Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Historical commons as sites of transformation. A critical research agenda to study human and more-than-human communities
Nieto-Romero, Marta ; Valente, Sandra ; Figueiredo, Elisabete ; Parra, Constanza - \ 2019
Geoforum (2019). - ISSN 0016-7185
Commoning - Community - Institutions - More-than-human - Sustainability - Transformation

The most critical question for sustainability research is how to facilitate transformative change. Yet, the academic scope of historical commons’ research is limited to institutional design and environmental sustainability. In this paper we argue for a transformative research agenda for historical commons focused on the study of processes building humans and more-than-human communities. We start by reviewing three commons schools, namely the mainstream and critical institutionalism and the community economies collective, and assess how these relate to sustainability and to theories on agency, community and change. We then define a research agenda taking a political and critical ontology of the community economies collective, and a phenomenological epistemology of critical institutionalism. We follow by characterising the underlying practices building humans and more-than human communities by showing three ideal stages of commoning found in our empirical cases in the north-western Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Finally, we end by presenting a guiding framework for analysing processes of building communities in historical commons. In conclusion, we encourage further exploration of underlying practices that widen humans’ interdependency and inter-being and call for action-research projects and experimental methods that promote transformative encounters between humans and nature. Our framework is a first attempt to inspire researchers of historical commons to actively engage in unravelling the full potential of historical commons as sites of transformation.

Differences in energy utilisation efficiencies of digestible macronutrients in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and barramundi (Lates calcarifer)
Phan, L.T.T. ; Groot, R. ; Konnert, G.D.P. ; Masagounder, K. ; Figueiredo-Silva, A.C. ; Glencross, B.D. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2019
Aquaculture 511 (2019). - ISSN 0044-8486
Bioenergetics: Net energy - Cyprinus carpio - Digestible nutrients - Energy efficiency - Energy evaluation - Energy metabolism - Lates calcarifer

This study aimed to assess macronutrient-specific energy utilisation efficiency (i.e., protein, lipid and carbohydrate) for growth in common carp (an omnivorous species) and barramundi (a carnivorous species) and to assess if species-specific differences exist in energy efficiency of digestible protein (dCP), digestible fat (dFat) and digestible carbohydrates (dCarb). This was achieved by conducting a feeding trial experiment on common carp and by re-analysing data of a recent study on barramundi. A total of four diets were formulated following a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 dCP-to-dFat ratios and 2 dCP-to-dCarb ratios. For carp, 2 feeding levels were applied such that the overall experimental design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, however for barramundi, three feeding levels were applied (satiation, 80% initial satiation and 60% initial satiation), resulting in a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design. For each fish species, multiple regression of retained energy (RE) as a function of dCP, dFat and dCarb (in−1) was applied to estimate the energy utilisation efficiency of each digestible macronutrient. For carp, dCP, dFat and dCarb show linear relationships to RE, however for barramundi, dCP and dFat were linearly related to RE, but dCarb was curvilinearly related to RE. The estimated energy efficiencies of dCP, dFat and dCarb (respectively, kNE;dCP, kNE;dFat, and kNE;dCarb) for energy retention were 47, 86 and 60%, respectively, showing large degree of similarity with Nile tilapia and pigs. Carp and barramundi had similar kNE;dFat (86 vs. 94%), but different kNE;dCP (47 vs. 64%) and kNE;dCarb (60 vs. 18%). The net energy equations were NE = 11.2 x dCP + 34.1 x dFat +10.4 x dCarb for carp, and NE = 15.9 x dCP + 35.2 x dFat +9.4 x dCarb – 1.9 x (dCarb)2 for barramundi.

Place based transformative learning: a framework to explore consciousness in sustainability initiatives
Pisters, S.R. ; Vihinen, H. ; Figueiredo, E. - \ 2019
Emotion, Space and Society 32 (2019). - ISSN 1755-4586

Based on a critical literature review, the article argues that transformative learning (TL) that fosters a shift in consciousness towards a more ecological approach is an inherently place-based phenomenon. In this article we build a place-based approach to TL based on a literature review. Our theoretical framework is grounded in three key themes which emerge from the literature: (re-) connection, (self-)compassion and creativity. (Re-)connection involves all processes that evoke an experience of the interconnected nature of all life. (Self-)compassion, acting to alleviate suffering or doing the least harm, naturally follows a sense of interconnection. Creativity is the materialisation of a sense of interconnection and compassion or the means through which these can be experienced. This theoretical framework can be used empirically to research the extent to which people involved in place-based sustainability initiatives develop an ecological consciousness. Empirical research can then be used to further develop and anchor this framework, and seek the kind of practices that can evoke experiences of connection, cultivate the human ability for compassion and give space for creative living.

