Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Earthworms Coordinate Soil Biota to Improve Multiple Ecosystem Functions
Liu, Ting ; Chen, Xiaoyun ; Gong, Xin ; Lubbers, Ingrid M. ; Jiang, Yangyang ; Feng, Wen ; Li, Xianping ; Whalen, Joann K. ; Bonkowski, Michael ; Griffiths, Bryan S. ; Hu, Feng ; Liu, Manqiang - \ 2019
Current Biology 29 (2019)20. - ISSN 0960-9822 - p. 3420 - 3429.
bacterial-dominated channel - earthworm - ecosystem engineer - ecosystem service - soil fauna - soil microbe - sustainable agriculture

Liu et al. study a 13-year-old field experiment to show that earthworms are beneficial to agroecosystems from a multifunctional perspective. This work incorporates the concerns of negative effects of earthworms in recently published syntheses and highlights the potential pathways in which earthworms contribute to sustainable agriculture.

Optimum leaf defoliation: A new agronomic approach for increasing nutrient uptake and land equivalent ratio of maize soybean relay intercropping system
Raza, Muhammad Ali ; Feng, Ling Yang ; Werf, Wopke van der; Iqbal, Nasir ; Khan, Imran ; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad ; Ansar, Muhammad ; Chen, Yuan Kai ; Xi, Zeng Jin ; Shi, Jian Yi ; Ahmed, Mukhtar ; Yang, Feng ; Yang, Wenyu - \ 2019
Field Crops Research 244 (2019). - ISSN 0378-4290
Defoliation - Economics - LER - Nutrient - Relay-intercropping

Upper canopy leaves of maize decrease the light-transmittance at middle-strata-leaves of maize and soybean canopy in maize-soybean relay-intercropping systems (MS). This affects the uptake of nutrients and distribution patterns in various plant organs of intercrop species in MS. Judicious defoliation of maize plants in MS could help to alleviate this problem and improve nutrient uptake and intercrop yields. In a two-year field experiment with MS, including the measurements of biomass production, nutrients uptake, and distribution at the organ level, and grain yields of intercrop species, maize plants were subjected to four-leaf defoliation treatments to improve the light-transmittance of maize and soybean plants. Defoliation of the topmost two-leaves (T2), four-leaves (T4), six-leaves (T6) was compared to no defoliation (T0). Compared to T0, treatment T2 improved the uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in each plant part of maize by 23, 12, and 11% (grain), 22, 19, and 13% (straw), and 28, 14, and 18% (root), respectively. Defoliation also enhanced the uptake of N, P, and K in each plant part of soybean by 5, 5, and 10% (grain), 10, 17, and 13% (straw), and 14, 11, and 11% (root), respectively. The improved nutrient uptake in T2 increased the total biomass and its distribution in the root, straw, and grain of soybean and maize by 15 and 13%, and 21 and 15%, 20 and 14%, 7 and 10%, respectively compared to T0. On average, over two years, under T2, relay-cropped maize obtained 107% of the sole-yield, and relay-cropped soybean obtained 65% of the sole-yield. The T2 defoliation treatment also achieved the highest land equivalent ratio of 1.69 and 1.77, with a net profit of 1301.6 $ ha−1 and 1293.4 $ ha−1 in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Following the optimum defoliation treatment of maize in maize-soybean intercrops, i.e., defoliation of the topmost two-leaves, the nutrient uptake can be increased, and the nutrient partitioning over plant organs be better balanced. Optimum defoliation, therefore, enhances the productivity of maize-soybean intercropping systems.

Maize leaf-removal: A new agronomic approach to increase dry matter, flower number and seed-yield of soybean in maize soybean relay intercropping system
Raza, Muhammad Ali ; Feng, Ling Yang ; Werf, Wopke van der; Iqbal, Nasir ; Khalid, Muhammad Hayder Bin ; Chen, Yuan Kai ; Wasaya, Allah ; Ahmed, Shoaib ; Ud Din, Atta Mohi ; Khan, Ahsin ; Ahmed, Saeed ; Yang, Feng ; Yang, Wenyu - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-2322 - 1 p.

