Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Editorial overview : Water quality: A new challenge for global scale model development and application
    Hofstra, Nynke ; Kroeze, Carolien ; Flörke, Martina ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. A1 - A5.
    Model inter-comparison design for large-scale water quality models
    Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Flörke, Martina ; Harrison, John A. ; Hofstra, Nynke ; Keller, Virginie ; Ludwig, Fulco ; Spanier, J.E. ; Strokal, Maryna ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Wen, Yingrong ; Williams, Richard J. - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 59 - 67.

    Several model inter-comparison projects (MIPs) have been carried out recently by the climate, hydrological, agricultural and other modelling communities to quantify modelling uncertainties and improve modelling systems. Here we focus on MIP design for large-scale water quality models. Water quality MIPs can be useful to improve our understanding of pollution problems and facilitate the development of harmonized estimates of current and future water quality. This can provide new opportunities for assessing robustness in estimates of water quality hotspots and trends, improve understanding of processes, pollution sources, water quality model uncertainties, and to identify priorities for water quality data collection and monitoring. Water quality MIP design should harmonize relevant model input datasets, use consistent spatial/temporal domains and resolutions, and similar output variables to improve understanding of water quality modelling uncertainties and provide harmonized water quality data that suit the needs of decision makers and other users.

    Analysing trade-offs between SDGs related to water quality using salinity as a marker
    Flörke, Martina ; Bärlund, Ilona ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Bouwman, Alexander F. ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 96 - 104.

    Salinisation can have different adverse impacts on water resources that are used for drinking, irrigation, or industrial purposes. In addition, salinisation in its turn is also strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities such as irrigation. This paper maps trade-offs between water quality (SDG 6.3) and other Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) using salinisation as an example. Many interlinkages exist between SDG 6.3 and other SDGs as identified in the literature review part. These are however not yet fully addressed in studies applying a comprehensive systems approach or modelling frameworks. In order to find solution options for achieving a sustainable future the interlinkages between SDGs related to salinisation and its impacts need to be considered as they play a key role in mitigating impacts, prioritising measures for action and hence turning trade-offs into synergies.

    Priorities for developing a modelling and scenario analysis framework for waterborne pathogen concentrations in rivers worldwide and consequent burden of disease
    Hofstra, Nynke ; Vermeulen, Lucie C. ; Derx, Julia ; Flörke, Martina ; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier ; Rose, Joan ; Medema, Gertjan - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 28 - 38.

    Diarrhoea caused by waterborne pathogens still has a large burden of disease. We introduce a modelling and scenario analysis framework that enables better understanding of sources of and possible future changes in the disease burden due to environmental change and management implementation. The state-of-the-art research that can contribute to the development of the framework at the large scale is analysed, together with research gaps and opportunities for future research. Priorities have been identified and these include implementation of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment and application of the models in scenario analyses. The credibility of the model outputs should be central in the analysis, for example by developing stochastic models. Implementation of the framework contributes towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Global multi-pollutant modelling of water quality: scientific challenges and future directions
    Strokal, M. ; Spanier, Emiel ; Kroeze, C. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Florke, Martina ; Franssen, W.H.P. ; Hofstra, N. ; Langan, Simon ; Ting, Tang ; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Wada, Yoshihide ; Wang, M. ; Wijnen, Jikke van; Williams, R. - \ 2019
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 36 (2019). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 116 - 125.
    Assessing global water quality issues requires a multi-pollutant modelling approach. We discuss scientific challenges and future directions for such modeling. Multi-pollutant river models need to integrate information on sources of pollutants such as plastic debris, nutrients, chemicals, pathogens, their effects and possible solutions. In this paper, we first explain what we consider multi-pollutant modelling. Second, we discuss scientific challenges in multi-pollutant modelling relating to consistent model inputs, modelling approaches and model evaluation. Next, we illustrate the potential of global multi-pollutant modelling for hotspot analyses. We show hotspots of river pollution with microplastics, nutrients, triclosan and Cryptosporidium in many sub-basins of Europe, North America and South Asia. Finally, we reflect on future directions for multi-pollutant modelling, and for linking model results to policy-making.
    Determining sectoral and regional sensitivity to climate and socio-economic change in Europe using impact response surfaces
    Fronzek, Stefan ; Carter, Timothy R. ; Pirttioja, Nina ; Alkemade, Rob ; Audsley, Eric ; Bugmann, Harald ; Flörke, Martina ; Holman, Ian ; Honda, Yasushi ; Ito, Akihiko ; Janes-Bassett, Victoria ; Lafond, Valentine ; Leemans, Rik ; Mokrech, Marc ; Nunez, Sarahi ; Sandars, Daniel ; Snell, Rebecca ; Takahashi, Kiyoshi ; Tanaka, Akemi ; Wimmer, Florian ; Yoshikawa, Minoru - \ 2019
    Regional Environmental Change 19 (2019)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 679 - 693.
    Gross domestic product (GDP) - Impact model - Population - Precipitation - Sensitivity analysis - Temperature

