Records 1 - 20 / 259
Associations between socio-environmental factors and landscape-scale biodiversity recovery in naturally regenerating tropical and subtropical forests
Crouzeilles, Renato ; Maurenza, Daniel ; Prieto, Pablo V. ; Barros, Felipe S.M. ; Jakovac, Catarina ; Ferreira, Mariana S. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Lindenmayer, David B. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Ceccon, Eliane ; Adams, Cristina ; Lazos-Chavero, Elena ; Monteiro, Lara ; Junqueira, André B. ; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N. ; Guariguata, Manuel R. - \ 2020
Conservation Letters (2020). - ISSN 1755-263X
forest landscape restoration - meta-analysis - natural regeneration - restoration benefits - socioeconomic and biophysical factors
Natural regeneration is key for large-scale forest restoration, yet it may lead to different biodiversity outcomes depending on socio-environmental context. We combined the results of a global meta-analysis to quantify how biodiversity recovery in naturally regenerating forests deviates from biodiversity values in reference old-growth forests, with structural equation modeling, to identify direct and indirect associations between socioeconomic, biophysical and ecological factors and deviation in biodiversity recovery at a landscape scale. Low deviation within a landscape means higher chances of multiple sites in naturally regenerating forests successfully recovering biodiversity compared to reference forests. Deviation in biodiversity recovery was directly negatively associated with the percentage of cropland, forest cover, and positively associated with the percentage of urban areas in the surrounding landscape. These three factors mediated the indirect associations with rural population size, recent gross deforestation, time since natural regeneration started, mean annual temperature, mean annual water deficit, road density, land opportunity cost, percentage cover of strictly protected forest areas, and human population variation in the surrounding landscape. We suggest that natural forest restoration should be prioritized in landscapes with both low socioeconomic pressures on land use conversion to pasturelands and urban areas, and high percentage of forest cover.
Study about Food Choice Determinants According to Six Types of Conditioning Motivations in a Sample of 11,960 Participants
Guina, Raquel P.F. ; Bartkiene, Elena ; Ucs, Viktória S. ; Tarcea, Monica ; LjubičicÂ´, Marija ; Ernelič-Bizjak, Maša C. ; Isoldi, Kathy ; El-Kenawy, Ayman ; Ferreira, Vanessa ; Straumite, Evita ; Korzeniowska, Małgorzata ; Vittadini, Elena ; Leal, Marcela ; Frez-Munõz, Lucia ; Papageorgiou, Maria ; Djekíc, Ilija ; Ferreira, Manuela ; Correia, Paula ; Cardoso, Ana Paula ; Duarte, Joaõ - \ 2020
Foods 9 (2020)7. - ISSN 2304-8158
Eating determinants - Emotions - Feeding behavior - Healthy diet - Instrument validation - Socio-cultural environment
Many aspects linked to personal characteristics, society and culture constitute some of the motivators that drive food choice. The aim of this work was to determine in what extent the eating behaviors of individuals are shaped by six different types of determinants, namely: Health, emotions, price and availability, society and culture, environment and politics, and marketing and commercials. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, involving a non-probabilistic sample of 11,960 participants from 16 countries. The objective of this work was to validate the questionnaire, so as to make it suitable for application in different contexts and different countries. For that, six scales were considered for validation by confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modelling. The obtained results showed that the six individual scales evaluated presented good or very good fitting indices, with saturation in goodness-of-fit index in all cases. The values of chi-square ratio were 6.921 (for health), 0.987 (environment), 0.610 (emotions) and 0.000 in the remaining cases (convenience, society, marketing). Furthermore, the fit was perfect, with saturation for all indices, in three of the six models (convenience, society and marketing). The results of this wok allowed the validation of the six scales, and the assessing of different types of factors that can influence food choices and eating behaviors, namely in the categories: Health, emotions, price and availability, society and culture, environment and politics, and marketing and commercials.Â
Maladaptive Planning and the Pro-Innovation Bias: Considering the Case of Automated Vehicles
Ferreira, Antonio ; Schönfeld, Kim von; Tan, W.G.Z. ; Papa, Enrica - \ 2020
Urban Science 4 (2020)3. - ISSN 2413-8851
This article argues that a more critical approach to innovation policy within planning is needed and offers recommendations for achieving this. These recommendations entail rethinking the values, focus, speed, and legitimacy of innovations. It takes a critical perspective on how contemporary societies treat rapid innovation as having necessarily positive results in the achievement of objectives such as sustainability and justice. This critical perspective is needed because innovation can both contribute to and drive a form of maladaptive planning: a collective approach to reality that imposes constant and rapid changes to societal configurations due to an obsession with the new and with too little rapport with the problems in place or that it creates. A maladaptive direction for transport planning is used as a sectorial illustration of the broader conceptual ideas presented: for both sustainability and social justice reasons, it would be desirable to see peak car occurring. However, the car industry is presenting driving automation as an innovation with the potential to restore the vitality of the private vehicles market while creating effective means to dismiss alternatives to car dominance. View Full-Text
Climate Change and European Fisheries and Aquaculture: CERES Project Synthesis Report
Peck, Myron A. ; Catalán, Ignacio A. ; Damalas, D. ; Elliot, M. ; Ferreira, J.G. ; Hamon, K.G. ; Kamermans, P. ; Kay, S. ; Kreiss, C.M. ; Pinnegar, J.K. ; Sailley, Sévrine ; Taylor, N.G.H. - \ 2020
Hamburg : University of Hamburg - 110 p.