Shading conditions adversely affect flower-number and pod-number of soybeans under maize-soybean relay-intercropping (MSR). Here we reveal that leaf-removal from maize-canopy improves the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) transmittance and dry-matter production (DMP) of soybean (especially during the co-growth phase), and compensates the maize seed-yield loss by considerably increasing soybean seed-yield. In a two-year experiment with MSR, maize-plants were subjected to different leaf-removal treatments to increase the PAR-transmittance of soybean; removal of the topmost two-leaves (R2), four-leaves (R4), six-leaves (R6), with no-removal of leaves (R0). Leaf-removal treatments improved the PAR-transmittance, photosynthetic-rate, and morphological-characteristics of soybean under MSR. At 90 days after sowing, the dry-matter of pods, and seeds was increased by 25%, and 32%, respectively under R6 than R0. Importantly, enhanced PAR-transmittance and DMP under R6 enabled soybean to initiate a greater number of flowers 182.2 plant-1 compared to 142.7 plant-1 under R0, and it also decreased the flower-abscission (by 13%, from 54.9% under R0 to 47.6% under R6). These positive responses increased the pod-number by 49% and seed-number by 28% under R6 than R0. Overall, under R6, relay-intercropped soybean produced 78% of sole-soybean seed-yield, and relay-intercropped maize produced 81% of sole-maize seed-yield and achieved the land equivalent ratio of 1.59.

The power to define resilience in social–hydrological systems: Toward a power‐sensitive resilience framework
Dewulf, Art ; Karpouzoglou, Timos ; Warner, Jeroen ; Wesselink, Anna ; Mao, Feng ; Vos, Jeroen ; Tamas, Peter ; Groot, Annemarie E. ; Heijmans, Annelies ; Ahmed, Farhana ; Hoang, Long ; Vij, Sumit ; Buytaert, Wouter - \ 2019
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 6 (2019)6. - ISSN 2049-1948
Since the early work on defining and analyzing resilience in domains such as engineering, ecology and psychology, the concept has gained significant traction in many fields of research and practice. It has also become a very powerful justification for various policy goals in the water sector, evident in terms like flood resilience, river resilience, and water resilience. At the same time, a substantial body of literature has developed that questions the resilience concept's systems ontology, natural science roots and alleged conservatism, and criticizes resilience thinking for not addressing power issues. In this study, we review these critiques with the aim to develop a framework for power‐sensitive resilience analysis. We build on the three faces of power to conceptualize the power to define resilience. We structure our discussion of the relevant literature into five questions that need to be reflected upon when applying the resilience concept to social–hydrological systems. These questions address: (a) resilience of what, (b) resilience at what scale, (c) resilience to what, (d) resilience for what purpose, and (e) resilience for whom; and the implications of the political choices involved in defining these parameters for resilience building or analysis. Explicitly considering these questions enables making political choices explicit in order to support negotiation or contestation on how resilience is defined and used.
FgPex3, a Peroxisome Biogenesis Factor, Is Involved in Regulating Vegetative Growth, Conidiation, Sexual Development, and Virulence in Fusarium graminearum
Kong, Xiangjiu ; Zhang, Hao ; Wang, Xiaoliang ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Waalwijk, C. ; Diepeningen, A.D. van; Brankovics, Balázs ; Xu, Jin ; Xu, Jingsheng ; Chen, Wanquan ; Feng, Jie - \ 2019
Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-302X
Peroxisomes are involved in a wide range of important cellular functions. Here, the role of the peroxisomal membrane protein PEX3 in the plant-pathogen and mycotoxin producer Fusarium graminearum was studied using knock-out and complemented strains. To fluorescently label peroxisomes’ punctate structures, GFP and RFP fusions with the PTS1 and PTS2 localization signal were transformed into the wild type PH- 1 and 1FgPex3 knock-out strains. The GFP and RFP transformants in the 1FgPex3 background showed a diffuse fluorescence pattern across the cytoplasm suggesting the absence of mature peroxisomes. The 1FgPex3 strain showed a minor, non-significant reduction in growth on various sugar carbon sources. In contrast, deletion of FgPex3 affected fatty acid b-oxidation in F. graminearum and significantly reduced the utilization of fatty acids. Furthermore, the 1FgPex3 mutant was sensitive to osmotic stressors
as well as to cell wall-damaging agents. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the mutant had increased significantly, which may be linked to the reduced longevity of cultured strains. The mutant also showed reduced production of conidiospores, while sexual reproduction was completely impaired. The pathogenicity of 1FgPex3, especially during the process of systemic infection, was strongly reduced on both tomato and on wheat, while to production of deoxynivalenol (DON), an important factor for virulence, appeared to be unaffected.
Narrow-wide-row planting pattern increases the radiation use efficiency and seed yield of intercrop species in relay-intercropping system
Raza, Muhammad Ali ; Feng, Ling Yang ; Werf, Wopke van der; Cai, Gao Ren ; Khalid, Muhammad Hayder Bin ; Iqbal, Nasir ; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad ; Meraj, Tehseen Ahmad ; Naeem, Muhammd ; Khan, Imran ; Ur Rehman, Sana ; Ansar, Muhammad ; Ahmed, Mukhtar ; Yang, Feng ; Yang, Wenyu - \ 2019
Food and Energy Security 8 (2019)3. - ISSN 2048-3694
competition - intercropping - land equivalent ratio - radiation use efficiency