Research on exposure of residents to pesticides in the Netherlands : OBO flower bulbs = Onderzoek Bestrijdingsmiddelen en Omwonenden
Gooijer, Y.M. ; Hoftijser, G.W. ; Lageschaar, L.C.C. ; Oerlemans, A. ; Scheepers, P.T.J. ; Kivits, C.M. ; Duyzer, J. ; Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G. ; Figueiredo, D.M. ; Huss, A. ; Krop, E.J.M. ; Vermeulen, R.C.H. ; Berg, F. van den; Holterman, H.J. ; Jacobs, C.J.M. ; Kruijne, R. ; Mol, J.G.J. ; Wenneker, M. ; Zande, J.C. van de; Sauer, P.J.J. - \ 2019
Netherlands : Utrecht University - 381
Citizen initiatives in the post-welfare state
Silva, Diogo Soares da; Horlings, Lummina G. ; Figueiredo, Elisabete - \ 2018
Social Sciences 7 (2018)12. - ISSN 2076-0760
Citizen initiatives - Citizen-led initiatives - Co-production - Sustainable place-shaping

Recently we have seen the emergence of citizen-led community initiatives and civic enterprises, taking over governmental tasks in providing public services in various sectors, such as energy, care, landscape maintenance, and culture. This phenomenon can be explained by a renewed interest in community, place, and 'local identity'; the erosion of the welfare state; the privatization of public services; a re-emergence of the social economy; and tensions between 'bottom-up' initiatives and the changing role of the state. The co-production of governments and initiatives can potentially result in a shift from government-led to community-led planning. This, however, raises questions about their innovative potential, the democratic consequences, and the potential roles of governments in enabling these societal dynamics. This article discusses these issues theoretically, illustrated with empirical examples from Portugal, the Netherlands, and Wales, in a context of uncertainty regarding the future of the traditional European welfare state.