The global abundance of tree palms
Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1495 - 1514.
above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density
Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.
Long-term effect of composted tannery sludge on soil chemical and biological parameters
Araujo, Ademir Sergio Ferreira ; Melo, Wanderley José de; Araujo, Fabio Fernando ; Brink, Paul J. Van den - \ 2020
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27 (2020). - ISSN 0944-1344 - p. 41885 - 41892.
Environmental contamination - Industrial waste - Metals - Soil quality
Composting has been recommended as a suitable alternative for recycling wastes and could improve tannery sludge (TS) before its use. However, the long-term application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) may bring concerns about its effects on soil properties and, consequently, on plants and environment, mainly when considering Cr contamination. In this study, we summarize the responses of soil chemical and biological parameters in a 10-year study with yearly applications of CTS. Chemical and biological parameters were assessed in soil samples, and the multivariate analysis method principal response curve (PRC) was used to show the temporal changes in all the biological and chemical properties caused by CTS. The PRC analysis showed different long-term response patterns of chemical and biological parameters according to the rates of CTS. Interestingly, Cr content increased strongly in the first 5 years and only increased slightly in the following 5 years. The yearly applications of CTS changed the biological and chemical parameters of the soil, negatively and positively, respectively. Organic matter, K and P, increased during the 10 years of application, while soil pH and Cr concentration increased, and soil microbial biomass and enzymes activity decreased.
Relationship of weather types on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield in the western Mediterranean basin
Peña-Angulo, D. ; Nadal-Romero, E. ; González-Hidalgo, J.C. ; Albaladejo, J. ; Andreu, V. ; Barhi, H. ; Bernal, S. ; Biddoccu, M. ; Bienes, R. ; Campo, J. ; Campo-Bescós, M.A. ; Canatário-Duarte, A. ; Cantón, Y. ; Casali, J. ; Castillo, V. ; Cavallo, E. ; Cerdà, A. ; Cid, P. ; Cortesi, N. ; Desir, G. ; Díaz-Pereira, E. ; Espigares, T. ; Estrany, J. ; Farguell, J. ; Fernández-Raga, M. ; Ferreira, C.S. ; Ferro, V. ; Gallart, F. ; Giménez, R. ; Gimeno, E. ; Gómez, J.A. ; Gómez-Gutiérrez, A. ; Gómez-Macpherson, H. ; González-Pelayo, O. ; Kairis, O. ; Karatzas, G.P. ; Keesstra, S. ; Klotz, S. ; Kosmas, C. ; Lana-Renault, N. ; Lasanta, T. ; Latron, J. ; Lázaro, R. ; Bissonnais, Y. Le; Bouteiller, C. Le; Licciardello, F. ; López-Tarazón, J.A. ; Lucía, A. ; Marín-Moreno, V.M. ; Marín, C. ; Marqués, M.J. ; Martínez-Fernández, J. ; Martínez-Mena, M. ; Mateos, L. ; Mathys, N. ; Merino-Martín, L. ; Moreno-de las Heras, M. ; Moustakas, N. ; Nicolau, J.M. ; Pampalone, V. ; Raclot, D. ; Rodríguez-Blanco, M.L. ; Rodrigo-Comino, J. ; Romero-Díaz, A. ; Ruiz-Sinoga, J.D. ; Rubio, J.L. ; Schnabel, S. ; Senciales-González, J.M. ; Solé-Benet, A. ; Taguas, E.V. ; Taboada-Castro, M.T. ; Taboada-Castro, M.M. ; Todisco, F. ; Úbeda, X. ; Varouchakis, E.A. ; Wittenberg, L. ; Zabaleta, A. ; Zorn, M. - \ 2020
Atmosphere 11 (2020)6. - ISSN 2073-4433
Erosion - Mediterraneanbasin - Rainfall - Runoff - Seasonal analyses - Sediment yield - Weather types
Rainfall is the key factor to understand soil erosion processes, mechanisms, and rates. Most research was conducted to determine rainfall characteristics and their relationship with soil erosion (erosivity) but there is little information about how atmospheric patterns control soil losses, and this is important to enable sustainable environmental planning and risk prevention. We investigated the temporal and spatial variability of the relationships of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield with atmospheric patterns (weather types, WTs) in the western Mediterranean basin. For this purpose, we analyzed a large database of rainfall events collected between 1985 and 2015 in 46 experimental plots and catchments with the aim to: (i) evaluate seasonal differences in the contribution of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield produced by the WTs; and (ii) to analyze the seasonal efficiency of the different WTs (relation frequency and magnitude) related to rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield. The results indicate two different temporal patterns: the first weather type exhibits (during the cold period: autumn and winter) westerly flows that produce the highest rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield values throughout the territory; the second weather type exhibits easterly flows that predominate during the warm period (spring and summer) and it is located on the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, the cyclonic situations present high frequency throughout the whole year with a large influence extended around the western Mediterranean basin. Contrary, the anticyclonic situations, despite of its high frequency, do not contribute significantly to the total rainfall, runoff, and sediment (showing the lowest efficiency) because of atmospheric stability that currently characterize this atmospheric pattern. Our approach helps to better understand the relationship of WTs on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield with a regional scale based on the large dataset and number of soil erosion experimental stations.
Biased-corrected richness estimates for the Amazonian tree flora
Steege, Hans ter; Prado, Paulo I. ; Lima, Renato A.F. de; Pos, Edwin ; Souza Coelho, Luiz de; Andrade Lima Filho, Diogenes de; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Amaral, Iêda Leão ; Almeida Matos, Francisca Dionízia de; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Guevara, Juan Ernesto ; Jesus Veiga Carim, Marcelo de; Cárdenas López, Dairon ; Magnusson, William E. ; Wittmann, Florian ; Martins, Maria Pires ; Sabatier, Daniel ; Irume, Mariana Victória ; Silva Guimarães, José Renan da; Molino, Jean François ; Bánki, Olaf S. ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Ramos, José Ferreira ; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel ; Venticinque, Eduardo Martins ; Luize, Bruno Garcia ; Núñez Vargas, Percy ; Silva, Thiago Sanna Freire ; Leão Novo, Evlyn Márcia Moraes de; Reis, Neidiane Farias Costa ; Terborgh, John ; Manzatto, Angelo Gilberto ; Casula, Katia Regina ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Duque, Alvaro ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Castaño Arboleda, Nicolás ; Schöngart, Jochen ; Zartman, Charles Eugene ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Vasquez, Rodolfo ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Demarchi, Layon O. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Engel, Julien ; Petronelli, Pascal ; Baraloto, Chris ; Assis, Rafael L. ; Castellanos, Hernán ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Quaresma, Adriano ; Laurance, Susan G.W. ; Rincón, Lorena M. ; Andrade, Ana ; Sousa, Thaiane R. ; Camargo, José Luís ; Schietti, Juliana ; Laurance, William F. ; Queiroz, Helder Lima de; Nascimento, Henrique Eduardo Mendonça ; Lopes, Maria Aparecida ; Sousa Farias, Emanuelle de; Magalhães, José Leonardo Lima ; Brienen, Roel ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Revilla, Juan David Cardenas ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Cintra, Bruno Barçante Ladvocat ; Stevenson, Pablo R. ; Feitosa, Yuri Oliveira ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Mogollón, Hugo F. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Lozada, José Rafael ; Comiskey, James A. ; Toledo, José Julio de; Damasco, Gabriel ; Dávila, Nállarett ; Lopes, Aline ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Draper, Freddie ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Cornejo Valverde, Fernando ; Lloyd, Jon ; Gomes, Vitor H.F. ; Neill, David ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Maas, Paul ; Baker, Tim R. ; Andel, Tinde R. van; Noronha, Janaína Costa ; Barbosa, Edelcilio Marques ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Tirado, Milton ; Wang, Ophelia ; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade ; Flores, Bernardo Monteiro - \ 2020
Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
Amazonian forests are extraordinarily diverse, but the estimated species richness is very much debated. Here, we apply an ensemble of parametric estimators and a novel technique that includes conspecific spatial aggregation to an extended database of forest plots with up-to-date taxonomy. We show that the species abundance distribution of Amazonia is best approximated by a logseries with aggregated individuals, where aggregation increases with rarity. By averaging several methods to estimate total richness, we confirm that over 15,000 tree species are expected to occur in Amazonia. We also show that using ten times the number of plots would result in an increase to just ~50% of those 15,000 estimated species. To get a more complete sample of all tree species, rigorous field campaigns may be needed but the number of trees in Amazonia will remain an estimate for years to come.