Planting arrangements affect radiation use efficiency (RUE) and competitiveness of intercrop species in intercropping systems. Here, we reveal that narrow-wide-row planting arrangement in maize-soybean relay-intercropping system increases the dry matter and competitiveness of soybean, increased the RUE of maize and soybean, and compensates the yield loss of maize by substantially increasing the yield of soybean. In this field study, maize was planted with soybean in different planting arrangements (P1, 20:180, P2, 40:160; P3, 60:140, and P4, 80:120) of relay intercropping, all the relay-intercropping treatments were compared with sole crops of maize (SM) and soybean (SS). Results showed that P1 improved the total RUE 3.26 g/MJ (maize RUE + soybean RUE) of maize and soybean in relay-intercropping system. Compared to P4, treatment P1 increased the soybean competition ratio (CR) values (by 55%) but reduced the maize CR values (by 29%), which in turn significantly improved the yield of soybean by maintaining the maize yield. Generally, in P1, soybean produced 82% of SS yield, and maize produced 88% of SM yield, and it achieved the land equivalent ratio of 1.7. These results suggest that by maintaining the appropriate planting distances between maize and soybean we can improve the competitiveness and yield of intercrop species in relay-intercropping system.

Seed maturation and post-harvest ripening negatively affect arabidopsis somatic embryogenesis
Wu, Han ; Chen, Baojian ; Fiers, Martijn ; Wróbel-Marek, Justyna ; Kodde, Jan ; Groot, Steven P.C. ; Angenent, Gerco ; Feng, Hui ; Bentsink, Leónie ; Boutilier, Kim - \ 2019
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture: an international journal on in vitro culture of higher plants 139 (2019)1. - ISSN 0167-6857 - p. 17 - 27.
ABA - Arabidopsis - Auxin - Post-harvest ripening - ROS - Seed maturation - Somatic embryogenesis

Plant development is highly malleable, as evidenced by the ability of cultured cells, tissues and organs to regenerate into whole plants in vitro. The ability of plants to regenerate in vitro is influenced by many different factors, including the donor plant growth conditions and the type of explant. Empirical trial and error manipulation of these and other culture parameters is the basis for improving plant regeneration protocols, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of these parameters on plant regeneration are unknown. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a type of in vitro plant regeneration where somatic/vegetative cells are induced to form embryos. Here we show that seed maturation is one of the parameters that affects the ability of germinating embryos to undergo auxin-induced somatic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Late maturation stage seeds harvested from yellow siliques have a higher capacity for somatic embryogenesis than seeds harvested later from brown siliques, a process that can be mimicked by post-harvest storage. Physiological and genetic analyses suggest that an oxidizing environment and ABA metabolism enhance the rate at which germinating embryos lose capacity to reactivate embryogenic growth. Our data suggest that there is a narrow window during late seed maturation in which embryogenic competence is reduced, and that this process also takes place, albeit more slowly, during seed storage. This knowledge provides a framework for identifying new plant totipotency factors and for directing efficient SE in systems that make use of mature seed explants.

Super-resolution land cover mapping based on the convolutional neural network
Jia, Yuanxin ; Ge, Yong ; Chen, Yuehong ; Li, Sanping ; Heuvelink, Gerard B.M. ; Ling, Feng - \ 2019
Remote Sensing 11 (2019)15. - ISSN 2072-4292
Convolutional neural network - Land cover - Remote sensing imagery - Super-resolution mapping

Super-resolution mapping (SRM) is used to obtain fine-scale land cover maps from coarse remote sensing images. Spatial attraction, geostatistics, and using prior geographic information are conventional approaches used to derive fine-scale land cover maps. As the convolutional neural network (CNN) has been shown to be effective in capturing the spatial characteristics of geographic objects and extrapolating calibrated methods to other study areas, it may be a useful approach to overcome limitations of current SRM methods. In this paper, a new SRM method based on the CNN (SRMCNN) is proposed and tested. Specifically, an encoder-decoder CNN is used to model the nonlinear relationship between coarse remote sensing images and fine-scale land cover maps. Two real-image experiments were conducted to analyze the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the overall accuracy of the proposed SRMCNN method was 3% to 5% higher than that of two existing SRM methods. Moreover, the proposed SRMCNN method was validated by visualizing output features and analyzing the performance of different geographic objects.

