Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Copepod Prey Selection and Grazing Efficiency Mediated by Chemical and Morphological Defensive Traits of Cyanobacteria
    Rangel, Luciana M. ; Silva, Lúcia H.S. ; Faassen, Elisabeth J. ; Lürling, Miquel ; Ger, Kemal Ali - \ 2020
    Toxins 12 (2020)7. - ISSN 2072-6651
    cyanotoxin - functional trait - harmful algal bloom - neurotoxin - predator defense

    Phytoplankton anti-grazer traits control zooplankton grazing and are associated with harmful blooms. Yet, how morphological versus chemical phytoplankton defenses regulate zooplankton grazing is poorly understood. We compared zooplankton grazing and prey selection by contrasting morphological (filament length: short vs. long) and chemical (saxitoxin: STX- vs. STX+) traits of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium (Raphidiopsis) offered at different concentrations in mixed diets with an edible phytoplankton to a copepod grazer. The copepod selectively grazed on the edible prey (avoidance of cyanobacteria) even when the cyanobacterium was dominant. Avoidance of the cyanobacterium was weakest for the "short STX-" filaments and strongest for the other three strains. Hence, filament size had an effect on cyanobacterial avoidance only in the STX- treatments, while toxin production significantly increased cyanobacterial avoidance regardless of filament size. Moreover, cyanobacterial dominance reduced grazing on the edible prey by almost 50%. Results emphasize that the dominance of filamentous cyanobacteria such as Raphidiopsis can interfere with copepod grazing in a trait specific manner. For cyanobacteria, toxin production may be more effective than filament size as an anti-grazer defense against selectively grazing zooplankton such as copepods. Our results highlight how multiple phytoplankton defensive traits interact to regulate the producer-consumer link in plankton ecosystems.

    Risicobeoordeling blauwalgen in zwemwater : Nieuwe technieken voor de bepaling van de aanwezigheid van blauwalgtoxines
    Sollie, Susan ; Kardinaal, Edwin ; Faassen, E.J. - \ 2020
    Amersfoort : Stichting Toegepast Onderzoek Waterbeheer (STOWA) (Stowa rapport 2020-09) - ISBN 9789057738739 - 67
    Waterbeheerders voeren op grond van de Europese Zwemwaterrichtlijn analyses uit om in te schatten hoe groot het kans is op het voorkomen van blauwalgen(toxines) in zwemwater. Ze krijgen daarmee een beeld van het gezondheidsrisico voor zwemmers, op basis waarvan er zwemadviezen worden gegeven. De technieken die daarvoor nu worden gebruikt, meten alleen de hoeveelheden blauwalgen, maar niet de toxines die blauwalgen kunnen produceren, terwijl dat nu juist de ziekteverwekkende stoffen zijn. In dit onderzoek zijn de huidige technieken vergeleken met nieuwe technieken. Het gaat om technieken die direct(er) toxines bepalen. Hiervoor zijn in 2019 in totaal 103 watermonsters (afkomstig van 11 verschillende locaties) geanalyseerd met meerdere methoden. De uitkomsten zijn met elkaar vergeleken, waarbij de analyse van toxines met LC-MS/MS als 'gouden standaard’ is genomen. Het uiteindelijke doel is om een (kosten)effectieve analysetechniek te vinden die het meest geschikt is om het gezondheidsrisico voor zwemmers in kaart te brengen.
    Effects of guanotrophication and warming on the abundance of green algae, cyanobacteria and microcystins in Lake Lesser Prespa, Greece
    Maliaka, Valentini ; Verstijnen, Yvon J.M. ; Faassen, Elisabeth J. ; Smolders, Alfons J.P. ; Lürling, Miquel - \ 2020
    PLoS ONE 15 (2020)3. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Lake Lesser Prespa in Greece is a vital breeding habitat for the Dalmatian and Great White Pelican and a shelter for numerous rare and endemic species. However, eutrophication processes are distressing the lake system and the outbreaks of cyanobacterial blooms during the warm months may pose a threat to aquatic organisms due to the presence of microcystins (MCs). In this study we hypothesize that nutrients (eutrophication), nutrient-rich pelican droppings (guanotrophication) and warming (climate change) can affect the algal growth and MCs production in the water layer of Lake Lesser Prespa. Seston collected from three lake sites was incubated at ambient (20°C) and high (30°C) temperature with or without the addition of nutrients (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P)), or pelican droppings. Results showed increased chlorophyll-a at higher temperature (30°C). N addition yielded higher chlorophyll-a levels than the non-treated water or when only P was added. The addition of both N and P as well as the addition of pelican dropping resulted in the highest chlorophyll-a at both temperatures. Notably, in the dropping-treatments, cyanobacteria and MCs were promoted while changes were evoked in the relative contribution of toxic MC-variants. Guanotrophication may thus influence the cyanobacterial dynamics and most likely their toxicity profile at Lesser Prespa.