Allying knowledge integration and co-production for knowledge legitimacy and usability : The Amazonian SISA policy and the Kaxinawá Indigenous people case
Matuk, Fernanda Ayaviri ; Turnhout, Esther ; Fleskens, Luuk ; Amaral, Eufran Ferreira do; Haverroth, Moacir ; Behagel, Jelle Hendrik - \ 2020
Environmental Science & Policy 112 (2020). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 1 - 9.
Adaptive co-management - Assessment - Environmental policy - Ethnoecology - Ethnopedology - Indigenous and Local Knowledge - Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities - Knowledge systems - Participation - REDD+ - Science-policy interface - Transdisciplinarity
Environmental policies that aim to enhance nature conservation, biodiversity, and well-being of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLC) rely on knowledge integration and co-production processes that include both science and Indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) systems. While these processes are expected to safeguard the diversity of knowledge systems, uneven power relations among participants often prevent them from achieving this which can affect the legitimacy and usability of the outcomes of these processes. Using a case study in the Acre state (Brazil), where policy practitioners implemented the REDD + policy System of Incentives for Ecosystem Services in the Brazilian Kaxinawá Nova Olinda Indigenous Land, we investigate how participants manage challenges to safeguard knowledge diversity and usability during policy assessment and planning. Our findings show how, despite the use of participatory approaches, knowledge diversity ended up being compromised because policy practitioners were insufficiently attentive to power asymmetries and their implications. This, however, did not negatively affect the usability of the knowledge outcomes. Rather than focusing on the perfection of participatory methods, we call for a practical ethics that relies on culturally and ethically sensitive dialogues and that include continuous reflection. Such reflection will enable adaptation and improvisation to be able to respond to emerging power dynamics in an adequate and timely manner, thereby ensuring both the legitimacy and the usability of the outcomes of knowledge integration and co-production.
Visual assessment of the impact of agricultural management practices on soil quality
Alaoui, Abdallah ; Barão, Lúcia ; Ferreira, Carla S.S. ; Schwilch, Gudrun ; Basch, Gottlieb ; Garcia-Orenes, Fuensanta ; Morugan, Alicia ; Mataix-Solera, Jorge ; Kosmas, Costas ; Glavan, Matjaž ; Szabó, Brigitta ; Hermann, Tamás ; Vizitiu, Olga Petrutza ; Lipiec, Jerzy ; Frąc, Magdalena ; Reintam, Endla ; Xu, Minggang ; Di, Jiaying ; Fan, Hongzhu ; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Lemesle, Julie ; Geissen, Violette ; Fleskens, Luuk - \ 2020
Agronomy Journal 112 (2020)4. - ISSN 0002-1962 - p. 2608 - 2623.
The intensification of agricultural practices to increase food and feed outputs is a pressing challenge causing deterioration of soil quality and soil functions. Such a challenge demands provision of empirical evidence to provide context-sensitive guidance on agricultural management practices (AMPs) that may enhance soil quality. The objectives of this study are to identify the most promising AMPs (and their combinations) applied by farmers with the most positive effects on soil quality and to evaluate the sensitivity of the soil quality indicators to the applied AMPs. The effect of selected AMPs on soil quality was assessed using a visual soil assessment tool in a total of 138 pairs of plots spread across 14 study site areas in Europe and China covering representative pedo-climatic zones. The inventory and scoring of soil quality were conducted together with landowners. Results show that 104 pairs show a positive effect of AMPs on soil quality. Higher effects of the AMPs were observed in lower fertile soils (i.e., Podzols and Calcisols) as opposed to higher fertile soils (i.e., Luvisols and Fluvisols). For the single use applications, the AMPs with positive effects were crop rotation; manuring, composting, and no-tillage; followed by organic agriculture and residue maintenance. Cluster analysis showed that the most promising combinations of AMPs with the most positive effects on soil quality are composed of crop rotation, mulching, and min-till. The agreement between scientific skills and empirical knowledge in the field identified by the farmers confirm our findings and ensures their applicability.
Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earth's tropical forests
Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Castilho, Carolina ; Costa, Flávia ; Sanchez, Aida Cuni ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Qie, Lan ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Galbraith, David ; Gloor, Manuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alexiades, Miguel N. ; Almeida, Everton C. ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Dávila, Esteban Álvarez ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric J.M.M. ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter ; Aymard C, Gerardo ; Baccaro, Fabrício B. ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barlow, Jos ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Bastin, Jean François ; Batterman, Sarah A. ; Beeckman, Hans ; Begne, Serge K. ; Bennett, Amy C. ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Boeckx, Pascal ; Bogaert, Jan ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brncic, Terry ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Céron, Carlos ; Ribeiro, Sabina Cerruto ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerôme ; Chezeaux, Eric ; Clark, Connie J. ; Souza, Fernanda Coelho de; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Medina, Massiel Corrales ; Costa, Lola da; Dančák, Martin ; Dargie, Greta C. ; Davies, Stuart ; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Haulleville, Thales de; Medeiros, Marcelo Brilhante de; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon Del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Droissant, Vincent ; Duque, Luisa Fernanda ; Ekoungoulou, Romeo ; Elias, Fernando ; Erwin, Terry ; Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Fauset, Sophie ; Ferreira, Joice ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Foli, Ernest ; Ford, Andrew ; Gilpin, Martin ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hamilton, Alan C. ; Harris, David J. ; Hart, Terese B. ; Hédl, Radim ; Herault, Bruno ; Herrera, Rafael ; Higuchi, Niro ; Hladik, Annette ; Coronado, Eurídice Honorio ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Huasco, Walter Huaraca ; Jeffery, Kathryn J. ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Kalamandeen, Michelle ; Djuikouo, Marie Noël Kamdem ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Umetsu, Ricardo Keichi ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Killeen, Timothy ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgaard, Bente ; Koch, Alexander ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Laurance, William ; Laurance, Susan ; Leal, Miguel E. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lima, Adriano J.N. ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lopes, Aline P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Tom ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lowe, Richard ; Magnusson, William E. ; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba ; Manzatto, Ângelo Gilberto ; Marimon, Ben Hur ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Marthews, Toby ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Maycock, Colin ; Melgaço, Karina ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Metali, Faizah ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Milliken, William ; Mitchard, Edward T.A. ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Mossman, Hannah L. ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nascimento, Henrique ; Neill, David ; Nilus, Reuben ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Walter ; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Peacock, Julie ; Pendry, Colin ; Peñuela Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Playfair, Maureen ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Preziosi, Richard ; Prieto, Adriana ; Primack, Richard B. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Reitsma, Jan ; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Sousa, Thaiane Rodrigues de; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rudas, Agustín ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Schietti, Juliana ; Sheil, Douglas ; Silva, Richarlly C. ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Valeria, Camila Silva ; Silveira, Marcos ; Simo-Droissart, Murielle ; Simon, Marcelo Fragomeni ; Singh, James ; Soto Shareva, Yahn Carlos ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sunderland, Terry ; Svátek, Martin ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Swamy, Varun ; Taedoumg, Hermann ; Talbot, Joey ; Taplin, James ; Taylor, David ; Steege, Hans Ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Thomas, Sean C. ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Hout, Peter van der; Meer, Peter van der; Nieuwstadt, Mark van; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vernimmen, Ronald ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Vleminckx, Jason ; Vos, Vincent ; Wang, Ophelia ; White, Lee J.T. ; Willcock, Simon ; Woods, John T. ; Wortel, Verginia ; Young, Kenneth ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zemagho, Lise ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Zwerts, Joeri A. ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2020
Science 368 (2020)6493. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 869 - 874.
The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the most important predictor of aboveground biomass (-9.1 megagrams of carbon per hectare per degree Celsius), primarily by reducing woody productivity, and has a greater impact per °C in the hottest forests (>32.2°C). Our results nevertheless reveal greater thermal resilience than observations of short-term variation imply. To realize the long-term climate adaptation potential of tropical forests requires both protecting them and stabilizing Earth's climate.