Persistence of land reallocations in Chinese villages: The role of village democracy and households’ knowledge of policy
Ren, Guangcheng ; Zhu, Xueqin ; Heerink, Nico ; Feng, S. ; Ierland, Ekko C. van - \ 2019
Journal of Rural Studies (2019). - ISSN 0743-0167
China - Households' knowledge of policy - Land reallocations - Land tenure security - Village democracy

Land reallocations have been severely restricted in rural China since 1998. Nevertheless, land continues to be reallocated in some regions. Little is known about the forces behind the persistence of land reallocations. In this paper we argue that village self-governance rules affect the implementation of national laws and regulations, and that the election of village leaders and villagers' knowledge of relevant policies are major forces in the use of village self-governance rules for land reallocations. Estimation results based on primary data collected from 124 villages in four provinces in 2015 and 2016 provide evidence that both village democracy and households’ knowledge of the Rural Land Contract Law (RLCL) positively affect the incidence of land reallocations.

Comparison of the Health Benefits of Different Types of Nature
Vries, Sjerp De - \ 2019
JAMA Network Open 2 (2019)7. - 2 p.
In their study, Astell-Burt and Feng1 address 2 important limitations of much of the research on contact with nearby nature and human health and well-being.2 The first one is its cross-sectional design, preventing the ability to draw firm conclusions regarding the causality of observed associations. The second one is that most studies do not distinguish between different types of green and/or blue space and consequently tell us little about which type of nature is most beneficial. In their study, they begin to address this gap by making efficient use of longitudinal health data already collected for other purposes and enriching these data with land-use data on the availability of green and blue space in the residential environment. Consequently, in addition to prevalence data, incidence data were available on high risk of psychological distress, physician-diagnosed anxiety and/or depression, and less than good self-rated health. Furthermore, they distinguished 3 types of vegetation: tree canopy, grass, and low-lying vegetation. They concluded that tree canopy may be more beneficial than the other 2 types.
Learning to cope with water variability through participatory monitoring: the case study of the Mountainous region, Nepal
Regmi, Santosh ; Bhusal, Jagat K. ; Gurung, Praju ; Zulkafli, Zed ; Karpouzoglou, T.D. ; Ochoa-Tocachi, Boris F. ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Mao, Feng - \ 2019
Meteorology Hydrology and Water Management 7 (2019)2. - ISSN 2299-3835 - 13 p.
Participatory monitoring allows communities to understand the use and management of local water resources and at the same time develop a sense of ownership of environmental information. The data generated through
participatory monitoring of stream flow and rainfall generate evidences to corroborate local people’s experiences with changing water resources patterns. In this study we evaluate the potential of participatory monitoring of hydrological
variables to improve scarce water supply utilization in agriculture. The case study site is the Mustang district in Nepal, which is located in the Upper Kaligandaki River Basin in the Himalayas with unique and complex geographical
and climatic features. This region is characterized by a semi-arid climate with total annual precipitation of less than 300 mm. Water supply, agricultural land, and livestock grazing are the key ecosystem services that underpin livelihood
security of the local population, particularly socio-economically vulnerable groups. An analysis of the measured stream flow data indicate that annual flow of water in the stream can meet the current crop irrigation water needs for
the agricultural land of the research site. The data provide local farmers a new way of understanding local water needs. Participatory monitoring would contribute to an optimization of the use of ecosystem services to support economic
development and livelihood improvement.
sPlot – A new tool for global vegetation analyses
