrhiza inzetten tegen Phytophthora in aardbei
    Postma, J. ; Förch, M.G. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    The risks of air-borne inoculum on infections of tubers with Dickeya solani and Pectobacterium wasabiae
    Wolf, J.M. van der; Kastelein, P. ; Förch, M.G. ; Krijger, M.C. - \ 2014
    Stand van zaken rondom Green33 en Blue 13, consequenties voor de bestrijdingsstrategie.
    Kessel, Geert Jan - \ 2013
    CEBECO Akkerbouwdagen 8 januari 2013. Stand van zaken rondom Green33 en Blue 13, consequenties voor de bestrijdingsstrategie. Geert Kessel, Bert Evenhuis, Trudy van den Bosch, Marieke Förch, Maarten Holdinga en Huub Schepers.
    Fourteenth EuroBlight Workshop
    Kessel, Geert Jan - \ 2013
    IPM 2.0 approach to Potato late blight Control. Geert Kessel, Bert Evenhuis, Theo van der Lee, Trudy van den Bosch, Marieke Förch and Huub Schepers
    Phytophthora infestans in 2013, “Darwin” at work.
    Kessel, Geert Jan - \ 2013
    Phytophthora infestans in 2013, “Darwin” at work. Geert Kessel, Bert Evenhuis, Trudy van den Bosch, Marieke Förch, Maarten Holdinga en Huub Schepers.
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