    How the neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine accumulates in bivalves: distribution of the different accumulation fractions among organs
    Lepoutre, Alexandra ; Faassen, E.J. ; Zweers, A.J. ; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W. ; Geffard, Alain ; Lance, E. - \ 2020
    Toxins 12 (2020)2. - ISSN 2072-6651
    The environmental neurotoxin β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) may represent a risk for human health. BMAA accumulates in freshwater and marine organisms consumed by humans. However, few data are available about the kinetics of BMAA accumulation and detoxification in exposed organisms, as well as the organ distribution and the fractions in which BMAA is present in tissues (free, soluble bound or precipitated bound cellular fractions). Here, we exposed the bivalve mussel Dreissena polymorpha to 7.5 µg of dissolved BMAA/mussel/3 days for 21 days, followed by 21 days of depuration in clear water. At 1, 3, 8, 14 and 21 days of exposure and depuration, the hemolymph and organs (digestive gland, the gills, the mantle, the gonad and muscles/foot) were sampled. Total BMAA as well as free BMAA, soluble bound and precipitated bound BMAA were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Free and soluble bound BMAA spread throughout all tissues from the first day of exposure to the last day of depuration, without a specific target organ. However, precipitated bound BMAA was detected only in muscles and foot from the last day of exposure to day 8 of depuration, at a lower concentration compared to free and soluble bound BMAA. In soft tissues (digestive gland, gonad, gills, mantle and muscles/foot), BMAA mostly accumulated as a free molecule and in the soluble bound fraction, with variations occurring between the two fractions among tissues and over time. The results suggest that the assessment of bivalve contamination by BMAA may require the quantification of total BMAA in whole individuals when possible.
    Usability of the bivalves Dreissena polymorpha and Anodonta anatina for a biosurvey of the neurotoxin BMAA in freshwater ecosystems
    Lepoutre, A. ; Hervieux, J. ; Faassen, E.J. ; Zweers, A.J. ; Lurling, M. ; Geffard, A. ; Lance, E. - \ 2020
    Environmental Pollution 259 (2020). - ISSN 0269-7491
    Anodonta anatina - Bioaccumulation - Biosurvey - Dreissena polymorpha - β-Methylamino-L-alanine

    The environmental neurotoxin β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) may represent a risk for human health in case of chronic exposure or after short-term exposure during embryo development. BMAA accumulates in freshwater and marine organisms consumed by humans. It is produced by marine and freshwater phytoplankton species, but the range of producers remains unknown. Therefore, analysing the phytoplankton composition is not sufficient to inform about the risk of freshwater contamination by BMAA. Filter-feeders mussels have accumulation capacities and therefore appear to be relevant to monitor various pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated the suitability of the freshwater mussels Dreissena polymorpha and Anodonta anatina for monitoring BMAA in water. Both species were exposed to 1, 10, and 50 μg of dissolved BMAA/L daily for 21 days, followed by 42 days of depuration in clean water. On days 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 of exposure and 1, 7, 14, 21 and 42 of depuration, whole D. polymorpha and digestive glands of A. anatina were sampled, and the total BMAA concentration was measured. D. polymorpha accumulated BMAA earlier (from day 1 at all concentrations) and at higher tissue concentrations than A. anatina, which accumulated BMAA from day 14 when exposed to 10 μg BMAA/L and from day 7 when exposed to 50 μg BMAA/L. As BMAA accumulation by D. polymorpha was time and concentration-dependent, with a significant elimination during the depuration period, this species may be able to reflect the levels and dynamics of water contamination by dissolved BMAA. The species A. anatina could be used for monitoring water concentrations above 10 μg BMAA/L. D. polymorpha and A. anatina could be used to biomonitor BMAA in fresh water.