Bruelheide, Helge ; Dengler, Jürgen ; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja ; Purschke, Oliver ; Hennekens, Stephan M. ; Chytrý, Milan ; Pillar, Valério D. ; Jansen, Florian ; Kattge, Jens ; Sandel, Brody ; Aubin, Isabelle ; Biurrun, Idoia ; Field, Richard ; Haider, Sylvia ; Jandt, Ute ; Lenoir, Jonathan ; Peet, Robert K. ; Peyre, Gwendolyn ; Sabatini, Francesco Maria ; Schmidt, Marco ; Schrodt, Franziska ; Winter, Marten ; Aćić, Svetlana ; Agrillo, Emiliano ; Alvarez, Miguel ; Ambarlı, Didem ; Angelini, Pierangela ; Apostolova, Iva ; Arfin Khan, Mohammed A.S. ; Arnst, Elise ; Attorre, Fabio ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Beckmann, Michael ; Berg, Christian ; Bergeron, Yves ; Bergmeier, Erwin ; Bjorkman, Anne D. ; Bondareva, Viktoria ; Borchardt, Peter ; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán ; Boyle, Brad ; Breen, Amy ; Brisse, Henry ; Byun, Chaeho ; Cabido, Marcelo R. ; Casella, Laura ; Cayuela, Luis ; Černý, Tomáš ; Chepinoga, Victor ; Csiky, János ; Curran, Michael ; Ćušterevska, Renata ; Dajić Stevanović, Zora ; Bie, Els De; Ruffray, Patrice de; Sanctis, Michele De; Dimopoulos, Panayotis ; Dressler, Stefan ; Ejrnæs, Rasmus ; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.E.R.M. ; Enquist, Brian ; Ewald, Jörg ; Fagúndez, Jaime ; Finckh, Manfred ; Font, Xavier ; Forey, Estelle ; Fotiadis, Georgios ; García-Mijangos, Itziar ; Gasper, André Luis de; Golub, Valentin ; Gutierrez, Alvaro G. ; Hatim, Mohamed Z. ; He, Tianhua ; Higuchi, Pedro ; Holubová, Dana ; Hölzel, Norbert ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Indreica, Adrian ; Işık Gürsoy, Deniz ; Jansen, Steven ; Janssen, John ; Jedrzejek, Birgit ; Jiroušek, Martin ; Jürgens, Norbert ; Kącki, Zygmunt ; Kavgacı, Ali ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kessler, Michael ; Knollová, Ilona ; Kolomiychuk, Vitaliy ; Korolyuk, Andrey ; Kozhevnikova, Maria ; Kozub, Łukasz ; Krstonošić, Daniel ; Kühl, Hjalmar ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Kuzemko, Anna ; Küzmič, Filip ; Landucci, Flavia ; Lee, Michael T. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Li, Ching Feng ; Liu, Hongyan ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lysenko, Tatiana ; Macanović, Armin ; Mahdavi, Parastoo ; Manning, Peter ; Marcenò, Corrado ; Martynenko, Vassiliy ; Mencuccini, Maurizio ; Minden, Vanessa ; Moeslund, Jesper Erenskjold ; Moretti, Marco ; Müller, Jonas V. ; Munzinger, Jérôme ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Nobis, Marcin ; Noroozi, Jalil ; Nowak, Arkadiusz ; Onyshchenko, Viktor ; Overbeck, Gerhard E. ; Ozinga, Wim A. ; Pauchard, Anibal ; Pedashenko, Hristo ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Pérez-Haase, Aaron ; Peterka, Tomáš ; Petřík, Petr ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Prokhorov, Vadim ; Rašomavičius, Valerijus ; Revermann, Rasmus ; Rodwell, John ; Ruprecht, Eszter ; Rūsiņa, Solvita ; Samimi, Cyrus ; Schaminée, Joop H.J. ; Schmiedel, Ute ; Šibík, Jozef ; Šilc, Urban ; Škvorc, Željko ; Smyth, Anita ; Sop, Tenekwetche ; Sopotlieva, Desislava ; Sparrow, Ben ; Stančić, Zvjezdana ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Swacha, Grzegorz ; Tang, Zhiyao ; Tsiripidis, Ioannis ; Turtureanu, Pavel Dan ; Uğurlu, Emin ; Uogintas, Domas ; Valachovič, Milan ; Vanselow, Kim André ; Vashenyak, Yulia ; Vassilev, Kiril ; Vélez-Martin, Eduardo ; Venanzoni, Roberto ; Vibrans, Alexander Christian ; Violle, Cyrille ; Virtanen, Risto ; Wehrden, Henrik von; Wagner, Viktoria ; Walker, Donald A. ; Wana, Desalegn ; Weiher, Evan ; Wesche, Karsten ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Willner, Wolfgang ; Wiser, Susan ; Wohlgemuth, Thomas ; Yamalov, Sergey ; Zizka, Georg ; Zverev, Andrei - \ 2019
Journal of Vegetation Science 30 (2019)2. - ISSN 1100-9233 - p. 161 - 186.
biodiversity - community ecology - ecoinformatics - functional diversity - global scale - macroecology - phylogenetic diversity - plot database - sPlot - taxonomic diversity - vascular plant - vegetation relevé

Aims: Vegetation-plot records provide information on the presence and cover or abundance of plants co-occurring in the same community. Vegetation-plot data are spread across research groups, environmental agencies and biodiversity research centers and, thus, are rarely accessible at continental or global scales. Here we present the sPlot database, which collates vegetation plots worldwide to allow for the exploration of global patterns in taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity at the plant community level. Results: sPlot version 2.1 contains records from 1,121,244 vegetation plots, which comprise 23,586,216 records of plant species and their relative cover or abundance in plots collected worldwide between 1885 and 2015. We complemented the information for each plot by retrieving climate and soil conditions and the biogeographic context (e.g., biomes) from external sources, and by calculating community-weighted means and variances of traits using gap-filled data from the global plant trait database TRY. Moreover, we created a phylogenetic tree for 50,167 out of the 54,519 species identified in the plots. We present the first maps of global patterns of community richness and community-weighted means of key traits. Conclusions: The availability of vegetation plot data in sPlot offers new avenues for vegetation analysis at the global scale.

