Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016 : A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
    Hay, Simon I. ; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu ; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen ; Abbafati, Cristiana ; Abbas, Kaja M. ; Abd-Allah, Foad ; Abdulle, Abdishakur M. ; Abebo, Teshome Abuka ; Abera, Semaw Ferede ; Aboyans, Victor ; Abu-Raddad, Laith J. ; Ackerman, Ilana N. ; Adedeji, Isaac A. ; Adetokunboh, Olatunji ; Afshin, Ashkan ; Aggarwal, Rakesh ; Agrawal, Sutapa ; Agrawal, Anurag ; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad ; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir ; Aichour, Amani Nidhal ; Aichour, Ibtihel ; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine ; Aiyar, Sneha ; Akinyemiju, Tomi F. ; Akseer, Nadia ; Lami, Faris Hasan Al; Alahdab, Fares ; Al-Aly, Ziyad ; Alam, Khurshid ; Alam, Noore ; Alam, Tahiya ; Alasfoor, Deena ; Alene, Kefyalew Addis ; Ali, Raghib ; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza ; Alkaabi, Juma M. ; Alkerwi, A. ; Alla, François ; Allebeck, Peter ; Allen, Christine ; Al-Maskari, Fatma ; Almazroa, Mohammad Abdulaziz ; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
    The Lancet 390 (2017)10100. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1260 - 1344.

    Background: Measurement of changes in health across locations is useful to compare and contrast changing epidemiological patterns against health system performance and identify specific needs for resource allocation in research, policy development, and programme decision making. Using the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we drew from two widely used summary measures to monitor such changes in population health: disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We used these measures to track trends and benchmark progress compared with expected trends on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Methods: We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost and years of life lived with disability for each location, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using age-specific death rates and years of life lived with disability per capita. We explored how DALYs and HALE difered from expected trends when compared with the SDI: the geometric mean of income per person, educational attainment in the population older than age 15 years, and total fertility rate. Findings: The highest globally observed HALE at birth for both women and men was in Singapore, at 75·2 years (95% uncertainty interval 71·9-78·6) for females and 72·0 years (68·8-75·1) for males. The lowest for females was in the Central African Republic (45·6 years [42·0-49·5]) and for males was in Lesotho (41·5 years [39·0-44·0]). From 1990 to 2016, global HALE increased by an average of 6·24 years (5·97-6·48) for both sexes combined. Global HALE increased by 6·04 years (5·74-6·27) for males and 6·49 years (6·08-6·77) for females, whereas HALE at age 65 years increased by 1·78 years (1·61-1·93) for males and 1·96 years (1·69-2·13) for females. Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2016 (-2·3% [-5·9 to 0·9]), with decreases in communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) disease DALYs ofset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The exemplars, calculated as the fve lowest ratios of observed to expected age-standardised DALY rates in 2016, were Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Maldives, Peru, and Israel. The leading three causes of DALYs globally were ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lower respiratory infections, comprising 16·1% of all DALYs. Total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most CMNN causes decreased from 1990 to 2016. Conversely, the total DALY burden rose for most NCDs; however, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined globally. Interpretation: At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements. At the same time, we observe that many populations are facing growing functional health loss. Rising SDI was associated with increases in cumulative years of life lived with disability and decreases in CMNN DALYs ofset by increased NCD DALYs. Relative compression of morbidity highlights the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. The analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework with which to benchmark location-specific health performance. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform health policies, health system improvement initiatives, targeted prevention eforts, and development assistance for health, including fnancial and research investments for all countries, regardless of their level of sociodemographic development. The presence of countries that substantially outperform others suggests the need for increased scrutiny for proven examples of best practices, which can help to extend gains, whereas the presence of underperforming countries suggests the need for devotion of extra attention to health systems that need more robust support.

    SnTox1, a Parastagonospora nodorum necrotrophic effector, is a dual-function protein that facilitates infection while protecting from wheat-produced chitinases
    Liu, Zhaohui ; Gao, Yuanyuan ; Kim, Yong Min ; Faris, Justin D. ; Shelver, Weilin L. ; Wit, Pierre J.G.M. de; Xu, Steven S. ; Friesen, Timothy L. - \ 2016
    New Phytologist 211 (2016)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1052 - 1064.