    Urinary Excretion of N1-Methylnicotinamide, as a Biomarker of Niacin Status, and Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients
    Deen, Carolien P.J. ; Veen, Anna Van Der; Faassen, Martijn Van; Minović, Isidor ; Gomes-Neto, António W. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Borgonjen-van Den Berg, Karin J. ; Kema, Ido P. ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. - \ 2019
    Journal of Clinical Medicine 8 (2019)11. - ISSN 2077-0383
    Renal transplant recipients (RTR) commonly suffer from vitamin B6 deficiency and its functional consequences add to an association with poor long-term outcome. It is unknown whether niacin status is affected in RTR and, if so, whether this affects clinical outcomes, as vitamin B6 is a cofactor in nicotinamide biosynthesis. We compared 24-h urinary excretion of N1-methylnicotinamide (N1-MN) as a biomarker of niacin status in RTR with that in healthy controls, in relation to dietary intake of tryptophan and niacin as well as vitamin B6 status, and investigated whether niacin status is associated with the risk of premature all-cause mortality in RTR. In a prospective cohort of 660 stable RTR with a median follow-up of 5.4 (4.7–6.1) years and 275 healthy kidney donors, 24-h urinary excretion of N1-MN was measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS. Dietary intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaires. Prospective associations of N1-MN excretion with mortality were investigated by Cox regression analyses. Median N1-MN excretion was 22.0 (15.8–31.8) μmol/day in RTR, compared to 41.1 (31.6–57.2) μmol/day in healthy kidney donors (p < 0.001). This difference was independent of dietary intake of tryptophan (1059 ± 271 and 1089 ± 308 mg/day; p = 0.19), niacin (17.9 ± 5.2 and 19.2 ± 6.2 mg/day; p < 0.001), plasma vitamin B6 (29.0 (17.5–49.5), and 42.0 (29.8–60.3) nmol/L; p < 0.001), respectively. N1-MN excretion was inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality in RTR (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.45–0.71; p < 0.001), independent of potential confounders. RTR excrete less N1-MN in 24-h urine than healthy controls, and our data suggest that this difference cannot be attributed to lower dietary intake of tryptophan and niacin, nor vitamin B6 status. Importantly, lower 24-h urinary excretion of N1-MN is independently associated with a higher risk of premature all-cause mortality in RTR. View Full-Text
    Welke invloed heeft blauwalg op de landbouwgewassen?
    Faassen, Els - \ 2019

    Dat blauwalgen kunnen zorgen voor huidirritatie is algemeen bekend. Dat de bacterie mogelijk ook gevaarlijk is voor landbouwgewassen weten minder mensen. Toch laten steeds meer onderzoeken zien dat blauwalggif in voedsel schadelijk is voor de volksgezondheid.

    Methods for the analysis of cyanobacterial toxins: fit for purpose?
    Faassen, Els - \ 2019
    Tryptophan intake and tryptophan losses in hemodialysis patients : A balance study
    Post, Adrian ; Huberts, Marleen ; Poppe, Enya ; Faassen, Martijn van; Kema, Ido P. ; Vogels, Steffie ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Westerhuis, Ralf ; Ipema, Karin J.R. ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. ; Franssen, Casper F.M. - \ 2019
    Nutrients 11 (2019)12. - ISSN 2072-6643
    Dialysis - Dietary diaries - Excretion - Hydroxyindoleacetic acid - Kynurenine - Tryptophan

    Tryptophan depletion is common in hemodialysis patients. The cause of this depletion remains largely unknown, but reduced nutritional tryptophan intake, losses during dialysis or an increased catabolism due to an inflammatory state are likely contributors. Currently, little is known about tryptophan homeostasis in hemodialysis patients. We assessed dietary tryptophan intake, measured plasma tryptophan during dialysis, and measured the combined urinary and dialysate excretion of tryptophan in 40 hemodialysis patients (66 ± 15 years and 68% male). Patients had low tryptophan concentrations (27 ± 9 µmol/L) before dialysis. Mean dietary tryptophan intake was 4454 ± 1149 µmol/24 h. Mean urinary tryptophan excretion was 15.0 ± 12.3 µmol/24 h, dialysate excretion was 209 ± 67 µmol/24 h and combined excretion was 219 ± 66 µmol/24 h, indicating only 5% of dietary tryptophan intake was excreted. No associations were found between plasma tryptophan concentration and tryptophan intake, plasma kynurenine/tryptophan ratio or inflammatory markers. During dialysis, mean plasma tryptophan concentration increased 16% to 31 ± 8 µmol/L. Intradialytic increase in plasma tryptophan was associated with a lower risk of mortality, independent of age, sex and dialysis vintage (HR: 0.87 [0.76–0.99]; P = 0.04). Tryptophan intake was well above the dietary recommendations and, although tryptophan was removed during dialysis, mean plasma tryptophan increased during dialysis. The cause of this phenomenon is unknown, but it appears to be protective.