Maize varieties can strengthen positive plant-soil feedback through beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal mutualists
Wang, Xin Xin ; Hoffland, Ellis ; Mommer, Liesje ; Feng, Gu ; Kuyper, Thomas W. - \ 2019
Mycorrhiza 29 (2019)3. - ISSN 0940-6360 - p. 251 - 261.
AMF species - Maize varieties - Plant-soil feedback - Soil conditioning

Plant-soil feedback (PSF) describes the process whereby plant species modify the soil environment, which subsequently impacts the growth of the same or another plant species. Our aim was to explore PSF by two maize varieties (a landrace and a hybrid variety) and three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species (Funneliformis mosseae, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Gigaspora margarita, and the mixture). We carried out a pot experiment with a conditioning and a feedback phase to determine PSF with different species of AMF and with a non-mycorrhizal control. Sterilized soil was conditioned separately by each variety, with or without AMF; in the feedback phase, each soil community was used to grow each in its “home” soil and in the “away” soil. Plant performance was assessed as shoot biomass, phosphorus (P) concentration and P content, and fungal performance was assessed as mycorrhizal colonization and hyphal length density. Both maize varieties were differentially influenced by AMF in the conditioning phase. In the feedback phase, PSF was generally negative for non-mycorrhizal plants or when plants were colonized by G. margarita, whereas PSF was positive in the other three AMF treatments. When plants were grown on home soil, hyphal length density was larger than on away soil. We conclude that different maize varieties can strengthen positive plant-soil feedback for themselves through beneficial mutualists for themselves, but not across the maize varieties.

Fate and effects of triclosan in subtropical river biofilms
Zhang, Naisheng S. ; Peng, Feng-Jiao ; Ying, G.G. ; Brink, P.J. van den - \ 2019
Aquatic Toxicology 212 (2019). - ISSN 0166-445X - p. 11 - 19.
Triclosan (TCS, 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) phenol) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound. Owing to its wide use, TCS has been frequently detected in river systems, especially in the (sub-)tropics. However, little information on its interaction with river biofilm in the (sub)tropics is currently available. In the present study, subtropical river biofilms were chronically exposed to TCS for 14 d at concentrations of 0.1–100 μg/L in artificial river water, which was followed by a 7 d recovery period. The results show that 100 μg/L TCS inhibited the growth of river biofilms and the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) of TCS on river biofilms was 10 μg/L. The affected biofilms did not completely recover within the 7 d of recovery period due to the adsorbed TCS which was not removed together with dissolved TCS. Exposure to TCS caused significant changes in prokaryotic species composition of river biofilms but no significant effects on eukaryotic species composition. In particular, the relative abundance of several TCS-tolerant bacterial species (e.g., Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana, Sphingopyxis alaskensis and Sphingomonas wittichii) in river biofilms increased following exposure to 10 and 100 μg/L TCS. River biofilm efficiently removed TCS from the liquid phase and the pH values of the aquatic system significantly affected the removal efficiency of TCS (from 36% at pH 6.5 to 60% at pH 8.5). No degradation products were detected in the liquid phase after 5 days of exposure, possibly due to strong adsorption of the hydrophobic degradation products to river biofilms and through biodegradation by bacteria utilizing TCS and its degradation products as source of carbon and energy for growth, such as Methyloversalitis universalis and Methylobacterium aquaticum.
Response of sediment bacterial community to triclosan in subtropical freshwater benthic microcosms
Peng, Feng Jiao ; Diepens, Noël J. ; Pan, Chang Gui ; Ying, Guang Guo ; Salvito, Daniel ; Selck, Henriette ; Brink, Paul J. Van den - \ 2019
Environmental Pollution 248 (2019). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 676 - 683.
Benthic macroinvertebrates - Microcosm - Sediment bacterial community - Toxicity - Triclosan