Online and Offline Representations of Biocultural Diversity : A Political Ecology Perspective on Nature-Based Tourism and Indigenous Communities in the Brazilian Pantanal
Arts, K.A.J. ; Rabelo, M.T.O. ; Figueiredo, Daniela Maimoni de; Maffey, G. ; Ioris, A.A.R. ; Girard, Pierre - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)10. - ISSN 2071-1050
published in Sustainability as part of the Special Issue ‘Biocultural Diversity and Sustainability
The concept of biocultural diversity is confronted with contemporary changes that impact on local communities, such as globalization and digital transformations. Engaging the conceptual flexibility of ‘biocultural diversity’, we studied nature-based tourism at the intersection of indigenous communities and the digital realm. We employed a political ecology perspective to examine online and offline representations of biocultural diversity in the Brazilian Pantanal, one of the biggest wetlands in the world, and home to groups of peoples known as the Pantaneiros. Data from interviews with 48 stakeholders in the tourist sector were structured along three ‘myths’—the Uncivilised, Unrestrained, and Unchanged—for which we have also constructed counter narratives. Each myth denoted the primacy of biodiversity, and ignored broader dimensions of the Pantanal as a bioculturally diverse landscape. The relationships of the Pantaneiros with their environment were found to be intricate and had clear repercussions for tourism, but ironically, reference to the Pantaneiro culture in nature-based tourism was superficial. Moreover, thriving on the myths, this form of tourism perpetuates skewed power structures and social inequalities. Lower-class Pantaneiros likely suffer most from this. We recommend stakeholder engagement with a biocultural design that facilitates the integration of other-than-biodiversity values, and that thereby promotes sustainability of the entire social-ecological system.
Percepção dos atores sociais do turismo sobre o pulso de inundação do Pantanal (MT)
Rabelo, M.T.O. ; Arts, K.A.J. ; Girard, Pierre ; Ioris, Antonio Rossotto ; de Figueiredo, Daniela Maimoni - \ 2017
Revista Brasileira de Ecoturismo 10 (2017)3. - ISSN 1983-9391 - p. 708 - 736.
The Pantanal is the largest continuous floodplain on the planet. The periodic cycle of drought and flood, the so-called the flood pulse, is the controlling factor of the operation and maintenance of the Pantanal's biodiversity. These hydrobiological conditions, together with the scenic beauty, are great touristic attractions to the region. The objective of this work was to analyze how the different social actors of tourism perceive the pulse of flood and how it can influence the activity in the Pantanal of Poconé, one of the tourist centres of the Pantanal. The departing point of this research was the significant growth of activity in the last years and the scarcity of specific studies in the region. Seven main social groups were initially identified, which were later interviewed in a structured interview (37 recorded interviews in total). These were transcribed for the analysis of the results; the analytical tool Voyant tools was applied to count the main words mentioned by each social group. Results showed that the vast majority of the hostel owners are from traditional farmers who started to develop hotel services, catering mainly to foreign tourists. Conflicts between cattle ranchers and hostel owners were identified regarding the hunt of jaguars, in the form of losses to the herd against losses to the touristic activities based on "jaguar observation"; likewise, there are conflicts between the native population (professional fishermen and riverine), who seek to participate more directly in the tourism, and the business community in control of hostels and/or ranchers. The flood pulse exerts a strong influence on the tourist enjoyment of the Poconé Pantanal, but it was not clearly understood by the different social groups involved; the perception of the importance of the pulse is affected by the difficulty to understand the concept itself. The groups with better technical qualification (tourism guides and environmental agents) and the riverine and professional fishermen, natives of the region, showed a better understanding of these two aspects of the flood pulse. The study also revealed the importance of developing tourism with greater local identity, including other attractions, such as the traditional festivals of the rich culture of Poconé and the diversity of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems during the flood season.
Bagger krijgt nieuw leven dankzij middeleeuwse methode
Figueiredo Oliveira, Bruna Raquel ; Grotenhuis, Tim - \ 2017
Beyond upgrading typologies – In search of a better deal for honey value chains in Brazil
Santana de Figueiredo Junior, Hugo ; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M. ; Lans, Ivo A. Van Der; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M. - \ 2017
PLoS ONE 12 (2017)7. - ISSN 1932-6203
Selection of value chain strategies by development practitioners and value chain participants themselves has been restricted to preset types of upgrading. This paper argues for an extension of the range of strategy solutions to value chains. An empirical application identifies successful strategies for honey value chains in Brazil for 2015–2020. Strategy and performance indicators were selected using the value chain Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) framework. Experts’ opinion was elicited in a Delphi for business scenarios, and adaptive conjoint analysis was used to identify strategies for increasing production growth and local value-added. This study identifies important strategies beyond upgrading typologies, and finds that important strategies differ by performance goal and scenario. The value chain SCP allows searching for promising strategies towards performance - the “better deal” - in an integrated way.
Naturalized alien flora of the world : Species diversity, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns, geographic distribution and global hotspots of plant invasion
Pyšek, Petr ; Pergl, Jan ; Essl, Franz ; Lenzner, Bernd ; Dawson, Wayne ; Kreft, Holger ; Weigelt, Patrick ; Winter, Marten ; Kartesz, John ; Nishino, Misako ; Antonova, Liubov A. ; Barcelona, Julie F. ; Cabezas, Francisco J. ; Cárdenas, Dairon ; Cárdenas-Toro, Juliana ; Castaño, Nicolás ; Chacón, Eduardo ; Chatelain, Cyrille ; Dullinger, Stefan ; Ebel, Aleksandr L. ; Figueiredo, Estrela ; Fuentes, Nicol ; Genovesi, Piero ; Groom, Quentin J. ; Henderson, Lesley ; Inderjit, ; Kupriyanov, Andrey ; Masciadri, Silvana ; Maurel, Noëlie ; Meerman, Jan ; Morozova, Olga ; Moser, Dietmar ; Nickrent, Daniel L. ; Nowak, Pauline M. ; Pagad, Shyama ; Patzelt, Annette ; Pelser, Pieter B. ; Seebens, Hanno ; Shu, Wen Sheng ; Thomas, Jacob ; Velayos, Mauricio ; Weber, Ewald ; Wieringa, Jan J. ; Baptiste, María P. ; Kleunen, Mark Van - \ 2017
Preslia 89 (2017)3. - ISSN 0032-7786 - p. 203 - 274.
Alien species - Distribution - Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database - Invasive species - Islands - Life history - Mainland - Naturalized species - Phylogeny - Plant invasion - Regional floras - Species richness - Taxonomy - Zonobiome