    Parastagonosopora nodorum - Chitin - Host-selective toxin - Necrotroph - Necrotrophic effector - Programmed cell death (PCD) - Wheat (Triticum aestivum) chitinases

    SnTox1 induces programmed cell death and the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes including chitinases. Additionally, SnTox1 has structural homology to several plant chitin-binding proteins. Therefore, we evaluated SnTox1 for chitin binding and localization. We transformed an avirulent strain of Parastagonospora nodorum as well as three nonpathogens of wheat (Triticum aestivum), including a necrotrophic pathogen of barley, a hemibiotrophic pathogen of sugar beet and a saprotroph, to evaluate the role of SnTox1 in infection and in protection from wheat chitinases. SnTox1 bound chitin and an SnTox1-green fluorescent fusion protein localized to the mycelial cell wall. Purified SnTox1 induced necrosis in the absence of the pathogen when sprayed on the leaf surface and appeared to remain on the leaf surface while inducing both epidermal and mesophyll cell death. SnTox1 protected the different fungi from chitinase degradation. SnTox1 was sufficient to change the host range of a necrotrophic pathogen but not a hemibiotroph or saprotroph. Collectively, this work shows that SnTox1 probably interacts with a receptor on the outside of the cell to induce cell death to acquire nutrients, but SnTox1 accomplishes a second role in that it protects against one aspect of the defense response, namely the effects of wheat chitinases.

    SnTox1, a Parastagonospora nodorum necrotrophic effector, elicits PCD while binding chitin to protect the pathogen from wheat chitinases
    Friesen, T.L. ; Liu, Z.H. ; Kim, Y.M. ; Gao, Y. ; Wit, P.J.G.M. de; Faris, J.D. - \ 2015
    In: Book of Abstracts 28th Fungal Genetics Conference. - - p. 209 - 210.
    Parastagonospora nodorum (Synonym: Stagonospora nodorum) is a destructive pathogen of wheat that induces yield and quality losses by causing necrosis on the leaves and glumes of wheat. P. nodorum is a necrotrophic specialist pathogen that secretes an arsenal of necrotrophic effectors (NEs) involved in inducing necrosis. SnTox1 was the first of seven NEs to be reported from P. nodorum and interacts directly or indirectly with the single dominant susceptibility gene Snn1. SnTox1 is recognized by Snn1 followed by the induction of a classical defense response involving programmed cell death (PCD), an oxidative burst, DNA laddering, and up regulation of several PR proteins including chitinases. However, this recognition results in wheat being susceptible to P. nodorum rather than resistant. Interestingly, the C-terminus of SnTox1 has homology to several plant chitin binding proteins and we have shown that SnTox1 does bind chitin. Therefore, we have expressed two wheat chitinases that are able to degrade the fungal cell wall in vitro to show that P. nodorum transformed other plant pathogens and non-pathogens with SnTox1 including Neurospora crassa (saprotroph), Pyrenophora teres f. teres (necrotrophic barley pathogen), and Cercospora beticola (hemi-biotrophic sugarbeet pathogen) and show that not only did some of these fungi become pathogens of wheat lines harboring Snn1, but all had increased protection from the wheat chitinases in vitro, exposing a secondary or possibly the primary function of SnTox1. The dual function of this protein explains the high prevalence of SnTox1, relative to other NEs in the P. nodorum global population and shows that necrotrophs harbor chitin binding proteins for their protection during pathogenesis.
    The parastagonospora nodorum necrotrophic effector SnTox1 elicits recognition in wheat and then protects from the resulting host defense response
    Friesen, T.L. ; Liu, Z. ; Kim, Y. ; Gao, Y. ; Wit, P.J.G.M. de; Faris, J.D. - \ 2014
    In: Book of Abstracts XVI International Congress on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. - - p. 24 - 24.
    CS-9.5 - Parastagonospora nodorum (Synonym: Stagonospora nodorum) is a destructive pathogen of wheat that induces yield and quality losses by causing disease on the leaves and glumes of wheat. P. nodorum is a necrotrophic specialist pathogen that secretes an arsenal of necrotrophic effectors (NEs) involved in disease induction. SnTox1 was the first of seven NEs to be reported from P. nodorum and interacts directly or indirectly with the single dominant susceptibility gene Snn1. SnTox1 is recognized by Snn1 followed by the induction of a classical defense response involving programmed cell death (PCD), an oxidative burst, DNA laddering and up regulation of several PR proteins, however, this recognition results in susceptibility to P. nodorum rather than resistance. Interestingly, in addition to inducing PCD that results in susceptibility, we have shown that SnTox1 is important in defending the pathogen against wheat chitinases that attack the cell wall of fungi, reducing growth. To demonstrate that SnTox1 was involved in protection from host-produced chitinases, we cloned and expressed several wheat chitinase genes to assess the effects of chitinases in the presence and absence of the SnTox1, showing that SnTox1 is highly important in protecting the pathogen from wheat chitinases. Additionally, we transformed non-pathogens of wheat with SnTox1 and showed that not only did some of these fungi become pathogens of wheat but all had increased protection from wheat chitinases. The dual function of this protein explains the high prevalence of SnTox1 , relative to other NEs in the P. nodorum global population.