    Toxic benthic cyanobacteria in The Netherlands, first results of a three year survey
    Faassen, E.J. ; Demarteau, Marta - \ 2019
    From green to transparent waters : Managing eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms by geo-engineering
    Mucci, Maíra N.T. - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.F.L.L.W. Lürling, co-promotor(en): E.J. Faassen; M. Manzi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434416 - 200

    Eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms are increasing worldwide. Despite being studied for almost a century, mitigating eutrophication remains a challenge. Motivated by this challenge, we studied potential geo-engineering materials and in-site techniques to manage the eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms in controlled experiments and a whole-ecosystem intervention.

    As phosphorus (P) control is essential to manage eutrophication, this thesis started evaluating natural and modified clays and soils for their capacity to adsorb P (chapter 2). We showed that four out of ten materials were able to adsorb P, and that P adsorption differed under varying abiotic conditions. The modified materials (lanthanum (La) modified bentonite, commercially called Phoslock® and Aluminium modified zeolite, commercially called Aqual-P®) were able to adsorb more P than the naturals ones such as Fe-rich soils

    The need to mitigate eutrophication in coastal areas prompted us to evaluate Phoslock® efficiency and behaviour in saline waters in chapter 3. Phoslock® was able to adsorb P in all salinities tested from brackish to seawater, whilst filterable La concentrations remained very low. We concluded that the use of Phoslock® on saline waters should be considered, yet, ecotoxicological studies must be performed before field applications in saline environments.

    Beside solid-phase P sorbents, flocculants have also been used in lake restoration. In this context, chitosan has been proposed as an “eco-friendly” flocculant as an alternative to metal based flocculant, such as polyaluminium chloride (PAC). In chapter 4, we tested the effect of chitosan on several cyanobacterial species and showed that chitosan may cause rapid cell lysis. In chapter 5, we looked closer into strain variation whilst also measuring cyanotoxin release. We showed that chitosan was able to cause cyanotoxins release. These effects were, however, strain dependent. Chitosan application might therefore cause toxin release in the water column, and it should not therefore be used without testing its effects on the cyanobacterial assemblage being targeted to avoid unwanted rapid release of cyanotoxins.

    In chapter 6, we showed field results from a whole-lake treatment with PAC and Phoslock®. This technique called Flock and Lock aimed to target P from the water column, P-release from the sediment and the ongoing cyanobacterial bloom. The intervention was successful in improving water quality in Lake De Kuil. After two

    weeks of the treatment, however a surface scum was observed near the shore of the lake, which disappeared spontaneously after two weeks. The lake was open in time for the bathing season without any swimming bans during 2017. Tests to why the scums occurred, and how to avoid their occurrence showed that promising approach to avoid biomass accumulation is to damage the cell first using hydrogen peroxide and later settle them with the Flock and Lock technique. Larger scales tests need still to be performed to shed light on possible limitations of this technique.

    In chapter 7 I reflected that there is no single magical solution to manage eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms. Each system is unique and each material/technique (P immobilization, chitosan, Flock and Lock, peroxide) has its limitations. Thus, a broad-scale generalization (copy-paste of methods) will in most cases not lead to a successful restoration. A mitigation plan must always include a proper system analysis and experimental tests under realistic condition on various scales before a field application can be performed.

    Potentieel toxisch fytoplankton in productiegebieden van tweekleppige weekdieren : evaluatie van het Nederlandse monitoringsprogramma met voorstellen voor een alternatieve aanpak
    Faassen, E. ; Bovee, T. ; Klijnstra, M. ; Alewijn, M. ; Gerssen, A. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT-rapport 2018.002) - 55
    Feit of Fictie: Hoe gevaarlijk is blauwalg?
    Faassen, Els - \ 2018

    Volgens een ecoloog in het AD is blauwalg veroorzaker van onder andere dementie, en nog een hoop andere ziektes. Heeft hij gelijk of is die stelling toch wat overdreven?