Sequence analysis of Ricinus communis small heat-shock protein (sHSP) subfamily and its role in abiotic stress responses
Neto, Valdir G. ; Barbosa, Rhaissa R. ; Carosio, Maria G.A. ; Ferreira, Antônio G. ; Fernandez, Luzimar G. ; Castro, Renato D. de; Ligterink, Wilco ; Hilhorst, Henk ; Ribeiro, Paulo R. - \ 2020
Industrial Crops and Products 152 (2020). - ISSN 0926-6690
Abiotic stress - Oilseed crop - Regulatory mechanisms - Tolerance
Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) possess major roles in plant defense mechanisms towards abiotic stresses. sHSPs act as molecular chaperones providing the necessary tools to sustain cellular homeostasis under adverse conditions. sHSP genes display specific expression signatures, which depend on tissue-specificity, developmental stage and the nature of the abiotic stress. Despite the fact that Ricinus communis is an important oilseed crop with large socioeconomic impact on small family farmers in semi-arid regions worldwide, the characterization of RcsHSP genes and their possible contribution to plant survival under harsh environmental conditions has not been addressed. Hence, this study aimed at characterizing the R. communis sHSP subfamily, through phylogeny, gene structure, duplication, and expression profile analysis, as well as by characterizing Arabidopsis thaliana seeds overexpressing RcsHSP genes. We identified 41 RcsHSP genes with the α-crystallin domain and compatible molecular weight (<43 kDa). The RcsHSP subfamily showed different homology levels with sHSP genes from other plant species, suggesting the occurrence of specific gene expansion and loss. The RcsHSP subfamily was classified according to the cellular locations of the genes, which included cytosolic, chloroplastic, mitochondrial, and endoplasmic reticulum groups. Ten putative motifs were found among RcsHSP genes, but only motifs 4, 6 and 8 were sHSP protein domains. The RcsHSP subfamily showed 19 genes produced by tandem duplication events, which might have been crucial for RcsHSP diversification and acquisition of tolerance in R. communis. Gene expression analysis showed that the RcsHSP subfamily possesses different regulatory mechanisms in response to various abiotic stresses. Additionally, overexpression of RcsHSP genes in A. thaliana was followed by enhanced SOD activity and higher content of osmoprotectants, which ultimately led to enhanced seed germination under a variety of abiotic stresses. Our results may contribute to breeding programs aiming at developing high tolerant R. communis plants, providing economic and social support for farmers in semiarid areas worldwide.
Drivers of decoupling and recoupling of crop and livestock systems at farm and territorial scales
Garrett, Rachael D. ; Ryschawy, Julie ; Bell, Lindsay W. ; Cortner, Owen ; Ferreira, Joice ; Garik, Anna Victoria N. ; Gil, Juliana D.B. ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Moraine, Marc ; Peterson, Caitlin A. ; Reis, Júlio César Dos; Valentim, Judson F. - \ 2020
Ecology and Society 25 (2020)1. - ISSN 1708-3087
Innovation - Integrated crop livestock systems - Mixed farming systems - Socio-technical transitions - Sustainable agriculture - Technology adoption
Crop and livestock production have become spatially decoupled in existing commercial agricultural regimes throughout the world. These segregated high input production systems contribute to some of the world’s most pressing sustainability challenges, including climate change, nutrient imbalances, water pollution, biodiversity decline, and increasingly precarious rural livelihoods. There is substantial evidence that by closing the loop in nutrient and energy cycles, recoupling crop and livestock systems at farm and territorial scales can help reduce the environmental externalities associated with conventional commercial farming without declines in profitability or yields. Yet such “integrated” crop and livestock systems remain rare as a proportion of global agricultural area. Based on an interdisciplinary workshop and additional literature review, we provide a comprehensive historical and international perspective on why integrated crop and livestock systems have declined in most regions and what conditions have fostered their persistence and reemergence in others. We also identify levers for encouraging the reemergence of integrated crop and livestock systems worldwide. We conclude that a major disruption of the current regime would be needed to foster crop-livestock reintegration, including a redesign of research programs, credit systems, payments for ecosystem services, insurance programs, and food safety regulations to focus on whole farm outcomes and the creation of a circular economy. An expansion of the number of integrated crop and livestock systems field trials and demonstrations and efforts to brand integrated crop and livestock systems as a form of sustainable agriculture through the development of eco-labels could also improve adoption, but would likely be unsuccessful at encouraging wide-scale change without a more radical transformation of the research and policy landscape.
Responses of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity to herbicides imazethapyr and flumioxazin
Pertile, Mariane ; Antunes, Jadson Emanuel Lopes ; Araujo, Fabio Fernando ; Mendes, Lucas William ; Brink, Paul J. Van den; Araujo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira - \ 2020
Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322 - 9 p.