The response of sediment bacterial communities in subtropical freshwater benthic microcosms to sediment-associated triclosan (TCS; 28 d exposure) was analysed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. This study highlights the interactive effects of TCS and the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates (Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Viviparidae bellamya) on sediment bacterial communities. Our results show that TCS alone significantly altered the taxonomic composition and decreased alpha diversity of sediment bacterial communities at concentrations ≥80 μg TCS/g dry weight (dw) sediment (sed). Regarding dominant phyla, TCS significantly reduced the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes at these concentrations, whereas the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria increased. In the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates, the sediment bacterial community was affected by 8 μg TCS/g dw sed as well. However, the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates did not cause measurable changes to bacterial community in unspiked (i.e., control) sediment. These results indicate that TCS alone would not alter the sediment bacterial community at environmentally relevant concentrations (up till 8 μg/g dw sed), but may have an effect in combination with the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, we recommend to include benthic macroinvertebrates when assessing the response of sediment bacterial communities during exposure to environmental stress such as organic contaminants.

Perceptions of Land Tenure Security in Rural China: The Impact of Land Reallocations and Certification
Ren, Guangcheng ; Zhu, Xueqin ; Heerink, Nico ; Feng, Shuyi ; Ierland, Ekko van - \ 2019
Society & Natural Resources 32 (2019)12. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 1399 - 1415.
Household perceptions - land certificates - land tenure security - probit model - rural China

Tenure security is commonly recognized as an important factor in stimulating long-term investments in land. Recent studies suggest that a distinction between legal, actual and perceived tenure security needs to be made in analyzing tenure security. This study discusses the relationships between legal, actual and perceived land tenure security in rural China, and empirically examines the impact of actual on perceived land tenure security by applying Probit models to household and village survey data collected in four provinces. Using household expectations about the absence of land reallocations within the next five years as the dependent variable, we find that tenure security is positively affected by the possession of land certificates in villages that periodically reallocated land but not in villages that did not do so. The estimated impact is larger for land certificates issued in the new round of land certification than for land certificates that were issued earlier.

Correction to: In Vitro Seeding Activity of Glycoform-Deficient Prions from Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy and Familial CJD Associated with PrPV180I Mutation
Wang, Zerui ; Yuan, Jue ; Shen, Pingping ; Abskharon, Romany ; Lang, Yue ; Dang, Johnny ; Adornato, Alise ; Xu, Ling ; Chen, Jiafeng ; Feng, Jiachun ; Moudjou, Mohammed ; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki ; Langeveld, Jan ; Appleby, Brian ; Ma, Jiyan ; Kong, Qingzhong ; Petersen, Robert B. ; Zou, Wen Quan ; Cui, Li - \ 2019
Molecular Neurobiology 56 (2019)8. - ISSN 0893-7648 - p. 5470 - 5470.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The email address Dr. Wen-Quan Zou, one of the corresponding authors should be written as “wxz6@case.edu” instead of “wxz@case.edu”.

Insights into the sediment toxicity of personal care products to freshwater oligochaete worms using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Peng, Feng Jiao ; Hu, Li Xin ; Pan, Chang Gui ; Ying, Guang Guo ; Brink, Paul J. van den - \ 2019
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 172 (2019). - ISSN 0147-6513 - p. 296 - 302.
Biochemical fingerprint - Deposit-feeder - FTIR spectroscopy - Microcosm - Musk - Triclosan

Personal care products (PCPs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to their wide use in daily life. However, there are insufficient sediment toxicity data of PCPs under ecologically relevant conditions. Here we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to investigate the sediment toxicity of triclosan (TCS) and galaxolide (HHCB) to two freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Branchiura sowerbyi, in microcosms containing a diverse biological community. Exposure to 8 µg TCS/g and 100 µg HHCB/g dry weight (dw) sediment induced significant biochemical alterations in the L. hoffmeisteri tissue. 8 µg TCS/g primarily affected proteins and nucleic acid while 100 µg HHCB/g mainly affected proteins and lipids of L. hoffmeisteri. However, 0.8 µg TCS/g and 30 µg HHCB/g did not cause significant subcellular toxicity to L. hoffmeisteri. In contrast, exposure of B. sowerbyi to 30 µg HHCB/g led to significant biochemical changes, including proteins, polysaccharides and lipids. Therefore, B. sowerbyi was more sensitive to sediment-associated HHCB than L. hoffmeisteri. Such effects were significantly enhanced when the HHCB concentration increased to 100 µg/g dw where death of B. sowerbyi occurred. These results demonstrate the application of FTIR spectroscopy to sediment toxicity testing of chemicals to benthic invertebrates with biochemical alterations as endpoints that are more sensitive than standard toxic endpoints (e.g., survival and growth).