    Is the density of potentially toxic phytoplankton a reliable indicator for the presence of toxins in Dutch marine bivalves?
    Faassen, Els - \ 2018
    Cyanobacterial Blooms and Microcystins in Southern Vietnam
    Trung, Bui ; Dao, Thanh Son ; Faassen, Els ; Lürling, Miquel - \ 2018
    Toxins 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2072-6651
    aquaculture - cyanobacteria - cyanotoxins - Mekong river

    Studies on cyanobacteria in Vietnam are limited and mainly restricted to large reservoirs. Cyanobacterial blooms in small water bodies may pose a health risk to local people. We sampled 17 water bodies in the vicinity of urban settlements throughout the Mekong basin and in southeast Vietnam. From these, 40 water samples were taken, 24 cyanobacterial strains were isolated and 129 fish, 68 snail, 7 shrimp, 4 clam, and 4 duck samples were analyzed for microcystins (MCs). MCs were detected up to 11,039 µg/L or to 4033 µg/g DW in water samples. MCs were detected in the viscera of the animals. MC-LR and MC-RR were most frequently detected, while MC-dmLR, MC-LW, and MC-LF were first recorded in Vietnam. Microcystis was the main potential toxin producer and the most common bloom-forming species. A potential health hazard was found in a duck⁻fish pond located in the catchment of DauTieng reservoir and in the DongNai river where raw water was collected for DongNai waterwork. The whole viscera of fish and snails must be completely removed during food processing. Cyanobacterial monitoring programs should be established to assess and minimize potential public health risks.