Using the recently built Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database, containing data on the distribution of naturalized alien plants in 483 mainland and 361 island regions of the world, we describe patterns in diversity and geographic distribution of naturalized and invasive plant species, taxonomic, phylogenetic and life-history structure of the global naturalized flora as well as levels of naturalization and their determinants. The mainland regions with the highest numbers of naturalized aliens are some Australian states (with New South Wales being the richest on this continent) and several North American regions (of which California with 1753 naturalized plant species represents the world's richest region in terms of naturalized alien vascular plants). England, Japan, New Zealand and the Hawaiian archipelago harbour most naturalized plants among islands or island groups. These regions also form the main hotspots of the regional levels of naturalization, measured as the percentage of naturalized aliens in the total flora of the region. Such hotspots of relative naturalized species richness appear on both the western and eastern coasts of North America, in north-western Europe, South Africa, south-eastern Australia, New Zealand, and India. High levels of island invasions by naturalized plants are concentrated in the Pacific, but also occur on individual islands across all oceans. The numbers of naturalized species are closely correlated with those of native species, with a stronger correlation and steeper increase for islands than mainland regions, indicating a greater vulnerability of islands to invasion by species that become successfully naturalized. South Africa, India, California, Cuba, Florida, Queensland and Japan have the highest numbers of invasive species. Regions in temperate and tropical zonobiomes harbour in total 9036 and 6774 naturalized species, respectively, followed by 3280 species naturalized in the Mediterranean zonobiome, 3057 in the subtropical zonobiome and 321 in the Arctic. The New World is richer in naturalized alien plants, with 9905 species compared to 7923 recorded in the Old World. While isolation is the key factor driving the level of naturalization on islands, zonobiomes differing in climatic regimes, and socioeconomy represented by per capita GDP, are central for mainland regions. The 11 most widely distributed species each occur in regions covering about one third of the globe or more in terms of the number of regions where they are naturalized and at least 35% of the Earth's land surface in terms of those regions' areas, with the most widely distributed species Sonchus oleraceus occuring in 48% of the regions that cover 42% of the world area. Other widely distributed species are Ricinus communis, Oxalis corniculata, Portulaca oleracea, Eleusine indica, Chenopodium album, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Stellaria media, Bidens pilosa, Datura stramonium and Echinochloa crus-galli. Using the occurrence as invasive rather than only naturalized yields a different ranking, with Lantana camara (120 regions out of 349 for which data on invasive status are known), Calotropis procera (118), Eichhornia crassipes (113), Sonchus oleraceus (108) and Leucaena leucocephala (103) on top. As to the life-history spectra, islands harbour more naturalized woody species (34.4%) thanmainland regions (29.5%), and fewer annual herbs (18.7% compared to 22.3%). Ranking families by their absolute numbers of naturalized species reveals that Compositae (1343 species), Poaceae (1267) and Leguminosae (1189) contribute most to the global naturalized alien flora. Some families are disproportionally represented by naturalized aliens on islands (Arecaceae, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Malvaceae), and much fewer so on mainland (e.g. Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Boraginaceae). Relating the numbers of naturalized species in a family to its total global richness shows that some of the large species-rich families are over-represented among naturalized aliens (e.g. Poaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Amaranthaceae, Pinaceae), some under-represented (e.g. Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae), whereas the one richest in naturalized species, Compositae, reaches a value expected from its global species richness. Significant phylogenetic signal indicates that families with an increased potential of their species to naturalize are not distributed randomly on the evolutionary tree. Solanum (112 species), Euphorbia (108) and Carex (106) are the genera richest in terms of naturalized species; over-represented on islands are Cotoneaster, Juncus, Eucalyptus, Salix, Hypericum, Geranium and Persicaria, while those relatively richer in naturalized species on the mainland are Atriplex, Opuntia, Oenothera, Artemisia, Vicia, Galium and Rosa. The data presented in this paper also point to where information is lacking and set priorities for future data collection. The GloNAF database has potential for designing concerted action to fill such data gaps, and provide a basis for allocating resources most efficiently towards better understanding and management of plant invasions worldwide.
Who is consuming the countryside? An activity-based segmentation analysis of the domestic rural tourism market in Portugal
Eusébio, Celeste ; Carneiro, Maria João ; Kastenholz, Elisabeth ; Figueiredo, Elisabete ; Soares da Silva, Diogo - \ 2017
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 31 (2017). - ISSN 1447-6770 - p. 197 - 210.
Activity-based segmentation - Consumption - Countryside - Portugal - Rural tourism
As a result of a well-debated set of transformations, rural areas are increasingly perceived as consumption rather than productive places, mainly associated to leisure and tourism. This paper aims to analyse the heterogeneity of domestic tourism consumption of rural areas. Based on a cluster analysis derived from a sample of the Portuguese population (N = 866) four clusters based on activities carried out in Portuguese rural areas were obtained – The Active Visitors, The Passive Nature Observers, The Inactives and The Summer Family Vacationers. These clusters of domestic market show diversity in the ways rural areas are perceived and consumed. They also differ regarding familiarity with rural areas, travel behaviour and sociodemographic profile. Results reveal the importance of offering different rural tourism products to these groups, thereby improving rural destination management and marketing.
Lift up of Lowlands : beneficial use of dredged sediments to reverse land subsidence
Figueiredo Oliveira, Bruna Raquel - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Tim Grotenhuis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578838 - 229
dredgings - dredging - sedimentation - soil - sediment - subsidence - recycling - environmental engineering - bagger - baggeren - sedimentatie - bodem - sediment - bodemdaling - recycling - milieutechniek