    Responses to future changes in climatic and socio-economic conditions can be expected to vary between sectors and regions, reflecting differential sensitivity to these highly uncertain factors. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using a suite of impact models (for health, agriculture, biodiversity, land use, floods and forestry) across Europe with respect to changes in key climate and socio-economic variables. Depending on the indicators, aggregated grid or indicative site results are reported for eight rectangular sub-regions that together span Europe from northern Finland to southern Spain and from western Ireland to the Baltic States and eastern Mediterranean, each plotted as scenario-neutral impact response surfaces (IRSs). These depict the modelled behaviour of an impact variable in response to changes in two key explanatory variables. To our knowledge, this is the first time the IRS approach has been applied to changes in socio-economic drivers and over such large regions. The British Isles region showed the smallest sensitivity to both temperature and precipitation, whereas Central Europe showed the strongest responses to temperature and Eastern Europe to precipitation. Across the regions, sensitivity to temperature was lowest for the two indicators of river discharge and highest for Norway spruce productivity. Sensitivity to precipitation was lowest for intensive agricultural land use, maize and potato yields and Scots pine productivity, and highest for Norway spruce productivity. Under future climate projections, North-eastern Europe showed increases in yields of all crops and productivity of all tree species, whereas Central and East Europe showed declines. River discharge indicators and forest productivity (except Holm oak) were projected to decline over southern European regions. Responses were more sensitive to socio-economic than to climate drivers for some impact indicators, as demonstrated for heat-related mortality, coastal flooding and land use.

    Cross‐scale intercomparison of climate change impacts simulated by regional and global hydrological models in eleven large river basins
    Hattermann, F.F. ; Krysanova, V. ; Gosling, S.N. ; Dankers, R. ; Daggupati, P. ; Donnelly, C. ; Flörke, M. ; Huang, S. ; Motovilov, Y. ; Buda, S. ; Yang, T. ; Müller, C. ; Leng, G. ; Tang, Q. ; Portmann, F.T. ; Hagemann, S. ; Gerten, D. ; Wada, Y. ; Masaki, Y. ; Alemayehu, T. ; Satoh, Y. ; Samaniego, L. - \ 2017
    Climatic Change 141 (2017)3. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 561 - 576.

    Ideally, the results from models operating at different scales should agree in trend direction and magnitude of impacts under climate change. However, this implies that the sensitivity to climate variability and climate change is comparable for impact models designed for either scale. In this study, we compare hydrological changes simulated by 9 global and 9 regional hydrological models (HM) for 11 large river basins in all continents under reference and scenario conditions. The foci are on model validation runs, sensitivity of annual discharge to climate variability in the reference period, and sensitivity of the long-term average monthly seasonal dynamics to climate change. One major result is that the global models, mostly not calibrated against observations, often show a considerable bias in mean monthly discharge, whereas regional models show a better reproduction of reference conditions. However, the sensitivity of the two HM ensembles to climate variability is in general similar. The simulated climate change impacts in terms of long-term average monthly dynamics evaluated for HM ensemble medians and spreads show that the medians are to a certain extent comparable in some cases, but have distinct differences in other cases, and the spreads related to global models are mostly notably larger. Summarizing, this implies that global HMs are useful tools when looking at large-scale impacts of climate change and variability. Whenever impacts for a specific river basin or region are of interest, e.g. for complex water management applications, the regional-scale models calibrated and validated against observed discharge should be used.

    Quality matters for water scarcity
    Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Florke, Martina ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2017
    Nature Geoscience 10 (2017)11. - ISSN 1752-0894 - p. 800 - 802.
    Quality requirements for water differ by intended use. Sustainable management of water resources for different uses will not only need to account for demand in water quantity, but also for water temperature and salinity, nutrient levels and other pollutants.
    FCMs as a common base for linking participatory products and models
    Vliet, M. Van; Flörke, M. ; Varela-Ortega, C. ; Çakmak, E.H. ; Khadra, R. ; Esteve, P. ; D’Agostino, D. ; Dudu, H. ; Bärlund, I. ; Kok, K. - \ 2016
    In: Environmental Modeling with Stakeholders / Gray, S., Paolisso, M., Jordan, R., Gray, S., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319250519 - p. 145 - 169.
    Fuzzy cognitive maps - Mathematical model - Participation - Stakeholder - System dynamics

    Stakeholder involvement in modeling studies is increasing. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) are emerging as a promising tool to provide a common base for stakeholders and modelers. FCMs developed by stakeholders from three local Mediterranean case studies are used to construct a stakeholder based FCM. This is done via a workshop in which the locally developed FCMs are merged by regional experts. Graphs and quasi-dynamic output are then compared with an FCM based on a mathematical model (WaterGAP). This model-based FCM was developed in a small workshop by WaterGAP modelers, based on their knowledge of the model. Results show that FCMs indeed have the ability to serve as a common base for linking participatory products and models. The quasi-dynamic output helps to get a better understanding of the commonalities and differences in the two system descriptions. The comparisons showed that FCM is a very promising tool for linking stakeholders and modelers. It can function as a common base for comparison and to illustrate differences between stakeholder perceptions and models in detail. The system dynamics of FCMs can play an important role in the comparison between system perspectives and the dissemination process.