    Investigations of how the necrotrophic specialist Parastagonospora nodorum is using the dual function necrotrophic effector SnTox1 to infect wheat
    Friesen, T.L. ; Liu, Z. ; Kim, Y. ; Gao, Y. ; Wit, P.J.G.M. de; Faris, J.D. - \ 2014
    In: Book of Abstracts Joint Meeting American Phytopathological Society and Canadian Phytopathological Society. - - p. 40 - S.
    Parastagonospora nodorum (Synonym Stagonospora nodorum) is a destructive pathogen of wheat that induces yield and quality losses by causing disease on both the leaves and glumes of wheat. P. nodorum is a necrotrophic specialist pathogen that secretes an arsenal of necrotrophic effectors (NEs) involved in disease induction. SnTox1 was the first of seven NEs reported from P. nodorum and was shown to interact directly or indirectly with the single dominant susceptibility gene Snn1. The SnTox1-Snn1 interaction induces several hallmarks of a defense response including an oxidative burst and DNA laddering, a classic apoptosis response, but results in susceptibility rather than resistance. Although several necrotrophic specialists are known to induce the defense response while causing disease, little is known about how necrotrophic specialists survive the harsh environment of the host defense response. SnTox1 contains homology to several plant chitin binding proteins and we have shown that SnTox1 localizes to the cell wall of mycelium in culture and that SnTox1 binds purified chitin. We have cloned and expressed several wheat chitinases and used them to show that SnTox1 not only induces PCD but that SnTox1 also has a second role of binding chitin in the fungal cell wall, resulting in protection from these wheat chitinases. The dual function of this protein explains the high prevalence of SnTox1, relative to other NEs in the P. nodorum global population.
    New broad-spectrum resistance to septoria tritici blotch derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat
    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S. ; Faris, J.D. ; Friesen, T.L. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Robert, O. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2012
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 124 (2012)1. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 125 - 142.
    mycosphaerella graminicola pathosystem - quantitative trait loci - aegilops-tauschii coss. - stagonospora nodorum blotch - multiple fungal pathogens - genetic-linkage map - bread wheat - durable resistance - rust resistance - common wheat
    Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of wheat. We screened five synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHs), 13 wheat varieties that represent the differential set of cultivars and two susceptible checks with a global set of 20 isolates and discovered exceptionally broad STB resistance in SHs. Subsequent development and analyses of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between the SH M3 and the highly susceptible bread wheat cv. Kulm revealed two novel resistance loci on chromosomes 3D and 5A. The 3D resistance was expressed in the seedling and adult plant stages, and it controlled necrosis (N) and pycnidia (P) development as well as the latency periods of these parameters. This locus, which is closely linked to the microsatellite marker Xgwm494, was tentatively designated Stb16q and explained from 41 to 71% of the phenotypic variation at seedling stage and 28-31% in mature plants. The resistance locus on chromosome 5A was specifically expressed in the adult plant stage, associated with SSR marker Xhbg247, explained 12-32% of the variation in disease, was designated Stb17, and is the first unambiguously identified and named QTL for adult plant resistance to M. graminicola. Our results confirm that common wheat progenitors might be a rich source of new Stb resistance genes/QTLs that can be deployed in commercial breeding programs
    Efficacy and mapping of resistance to Mycosphaerella graminicola in wheat
    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S. ; Faris, J.D. ; Friesen, T. ; Robert, O. ; Laurent, V. ; Lonnet, P. ; Margale, E. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Visser, R.G.F. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2011
    In: Abstract book of 8th international symposium on Mycosphaerella and Stagonospora diseases of cereals, Mexico City, Mexico, 11-14 September 2011. - Mexico City, Mexico : Cimmyt - p. 51 - 51.
    Identification of a new resistance gene to septoria tritici blotch in wheat
    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S. ; Faris, J.D. ; Friesen, T.L. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2010
    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of bread wheat in North-Western Europe, Centraland West Asia and also of durum wheat in North Africa
    Identification of a new resistance gene to septoria tritici blotch in wheat
    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S. ; Faris, J.D. ; Friesen, T.L. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2010
    In: Abstracts of oral and poster presentations of the 8th international wheat conference, St.Petersburg, Russia, 1-4 June 2010. - St. Petersburg, Russia : N.I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) - p. 320 - 320.
    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of bread wheat in North-Western Europe, Centraland West Asia and also of durum wheat in North Africa
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