In this thesis, the beneficial use of dredged sediments to reverse land subsidence in lowlands and delta areas is explored. The major constraints for beneficial use of sediments are the contaminant concentrations, and the proper managing of supply and demand of sediments (Chapter 1).

When sediments are transferred from waterways to upland conditions, a series of processes take place that transform the waterlogged sediments into aerated soils, a process known as ripening. To understand the relation between the sediments and the soils formed, physical/chemical and biological processes were studied at three scales: laboratory scale, mesoscale, and field scale. The knowledge obtained with these experiments can provide guidelines to effectively use dredged sediments to reverse land subsidence.

In the laboratory experiments, the environmental conditions were controlled, leading to constant water content and optimal oxygen concentration for biological processes. In the mesoscale experiment, the environmental parameters such as wind, precipitation and temperature, were not controlled as the 1 m3 containers used for these experiments were placed outside, in open air conditions. Still, the water level could be monitored and controlled, and the subsidence of the dredged sediment could be monitored. In the field experiment, the environmental and filling conditions could not be controlled but the changes occurring in the deposit were monitored.

In the first laboratory experiment (Chapter 2) the behaviour of dredged sediments with varying particle size distribution and organic matter content was studied. The dredged sediments were dewatered using suction chambers and then submitted to biochemical ripening during 141 days. The five types of dredged sediments had similar overall behaviour. The most significant observation was that most volume lost during dewatering and biochemical ripening was due to shrinkage and not to organic matter mineralization. Furthermore, the type of organic matter changed in the direction of humification, i.e., more stable compounds were formed. The soils formed from biochemical ripening of dredged sediments had very stable aggregates and the load-bearing capacity was enough to sustain cattle and tractors.

The second laboratory experiment (Chapter 3) was designed to investigate the influence of mixing compost and the solid fraction of swine manure (low in nutrients) with dredged sediments on dewatering and biochemical ripening. When the supply of dredged sediments is too low to compensate for land subsidence, bio-wastes, such as compost and manure, can be mixed with the sediments to reverse land subsidence. The results of this experiment confirm that most volume lost during ripening was due to shrinkage and not due to organic matter mineralization. Adding compost or the solid fraction of manure to the dredged sediments enhances the changes in the type of organic matter and CO2 production, i.e., the addition results in increased rates of organic matter mineralization which is described in the literature as the priming effect. In addition, the undrained shear strength of the mixtures of sediments with compost or manure was three times higher than the measured values for the sediments alone, meaning that organic amendments will improve the characteristics of the soil formed from ripening of sediments.

The mesoscale experiment (Chapter 4) was performed during 400 days in 1m3 containers which allowed to control the water level. Two scenarios were tested: upland deposits in which the sediments are allowed to dry; and underwater deposits in which the water level is always 2 cm above the sediments. It was expected that the upland deposit conditions would lead to a higher subsidence than the underwater conditions. However, subsidence of the sediments was very similar for the two scenarios. Also in these experiments it was observed that most subsidence could be attributed to shrinkage and not organic matter mineralization, and the type of organic matter changed in the direction of humification. Furthermore, the water balance indicated that evapotranspiration results in higher loss of water than drainage. Still, in this case the undrained shear strength after 400 days of experiment was not enough to sustain cattle or tractors even though it increased with time.

The monitored field scale upland deposit of dredged sediments (Chapter 5) is located in the Wormer- en Jisperveld area – North Holland, the Netherlands. The deposit was filled in two stages reaching a maximum height of sediments of 195 cm. After 17 months of monitoring, the subsidence of the sediments was 119 cm to which an extra subsidence of 19.5 cm of the underlying soil due to the overburden pressure was added. The results observed in the upland deposit are in line with the laboratory and mesoscale results since subsidence could also be attributed to shrinkage and no significant changes in the organic matter content were observed. However, in the case of the upland deposit, the type of organic matter changed in the direction of humification during the first 8 months (March to November), then stabilized during 7 months (November to June), and changed in the direction of mineralization afterwards.

The outcomes of this research indicate that dredged sediments have the potential to reverse land subsidence. This statement is supported by the consistent results showing that the decrease in volume of dredged sediments is caused by shrinkage and not to organic matter mineralization as traditionally reported (Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5).

In addition, in places where composted and stable bio-wastes are available, these can be added to dredged sediments to further reverse land subsidence. Still, in this case special attention should be given to the potential priming effect (Chapter 3).

Finally it is recommended to adapt the current practices of disposal of dredged sediments in upland deposits, since 19.5 cm of subsidence observed for the underlying soil in the upland deposit (Chapter 5), was caused by the overburden pressure of the dredged sediment. From the point of view of avoiding/reversing land subsidence it is recommended to spread thin layers (in the order of cm) of sediments over the land, although this might lead to an increase in the time and costs for the stakeholders involved in dredging and in managing the water boards.

Impact of compost and manure on the ripening of dredged sediments
Figueiredo Oliveira, Bruna Raquel ; Laarhoven, Bob ; Smit, Martijn P.J. ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. ; Grotenhuis, Tim - \ 2017
Journal of Soils and Sediments 17 (2017)2. - ISSN 1439-0108 - p. 567 - 577.
Beneficial use - Compost - Dredged sediments - Priming effect - Ripening - Rock-Eval - Swine manure - Undrained shear strength

Purpose: In low lying areas with dense networks of canals for land drainage, sediments accumulate in the waterways and have to be periodically dredged. These adjacent areas are mainly used for farming and agriculture and suffer from high rates of subsidence. The recycling of organic amendments, such as sediments, compost and manure, in agricultural soils can improve plant growth and yield, soil carbon content, and microbial biomass and activity, and have the potential to reverse the process of land subsidence. Materials and methods: The effect of mixing bio-waste compost and the solid fraction of swine manure with dredged sediments before dewatering and biochemical ripening was investigated in terms of type and quantity of organic matter, CO2 production and O2 consumption, and N, P and S content. The water released during dewatering, the aggregate stability, and the undrained shear strength after ripening were also assessed since these areas have to be assessable by trucks and cattle. Results and discussion: For the sediment with compost and manure the transformations in the type of organic matter, CO2 production and O2 consumption were larger compared to the individual fractions, indicating a positive priming effect. Most volume lost during ripening can be attributed to the loss of water and not to the loss of organic matter. In addition, the mixtures result in very stable aggregates and showed an undrained shear strength three times higher than measured for the sediments. Conclusions: Sediments, compost and manure can be used and applied as beneficial use to reverse the process of land subsidence in low lying areas.