    Climate and human development impacts on municipal water demand : A spatially-explicit global modeling framework
    Parkinson, Simon C. ; Johnson, Nils ; Rao, Narasimha D. ; Jones, Bryan ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van; Fricko, Oliver ; Djilali, Ned ; Riahi, Keywan ; Flörke, Martina - \ 2016
    Environmental Modelling & Software 85 (2016). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 266 - 278.
    Climate change impacts - Downscaling - Integrated assessment modeling - Long-term planning - Urbanization - Water demand

    Municipal water systems provide crucial services for human well-being, and will undergo a major transformation this century following global technological, socioeconomic and environmental changes. Future demand scenarios integrating these drivers over multi-decadal planning horizons are needed to develop effective adaptation strategies. This paper presents a new long-term scenario modeling framework that projects future daily municipal water demand at a 1/8° global spatial resolution. The methodology incorporates improved representations of important demand drivers such as urbanization and climate change. The framework is applied across multiple future socioeconomic and climate scenarios to explore municipal water demand uncertainties over the 21st century. The scenario analysis reveals that achieving a low-carbon development pathway can potentially reduce global municipal water demands in 2060 by 2–4%, although the timing and scale of impacts vary significantly with geographic location.

    Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change
    Vliet, M.T.H. van; Beek, L.P.H. van; Eisner, S. ; Flörke, M. ; Wada, Y. ; Bierkens, M.F.P. - \ 2016
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 40 (2016). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 156 - 170.
    Climate change - Cooling water - Global hydrological models - Hydropower - Water resources - Water temperature

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding of how climate change may impact the availability and temperature of water resources is therefore of major importance. Here we use a multi-model ensemble to show the potential impacts of climate change on global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential. For the first time, combined projections of streamflow and water temperature were produced with three global hydrological models (GHMs) to account for uncertainties in the structure and parametrization of these GHMs in both water availability and water temperature. The GHMs were forced with bias-corrected output of five general circulation models (GCMs) for both the lowest and highest representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). The ensemble projections of streamflow and water temperature were then used to quantify impacts on gross hydropower potential and cooling water discharge capacity of rivers worldwide. We show that global gross hydropower potential is expected to increase between +2.4% (GCM-GHM ensemble mean for RCP 2.6) and +6.3% (RCP 8.5) for the 2080s compared to 1971–2000. The strongest increases in hydropower potential are expected for Central Africa, India, central Asia and the northern high-latitudes, with 18–33% of the world population living in these areas by the 2080s. Global mean cooling water discharge capacity is projected to decrease by 4.5-15% (2080s). The largest reductions are found for the United States, Europe, eastern Asia, and southern parts of South America, Africa and Australia, where strong water temperature increases are projected combined with reductions in mean annual streamflow. These regions are expected to affect 11–14% (for RCP2.6 and the shared socio-economic pathway (SSP)1, SSP2, SSP4) and 41–51% (RCP8.5–SSP3, SSP5) of the world population by the 2080s.

    Modeling global water use for the 21st century : The Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) initiative and its approaches
    Wada, Y. ; Flörke, M. ; Hanasaki, N. ; Eisner, S. ; Fischer, G. ; Tramberend, S. ; Satoh, Y. ; Vliet, M.T.H. Van; Yillia, P. ; Ringler, C. ; Burek, P. ; Wiberg, D. - \ 2016
    Geoscientific Model Development 9 (2016)1. - ISSN 1991-959X - p. 175 - 222.

    To sustain growing food demand and increasing standard of living, global water use increased by nearly 6 times during the last 100 years, and continues to grow. As water demands get closer and closer to the water availability in many regions, each drop of water becomes increasingly valuable and water must be managed more efficiently and intensively. However, soaring water use worsens water scarcity conditions already prevalent in semi-arid and arid regions, increasing uncertainty for sustainable food production and economic development. Planning for future development and investments requires that we prepare water projections for the future. However, estimations are complicated because the future of the world's waters will be influenced by a combination of environmental, social, economic, and political factors, and there is only limited knowledge and data available about freshwater resources and how they are being used. The Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) initiative coordinates its work with other ongoing scenario efforts for the sake of establishing a consistent set of new global water scenarios based on the shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and the representative concentration pathways (RCPs). The WFaS "fast-track" assessment uses three global water models, namely H08, PCR-GLOBWB, and WaterGAP. This study assesses the state of the art for estimating and projecting water use regionally and globally in a consistent manner. It provides an overview of different approaches, the uncertainty, strengths and weaknesses of the various estimation methods, types of management and policy decisions for which the current estimation methods are useful. We also discuss additional information most needed to be able to improve water use estimates and be able to assess a greater range of management options across the water-energy-climate nexus.