In Vitro Seeding Activity of Glycoform-Deficient Prions from Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy and Familial CJD Associated with PrPV180I Mutation
Wang, Zerui ; Yuan, Jue ; Shen, Pingping ; Abskharon, Romany ; Lang, Yue ; Dang, Johnny ; Adornato, Alise ; Xu, Ling ; Chen, Jiafeng ; Feng, Jiachun ; Moudjou, Mohammed ; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki ; Langeveld, Jan ; Appleby, Brian ; Ma, Jiyan ; Kong, Qingzhong ; Petersen, Robert B. ; Zou, Wen Quan ; Cui, Li - \ 2019
Molecular Neurobiology 56 (2019)8. - ISSN 0893-7648 - p. 5456 - 5469.
Humanized transgenic mice - Polymorphism - Prion - Prion disease - Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) - Serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) - Variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr)

Both sporadic variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to the prion protein (PrP) V180I mutation (fCJDV180I) have been found to share a unique pathological prion protein (PrPSc) that lacks the protease-resistant PrPSc glycosylated at residue 181 because two of four PrP glycoforms are apparently not converted into the PrPSc from their cellular PrP (PrPC). To investigate the seeding activity of these unique PrPSc molecules, we conducted in vitro prion conversion experiments using serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) and real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays with different PrPC substrates. We observed that the seeding of PrPSc from VPSPr or fCJDV180I in the sPMCA reaction containing normal human or humanized transgenic (Tg) mouse brain homogenates generated PrPSc molecules that unexpectedly exhibited a dominant diglycosylated PrP isoform along with PrP monoglycosylated at residue 181. The efficiency of PrPSc amplification was significantly higher in non-CJDMM than in non-CJDVV human brain homogenate, whereas it was higher in normal TgVV than in TgMM mouse brain homogenate. PrPC from the mixture of normal TgMM and Tg mouse brain expressing PrPV180I mutation (Tg180) but not TgV180I alone was converted into PrPSc by seeding with the VPSPr or fCJDV180I. The RT-QuIC seeding activity of PrPSc from VPSPr and fCJDV180I was significantly lower than that of sCJD. Our results suggest that the formation of glycoform-selective prions may be associated with an unidentified factor in the affected brain and the glycoform-deficiency of PrPSc does not affect the glycoforms of in vitro newly amplified PrPSc.

Global atmospheric CO2 inverse models converging on neutral tropical land exchange, but disagreeing on fossil fuel and atmospheric growth rate
Gaubert, Benjamin ; Stephens, Britton B. ; Basu, Sourish ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Deng, Feng ; Kort, Eric A. ; Patra, Prabir K. ; Peters, Wouter ; Rödenbeck, Christian ; Saeki, Tazu ; Schimel, David ; Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid van der; Wofsy, Steven ; Yin, Yi - \ 2019
Biogeosciences 16 (2019)1. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 117 - 134.

We have compared a suite of recent global CO2 atmospheric inversion results to independent airborne observations and to each other, to assess their dependence on differences in northern extratropical (NET) vertical transport and to identify some of the drivers of model spread. We evaluate posterior CO2 concentration profiles against observations from the High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-To-Pole Observations (HIPPO) aircraft campaigns over the mid-Pacific in 2009-2011. Although the models differ in inverse approaches, assimilated observations, prior fluxes, and transport models, their broad latitudinal separation of land fluxes has converged significantly since the Atmospheric Carbon Cycle Inversion Intercomparison (TransCom 3) and the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) projects, with model spread reduced by 80% since TransCom 3 and 70% since RECCAP. Most modeled CO2 fields agree reasonably well with the HIPPO observations, specifically for the annual mean vertical gradients in the Northern Hemisphere. Northern Hemisphere vertical mixing no longer appears to be a dominant driver of northern versus tropical (T) annual flux differences. Our newer suite of models still gives northern extratropical land uptake that is modest relative to previous estimates (Gurney et al., 2002; Peylin et al., 2013) and near-neutral tropical land uptake for 2009- 2011. Given estimates of emissions from deforestation, this implies a continued uptake in intact tropical forests that is strong relative to historical estimates (Gurney et al., 2002; Peylin et al., 2013). The results from these models for other time periods (2004-2014, 2001-2004, 1992-1996) and reevaluation of the TransCom 3 Level 2 and RECCAP results confirm that tropical land carbon fluxes including deforestation have been near neutral for several decades. However, models still have large disagreements on ocean-land partitioning. The fossil fuel (FF) and the atmospheric growth rate terms have been thought to be the best-known terms in the global carbon budget, but we show that they currently limit our ability to assess regional-scale terrestrial fluxes and ocean-land partitioning from the model ensemble.

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