Functional properties of soils formed from biochemical ripening of dredged sediments—subsidence mitigation in delta areas
Figueiredo Oliveira, Bruna Raquel ; Smit, Martijn P.J. ; Paassen, Leon A. van; Grotenhuis, Tim C. ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. - \ 2017
Journal of Soils and Sediments 17 (2017)1. - ISSN 1439-0108 - p. 286 - 298.
Beneficial use - Biochemical ripening - Dredged sediments - Land subsidence

Purpose: In delta areas, dense networks of canals have been developed through time and have to be periodically dredged. Lowering the groundwater level in delta areas deepens the aerobic zone, leading to the oxidation of organic matter and possibly to land subsidence. The use of the dredged sediments on land can be a solution to mitigate land subsidence in delta areas. Materials and methods: Five types of dredged sediments with different organic matter content and particle size distribution were dewatered for 7 days and then submitted to biochemical ripening during 141 days on a laboratorial scale with constant temperature and relative humidity. The functional properties analysed were the type and content of organic matter, pH, total C, N, P and S, dry bulk density, water retention capacity, aggregate stability and load-bearing capacity. Results and discussion: After biochemical ripening, there was no significant loss in the mass of organic matter but there was an increase in the fraction of stable organic compounds, observed by an increase in oxygen-bearing compounds and a decrease in hydrocarbons during biochemical ripening. The pH was not affected by biochemical ripening, and the total C, N, P and S concentrations are high and therefore the dredged sediments can improve the quality of the land. Most volume lost during dewatering and biochemical ripening can be attributed to the loss of water. The water retention capacity of the dredged sediments changed with biochemical ripening. The soils formed from biochemical ripening have very stable aggregates, and its load-bearing capacity is enough to sustain cattle and tractors. Conclusions: Most volume lost during dewatering and biochemical ripening can be attributed to the loss of water and not organic matter. Therefore, the studied dredged sediments have potential to mitigate land subsidence in delta areas when spread on land.

Effect of varying dietary non protein energy level and source on energy utilization efficiency in common carp (cyprinus carpio)
Haidar, M. ; Groot, Ruben ; Hoftijzer, Maarten ; Figueiredo-Silva, A.C. ; Masagounder, K. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2016
- 2 p.
Evaluating strategies for honey value chains in Brazil using a value chain structure-conduct-performance (SCP) framework
Santana de Figueiredo Junior, Hugo ; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M. ; Amaral Filho, Jair do; Oude Lansink, Alfons - \ 2016
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 19 (2016)3. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 225 - 250.
Beekeeping - Economic development - Interventions - Supply chains

Development organizations have used value chain analysis in defining interventions for the honey business in major exporting countries like Brazil. Yet, the impact of interventions has been unclear. This paper aims at evaluating strategies of three honey value chain streams in Brazil, selected for a multiple case study between the years 2007-2011.Using the value chain Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) framework, likely successful strategies are identified by comparing stream performances. Next, the outcomes of this comparison are validated through questionnaires with experts. Understanding current stream strategies and local structural conditions, and fostering well-aligned strategies are found to be key for successful donor interventions.

Identifying successful strategies for honey value chains in Brazil : a conjoint study
Santana de Figueiredo Junior, Hugo ; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M. ; Lans, Ivo A. van der; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M. - \ 2016
British Food Journal 118 (2016)7. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 1800 - 1820.
Beekeeping - Conjoint analysis - Development economics - Strategy evaluation - Supply chain

Purpose – Development studies rarely measure the impact of value chain strategies on performance. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the perceived contribution of strategies to the performance of three honey value chains in Brazil. Design/methodology/approach – The value chain structure-conduct-performance (SCP) framework was used to select strategies and two performance indicators, honey production growth and local value-added. In a conjoint study, experts were asked to judge the contribution to the two performance indicators of several hypothetical combinations of value chain strategies. Findings – According to the experts, adoption of specialised technical assistance, sharing resources at the production step, increase in exports, and organic certification were the strategies which contributed the most to performance. Simulations suggested that some honey value chains could have greatly increased their performance with these higher pay-off strategies. Research limitations/implications – Quantifying the perceived impact of individual strategies contributes to improved evaluation of development interventions. Practical implications – Outcomes also show that conjoint analysis is a useful method for policy evaluations in data scarce situations. Originality/value – The paper combines an extended SCP framework for strategy selection and conjoint analysis for strategy evaluation of value chains.