The use of herbicides is important for controlling weeds in crops. However, they can present impacts on soil properties, such as biological properties. In this study, we evaluated the responses of soil microbial biomass and enzymes activity to the application of the herbicides imazethapyr and flumioxazin and their mixture in an experiment under laboratory conditions, using soils with a different history of use. Soil microbial biomass C (MBC) decreased, while microbial biomass N (MBN) was not affected after the application of the herbicides as compared to the control. Soil respiration, respiratory quotient, and dehydrogenase (DHA) activity increased significantly after the application of the herbicides compared to the control. The hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was not significantly different between the control and the herbicide treatments. The principal response curve showed the largest initial effects for the flumioxazin, followed by imazethapyr and their mixture. Flumioxazin had a different influence on soil respiration and respiratory quotient than imazethapyr and their mixture. Finally, the effects of herbicides on soil microbial biomass and enzymes are short-term as we observed recovery in the biological parameters over time.
H7N9 influenza split vaccine with SWE oil-in-water adjuvant greatly enhances cross-reactive humoral immunity and protection against severe pneumonia in ferrets
Jonge, Jørgen de; Dijken, Harry van; Heij, Femke de; Spijkers, Sanne ; Mouthaan, Justin ; Jong, Rineke de; Roholl, Paul ; Adami, Eduardo Alfredo ; Akamatsu, Milena Apetito ; Ho, Paulo Lee ; Brunner, Livia ; Collin, Nicolas ; Friede, Martin ; Ferreira, José A. ; Luytjes, Willem - \ 2020
Vaccines 5 (2020)1. - ISSN 2076-393X
Until universal influenza vaccines become available, pandemic preparedness should include developing classical vaccines against potential pandemic influenza subtypes. We here show that addition of SWE adjuvant, a squalene-in-water emulsion, to H7N9 split influenza vaccine clearly enhanced functional antibody responses in ferrets. These were cross-reactive against H7N9 strains from different lineages and newly emerged H7N9 variants. Both vaccine formulations protected in almost all cases against severe pneumonia induced by intratracheal infection of ferrets with H7N9 influenza; however, the SWE adjuvant enhanced protection against virus replication and disease. Correlation analysis and curve fitting showed that both VN- and NI-titers were better predictors for protection than HI-titers. Moreover, we show that novel algorithms can assist in better interpretation of large data sets generated in preclinical studies. Cluster analysis showed that the adjuvanted vaccine results in robust immunity and protection, whereas the response to the non-adjuvanted vaccine is heterogeneous, such that the protection balance may be more easily tipped toward severe disease. Finally, cluster analysis indicated that the dose-sparing capacity of the adjuvant is at least a factor six, which greatly increases vaccine availability in a pandemic situation.
Interlacing planning and degrowth scholarship : A manifesto for an interdisciplinary alliance
Ferreira, Antonio ; Schönfeld, Kim von - \ 2020
DISP 56 (2020)1. - ISSN 0251-3625 - p. 53 - 64.
Due to the persistent pursuit of economic growth, contemporary Western societies are inducing an increasingly deep economic, environmental, and social Crisis. Planning has significantly contributed to the pursuit of growth and, as a consequence, urban areas have experienced a number of problematic transformations. The establishment of an alliance between planning and degrowth scholarship could contribute to address these issues. To clarify the potential outlines of this alliance, some of the key principles of both progrowth and degrowth scholarship are critically reviewed. Following this, insights are offered in particular for planners and planning academics wanting to promote the formation of this interdisciplinary alliance.
Pre-Columbian soil fertilization and current management maintain food resource availability in old-growth Amazonian forests
Levis, Carolina ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Clement, Charles R. ; Costa, Flavia R.C. ; Alves, Rubana Palhares ; Ferreira, Maria Julia ; Figueiredo, Camila Guarim ; Bongers, Frans - \ 2020
Plant and Soil 450 (2020). - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 29 - 48.
Anthropogenic soils - Domesticated plants - Forest resources - Historical ecology - Landscape domestication - Protected areas
Aims: The extent and persistence of pre-Columbian human legacies in old-growth Amazonian forests are still controversial, partly because modern societies re-occupied old settlements, challenging the distinction between pre- and post-Columbian legacies. Here, we compared the effects of pre-Columbian vs. recent landscape domestication processes on soils and vegetation in two Amazonian regions. Methods: We studied forest landscapes at varying distances from pre-Columbian and current settlements inside protected areas occupied by traditional and indigenous peoples in the lower Tapajós and the upper-middle Madeira river basins. By conducting 69 free-listing interviews, participatory mappings, guided-tours, 27 forest inventories, and soil analysis, we assessed the influences of pre-Columbian and current activities in soils and plant resources surrounding the settlements. Results: In both regions, we found that pre-Columbian villages were more densely distributed across the landscape than current villages. Soil nutrients (mainly Ca and P) were higher closer to pre-Columbian villages but were generally not related to current villages, suggesting past soil fertilization. Soil charcoal was frequent in all forests, suggesting frequent fire events. The density of domesticated plants used for food increased in phosphorus enriched soils. In contrast, the density of plants used for construction decreased near current villages. Conclusions: We detected a significant effect of past soil fertilization on food resources over extensive areas, supporting the hypothesis that pre-Columbian landscape domestication left persistent marks on Amazonian landscapes. Our results suggest that a combination of pre-Columbian phosphorus fertilization with past and current management drives plant resource availability in old-growth forests.