    A European Multi Lake Survey dataset of environmental variables, phytoplankton pigments and cyanotoxins
    Mantzouki, E. ; Campbell, J. ; Loon, E. van; Visser, P. ; Konstantinou, I. ; Antoniou, M. ; Giuliani, G. ; Machado-Vieira, D. ; Gurjão de Oliveira, A. ; Maronić, D.Š. ; Stević, F. ; Pfeiffer, T.Ž. ; Vucelić, I.B. ; Žutinić, P. ; Udovič, M.G. ; Plenković-Moraj, A. ; Tsiarta, N. ; Bláha, L. ; Geriš, R. ; Fránková, M. ; Christoffersen, K.S. ; Warming, T.P. ; Feldmann, T. ; Laas, A. ; Panksep, K. ; Tuvikene, L. ; Kangro, K. ; Häggqvist, K. ; Salmi, P. ; Arvola, L. ; Fastner, J. ; Straile, D. ; Rothhaupt, K.O. ; Fonvielle, J. ; Grossart, H.P. ; Avagianos, C. ; Kaloudis, T. ; Triantis, T. ; Zervou, S.K. ; Hiskia, A. ; Gkelis, S. ; Panou, M. ; McCarthy, V. ; Senerpont Domis, L.N. de; Seelen, L. ; Verstijnen, Y. ; Lürling, M. ; Maliaka, V. ; Faassen, E.J. - \ 2018
    Scientific Data 5 (2018). - ISSN 2052-4463 - 13 p.
    Under ongoing climate change and increasing anthropogenic activity, which continuously challenge ecosystem resilience, an in-depth understanding of ecological processes is urgently needed. Lakes, as providers of numerous ecosystem services, face multiple stressors that threaten their functioning. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are a persistent problem resulting from nutrient pollution and climate-change induced stressors, like poor transparency, increased water temperature and enhanced stratification. Consistency in data collection and analysis methods is necessary to achieve fully comparable datasets and for statistical validity, avoiding issues linked to disparate data sources. The European Multi Lake Survey (EMLS) in summer 2015 was an initiative among scientists from 27 countries to collect and analyse lake physical, chemical and biological variables in a fully standardized manner. This database includes in-situ lake variables along with nutrient, pigment and cyanotoxin data of 369 lakes in Europe, which were centrally analysed in dedicated laboratories. Publishing the EMLS methods and dataset might inspire similar initiatives to study across large geographic areas that will contribute to better understanding lake responses in a changing environment.
    Organ distribution of the neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine in the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha
    Lepoutre, Alexandra ; Faassen, E.J. ; Geffard, Alain ; Lance, Emilie - \ 2018
    - 1 p.
    The impact of warming and nutrients on algae production and microcystins in seston from the iconic lake lesser Prespa, Greece
    Maliaka, Valentini ; Faassen, Els ; Smolders, Alfons J.P. ; Lürling, Miquel - \ 2018
    Toxins 10 (2018)4. - ISSN 2072-6651
    Bioassay - Climate change - Cyanotoxins - Eutrophication - Nutrient addition
    Lake Lesser Prespa and its adjacent pond, Vromolimni in Greece, is a shallow freshwater system and a highly protected area hosting an exceptional biodiversity. The occurrence of microcystins (MCs) producing cyanobacterial blooms in these waters during recent years can be harmful to the wildlife. We tested the hypothesis that both cyanobacterial biomass and MCs are strongly influenced by nutrients (eutrophication) and warming (climate change). Lake and pond water was collected from two sites in each water body in 2013 and incubated at three temperatures (20°C, 25°C, 30°C) with or without additional nutrients (nitrogen +N, phosphorus +P and both +N and +P). Based on both biovolume and chlorophyll-a concentrations, cyanobacteria in water from Lesser Prespa were promoted primarily by combined N and P additions and to a lesser extent by N alone. Warming seemed to yield more cyanobacteria biomass in these treatments. In water from Vromolimni, both N alone and N+P additions increased cyanobacteria and a warming effect was hardly discernible. MC concentrations were strongly increased by N and N+P additions in water from all four sites, which also promoted the more toxic variant MC-LR. Hence, both water bodies seem particularly vulnerable to further N-loading enhancing MC related risks.
    Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on the immune cells of the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha exposed to the environmental neurotoxin BMAA
    Lepoutre, Alexandra ; Milliote, Nadia ; Bonnard, Marc ; Palos-Ladeiro, Mélissa ; Rioult, Damien ; Bonnard, Isabelle ; Bastien, Fanny ; Faassen, Elisabeth ; Geffard, Alain ; Lance, Emilie - \ 2018
    Toxins 10 (2018)3. - ISSN 2072-6651
    BMAA - Cytotoxicity - Freshwater bivalves - Genotoxicity - Hemocytes - Immunotoxicity
    The environmental neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been pointed out to be involved in human neurodegenerative diseases. This molecule is known to be bioaccumulated by bivalves. However, little data about its toxic effects on freshwater mussels is available, particularly on the hemolymphatic compartment and its hemocyte cells involved in various physiological processes such as immune defenses, digestion and excretion, tissue repair, and shell production. Here we exposed Dreissena polymorpha to dissolved BMAA, at the environmental concentration of 7.5 µg of /mussel/3 days, during 21 days followed by 14 days of depuration in clear water, with the objective of assessing the BMAA presence in the hemolymphatic compartment, as well as the impact of the hemocyte cells in terms of potential cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and genotoxiciy. Data showed that hemocytes were in contact with BMAA. The presence of BMAA in hemolymph did not induce significant effect on hemocytes phagocytosis activity. However, significant DNA damage on hemocytes occurred during the first week (days 3 and 8) of BMAA exposure, followed by an increase of hemocyte mortality after 2 weeks of exposure. Those effects might be an indirect consequence of the BMAA-induced oxidative stress in cells. However, DNA strand breaks and mortality did not persist during the entire exposure, despite the BMAA persistence in the hemolymph, suggesting potential induction of some DNA-repair mechanisms.
    Toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in European waters - recent progress achieved through the CYANOCOST action and challenges for further research
    Meriluoto, Jussi ; Blaha, Ludek ; Bojadzija, Gorenka ; Bormans, Myriam ; Brient, Luc ; Codd, Geoffrey A. ; Drobac, Damjana ; Faassen, Elisabeth J. ; Fastner, Jutta ; Hiskia, Anastasia ; Ibelings, Bastiaan W. ; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos ; Kokocinski, Mikolaj ; Kurmayer, Rainer ; Pantelić, Dijana ; Quesada, Antonio ; Salmaso, Nico ; Tokodi, Nada ; Triantis, Theodoros M. ; Visser, Petra M. ; Svirčev, Zorica - \ 2017
    Advances in Oceanography and Limnology 8 (2017)1. - ISSN 1947-5721
    Cyanobacteria - Cyanotoxins - Europe - Gaps of knowledge - Trends

    This review aims to summarise the outcomes of some recent European research concerning toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, with an emphasis on developments within the framework of the CYANOCOST Action: COST Action ES1105, Cyanobacterial Blooms and Toxins in Water Resources: Occurrence, Impacts and Management. Highlights of the Action include phycological and ecological studies, development of advanced techniques for cyanotoxin analysis, elucidation of cyanotoxin modes of action, management techniques to reduce cyanobacterial mass development, and research on methods and practices for cyanotoxin removal during drinking water treatment. The authors have identified a number of gaps in knowledge. Proposed directions for future research on toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are also discussed.

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