High primary production contrasts with intense carbon emission in a eutrophic tropical reservoir
Almeida, Rafael M. ; Nóbrega, Gabriel N. ; Junger, Pedro C. ; Figueiredo, Aline V. ; Andrade, Anízio S. ; Moura, Caroline G.B. de; Tonetta, Denise ; Oliveira, Ernandes S. ; Araújo, Fabiana ; Rust, Felipe ; Piñeiro-Guerra, Juan M. ; Mendonça, Jurandir R. ; Medeiros, Leonardo R. ; Pinheiro, Lorena ; Miranda, Marcela ; Costa, Mariana R.A. ; Melo, Michaela L. ; Nobre, Regina L.G. ; Benevides, Thiago ; Roland, Fábio ; Klein, Jeroen de; Barros, Nathan O. ; Mendonça, Raquel ; Becker, Vanessa ; Huszar, Vera L.M. ; Kosten, Sarian - \ 2016
Frontiers in Microbiology 7 (2016)MAY. - ISSN 1664-302X
Caatinga - Carbon dioxide - Methane - Net ecosystem production - Organic carbon burial - Semiarid

Recent studies from temperate lakes indicate that eutrophic systems tend to emit less carbon dioxide (CO2) and bury more organic carbon (OC) than oligotrophic ones, rendering them CO2 sinks in some cases. However, the scarcity of data from tropical systems is critical for a complete understanding of the interplay between eutrophication and aquatic carbon (C) fluxes in warm waters. We test the hypothesis that a warm eutrophic system is a source of both CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, and that atmospheric emissions are larger than the burial of OC in sediments. This hypothesis was based on the following assumptions: (i) OC mineralization rates are high in warm water systems, so that water column CO2 production overrides the high C uptake by primary producers, and (ii) increasing trophic status creates favorable conditions for CH4 production. We measured water-air and sediment-water CO2 fluxes, CH4 diffusion, ebullition and oxidation, net ecosystem production (NEP) and sediment OC burial during the dry season in a eutrophic reservoir in the semiarid northeastern Brazil. The reservoir was stratified during daytime and mixed during nighttime. In spite of the high rates of primary production (4858 ± 934 mg C m-2 d-1), net heterotrophy was prevalent due to high ecosystem respiration (5209 ± 992 mg C m-2 d-1). Consequently, the reservoir was a source of atmospheric CO2 (518 ± 182 mg C m-2 d-1). In addition, the reservoir was a source of ebullitive (17 ± 10 mg C m-2 d-1) and diffusive CH4 (11 ± 6 mg C m-2 d-1). OC sedimentation was high (1162 mg C m-2 d-1), but our results suggest that the majority of it is mineralized to CO2 (722 ± 182 mg C m-2 d-1) rather than buried as OC (440 mg C m-2 d-1). Although temporally resolved data would render our findings more conclusive, our results suggest that despite being a primary production and OC burial hotspot, the tropical eutrophic system studied here was a stronger CO2 and CH4 source than a C sink, mainly because of high rates of OC mineralization in the water column and sediments.

Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests
Wagner, Fabien H. ; Hérault, Bruno ; Bonal, Damien ; Stahl, Clément ; Anderson, Liana O. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Becker, Gabriel Sebastian ; Beeckman, Hans ; Boanerges Souza, Danilo ; Botosso, Paulo Cesar ; Bowman, David M.J.S. ; Bräuning, Achim ; Brede, Benjamin ; Brown, Foster Irving ; Camarero, Jesus Julio ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Cardoso, Fernanda C.G. ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Castro, Wendeson ; Chagas, Rubens Koloski ; Chave, Jérome ; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N. ; Clark, Deborah A. ; Costa, Flavia Regina Capellotto ; Couralet, Camille ; Silva Mauricio, Paulo Henrique Da; Dalitz, Helmut ; Castro, Vinicius Resende De; Freitas Milani, Jaçanan Eloisa De; Oliveira, Edilson Consuelo De; Souza Arruda, Luciano De; Devineau, Jean-Louis ; Drew, David M. ; Dünisch, Oliver ; Durigan, Giselda ; Elifuraha, Elisha ; Fedele, Marcio ; Ferreira Fedele, Ligia ; Figueiredo Filho, Afonso ; Finger, César Augusto Guimarães ; Franco, Augusto César ; Freitas Júnior, João Lima ; Galvão, Franklin ; Gebrekirstos, Aster ; Gliniars, Robert ; Lima De Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício ; Griffiths, Anthony D. ; Grogan, James ; Guan, Kaiyu ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Kanieski, Maria Raquel ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Koenig, Jennifer ; Kohler, Sintia Valerio ; Krepkowski, Julia ; Lemos-filho, José Pires ; Lieberman, Diana ; Lieberman, Milton Eugene ; Lisi, Claudio Sergio ; Longhi Santos, Tomaz ; López Ayala, José Luis ; Maeda, Eduardo Eijji ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Maria, Vivian R.B. ; Marques, Marcia C.M. ; Marques, Renato ; Maza Chamba, Hector ; Mbwambo, Lawrence ; Melgaço, Karina Liana Lisboa ; Mendivelso, Hooz Angela ; Murphy, Brett P. ; O'Brien, Joseph J. ; Oberbauer, Steven F. ; Okada, Naoki ; Pélissier, Raphaël ; Prior, Lynda D. ; Roig, Fidel Alejandro ; Ross, Michael ; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo ; Rossi, Vivien ; Rowland, Lucy ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Santana, Hellen ; Schulze, Mark ; Selhorst, Diogo ; Silva, Williamar Rodrigues ; Silveira, Marcos ; Spannl, Susanne ; Swaine, Michael D. ; Toledo, José Julio ; Toledo, Marcos Miranda ; Toledo, Marisol ; Toma, Takeshi ; Tomazello Filho, Mario ; Valdez Hernández, Juan Ignacio ; Verbesselt, Jan ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Vincent, Grégoire ; Volkmer De Castilho, Carolina ; Volland, Franziska ; Worbes, Martin ; Zanon, Magda Lea Bolzan ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. - \ 2016
Biogeosciences 13 (2016)8. - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 2537 - 2562.
The seasonal climate drivers of the carbon cycle in tropical forests remain poorly known, although these forests account for more carbon assimilation and storage than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Based on a unique combination of seasonal pan-tropical data sets from 89 experimental sites (68 include aboveground wood productivity measurements and 35 litter productivity measurements), their associated canopy photosynthetic capacity (enhanced vegetation index, EVI) and climate, we ask how carbon assimilation and aboveground allocation are related to climate seasonality in tropical forests and how they interact in the seasonal carbon cycle. We found that canopy photosynthetic capacity seasonality responds positively to precipitation when rainfall is  < 2000 mm yr−1 (water-limited forests) and to radiation otherwise (light-limited forests). On the other hand, independent of climate limitations, wood productivity and litterfall are driven by seasonal variation in precipitation and evapotranspiration, respectively. Consequently, light-limited forests present an asynchronism between canopy photosynthetic capacity and wood productivity. First-order control by precipitation likely indicates a decrease in tropical forest productivity in a drier climate in water-limited forest, and in current light-limited forest with future rainfall  < 2000 mm yr−1.
Global exchange and accumulation of non-native plants
Kleunen, Mark Van; Dawson, Wayne ; Essl, Franz ; Pergl, Jan ; Winter, Marten ; Weber, Ewald ; Kreft, Holger ; Weigelt, Patrick ; Kartesz, John ; Nishino, Misako ; Antonova, Liubov A. ; Barcelona, Julie F. ; Cabezas, Francisco J. ; Cárdenas, Dairon ; Cárdenas-Toro, Juliana ; Castaño, Nicolás ; Chacón, Eduardo ; Chatelain, Cyrille ; Ebel, Aleksandr L. ; Figueiredo, Estrela ; Fuentes, Nicol ; Groom, Quentin J. ; Henderson, Lesley ; Inderjit, ; Kupriyanov, Andrey ; Masciadri, Silvana ; Meerman, Jan ; Morozova, Olga ; Moser, Dietmar ; Nickrent, Daniel L. ; Patzelt, Annette ; Pelser, Pieter B. ; Baptiste, María P. ; Poopath, Manop ; Schulze, Maria ; Seebens, Hanno ; Shu, Wen Sheng ; Thomas, Jacob ; Velayos, Mauricio ; Wieringa, Jan J. ; Pyšek, Petr - \ 2015
Nature 525 (2015)7567. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 100 - 103.

All around the globe, humans have greatly altered the abiotic and biotic environment with ever-increasing speed. One defining feature of the Anthropocene epoch is the erosion of biogeographical barriers by human-mediated dispersal of species into new regions, where they can naturalize and cause ecological, economic and social damage. So far, no comprehensive analysis of the global accumulation and exchange of alien plant species between continents has been performed, primarily because of a lack of data. Here we bridge this knowledge gap by using a unique global database on the occurrences of naturalized alien plant species in 481 mainland and 362 island regions. In total, 13,168 plant species, corresponding to 3.9% of the extant global vascular flora, or approximately the size of the native European flora, have become naturalized somewhere on the globe as a result of human activity. North America has accumulated the largest number of naturalized species, whereas the Pacific Islands show the fastest increase in species numbers with respect to their land area. Continents in the Northern Hemisphere have been the major donors of naturalized alien species to all other continents. Our results quantify for the first time the extent of plant naturalizations worldwide, and illustrate the urgent need for globally integrated efforts to control, manage and understand the spread of alien species.

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