Short and medium- to long-term impacts of nature-based solutions on urban heat
Augusto, Bruno ; Roebeling, Peter ; Rafael, Sandra ; Ferreira, Joana ; Ascenso, Ana ; Bodilis, Carole - \ 2020
Sustainable Cities and Society 57 (2020). - ISSN 2210-6707
Heat fluxes - Integrated modelling - Nature-based solutions - Urban areas - Urban sprawl
Many cities are growing and becoming more densely populated, resulting in land use changes, which promotes an increase in urban heating. Nature-based solutions (NBS) are considered sustainable, cost-effective and multi-purpose solutions for these problems. While various studies assess the effects of NBS on urban heat or urban sprawl/compaction, no studies assess their cumulative effect. The main objective of this study is to assess the short-term and medium- to long-term impacts of NBS on urban heat fluxes, taking as a case study the city of Eindhoven in The Netherlands. An integrated modelling approach, composed of a coupled meteorological and urban energy balance model (WRF-SUEWS) and an hedonic pricing simulation model (SULD), is used to assess urban heat fluxes and urban compaction effects, respectively. Results show that, in the short-term, NBS have a local cooling effect due to an increase in green/blue spaces and, in the medium to long-term, an urban compaction effect due to attraction of residents from peripheral areas to areas surrounding attractive NBS. This study provides evidence that NBS can be used to reduce the effects of urban heating and urban sprawl and that an integrated modelling approach allows to better understand its overalleffects.
Including diverse knowledges and worldviews in environmental assessment and planning: : the Brazilian Amazon Kaxinawá Nova Olinda Indigenous Land case
Ayaviri Matuk, F. ; Behagel, J.H. ; Simas, Felipe ; Amaral, Eufran Ferreira Do ; Haverroth, Moacir ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2020
Ecosystems and People 16 (2020)1. - ISSN 2639-5916 - p. 95 - 113.
The concepts of ‘ecosystem services’ (ES) and ‘nature’s contributions to people’ (NCP) inform environmental frameworks that set out to include Indigenous and Local Knowledge systems (ILK) and worldviews in policy and planning processes. These frameworks aim to enhance biodiversity conservation and human well-being in a legitimate and effective way. In this article, we explore how the concept of People’
Influence of sociodemographic factors on eating motivations–modelling through artificial neural networks (ANN)
Guiné, Raquel P.F. ; Ferrão, Ana Cristina ; Ferreira, Manuela ; Correia, Paula ; Mendes, Mateus ; Bartkiene, Elena ; Szűcs, Viktória ; Tarcea, Monica ; Sarić, Marijana Matek ; Černelič-Bizjak, Maša ; Isoldi, Kathy ; EL-Kenawy, Ayman ; Ferreira, Vanessa ; Klava, Dace ; Korzeniowska, Małgorzata ; Vittadini, Elena ; Leal, Marcela ; Frez-Muñoz, Lucia ; Papageorgiou, Maria ; Djekić, Ilija - \ 2020
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 71 (2020)5. - ISSN 0963-7486 - p. 614 - 627.
cross-cultural survey - Food choice - healthy diet - neuronal modelling
This study aimed at investigating the influence of some sociodemographic factors on the eating motivations. A longitudinal study was carried conducted with 11960 participants from 16 countries. Data analysis included t-test for independent samples or ANOVA, and neural network models were also created, to relate the input and output variables. Results showed that factors like age, marital status, country, living environment, level of education or professional area significantly influenced all of the studied types of eating motivations. Neural networks modelling indicated variability in the food choices, but identifying some trends, for example the strongest positive factor determining health motivations was age, while for emotional motivations was living environment, and for economic and availability motivations was gender. On the other hand, country revealed a high positive influence for the social and cultural as well as for environmental and political and also for marketing and commercial motivations.