    European participatory scenario development: strengthening the link between stories and models
    Kok, K. ; Bärlund, I. ; Flörke, M. ; Holman, I. ; Gramberger, M. ; Sendzimir, J. ; Stuch, B. ; Zellmer, K. - \ 2015
    Climatic Change 128 (2015)3-4. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 187 - 200.
    climate-change impacts
    Scenario development methods get to grips with taking a long-term view on complex issues such as climate change through involvement of stakeholders. Many of the recent (global) scenario exercises have been structured according to a Story-and-Simulation approach. Although elaborately studied, conceptual and practical issues remain in linking qualitative stories and quantitative models. In this paper, we show how stakeholders can directly estimate model parameter values using a three-step approach called Fuzzy Set Theory. We focus on the effect of multiple iterations between stories and models. Results show that we were successful in quickly delivering stakeholder-based quantification of key model parameters, with full consistency between linguistic terms used in stories and numeric values. Yet, values changed strongly from one iteration to the next. A minimum of two and preferably at least three iterations is needed to harmonise stories and models. We conclude that the application of Fuzzy Set Theory enabled a highly valuable, structured and reproducible
    Global water resources affected by human interventionss and climate change
    Haddeland, I. ; Heinke, J. ; Biemans, H. ; Eisner, S. ; Florke, M.F. ; Hanasaki, N. ; Konzmann, M. ; Ludwig, F. - \ 2014
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)9. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 3251 - 3256.
    integrated model - bias correction - surface-water - validation - fluxes - scheme
    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future.
    Constraints and potentials of future irrigation water availability on agricultural production under climate change
    Elliott, J. ; Deryng, D. ; Muller, C. ; Frieler, K. ; Konzmann, M. ; Gerten, D. ; Glotter, M. ; Florke, M.F. ; Wada, Y. ; Ludwig, F. - \ 2014
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)9. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 3239 - 3244.
    model description - requirements - food - scarcity - impacts - part
    We compare ensembles of water supply and demand projections from 10 global hydrological models and six global gridded crop models. These are produced as part of the Inter-Sectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project, with coordination from the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project, and driven by outputs of general circulation models run under representative concentration pathway 8.5 as part of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. Models project that direct climate impacts to maize, soybean, wheat, and rice involve losses of 400–1,400 Pcal (8–24% of present-day total) when CO2 fertilization effects are accounted for or 1,400–2,600 Pcal (24–43%) otherwise. Freshwater limitations in some irrigated regions (western United States; China; and West, South, and Central Asia) could necessitate the reversion of 20–60 Mha of cropland from irrigated to rainfed management by end-of-century, and a further loss of 600–2,900 Pcal of food production. In other regions (northern/eastern United States, parts of South America, much of Europe, and South East Asia) surplus water supply could in principle support a net increase in irrigation, although substantial investments in irrigation infrastructure would be required.
    Multisectoral climate impact hotspots in a warming world
    Pointek, F. ; Müller, C. ; Pugh, T.A.M. ; Clark, D.B. ; Deryng, D. ; Elliott, J. ; Colón-González, F.J. ; Flörke, M. ; Folberth, C. ; Franssen, W.H.P. ; Neumann, K. - \ 2014
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)9. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 3233 - 3238.
    global climate - malaria - drought - models
    The impacts of global climate change on different aspects of humanity’s diverse life-support systems are complex and often difficult to predict. To facilitate policy decisions on mitigation and adaptation strategies, it is necessary to understand, quantify, and synthesize these climate-change impacts, taking into account their uncertainties. Crucial to these decisions is an understanding of how impacts in different sectors overlap, as overlapping impacts increase exposure, lead to interactions of impacts, and are likely to raise adaptation pressure. As a first step we develop herein a framework to study coinciding impacts and identify regional exposure hotspots. This framework can then be used as a starting point for regional case studies on vulnerability and multifaceted adaptation strategies. We consider impacts related to water, agriculture, ecosystems, and malaria at different levels of global warming. Multisectoral overlap starts to be seen robustly at a mean global warming of 3 °C above the 1980–2010 mean, with 11% of the world population subject to severe impacts in at least two of the four impact sectors at 4 °C. Despite these general conclusions, we find that uncertainty arising from the impact models is considerable, and larger than that from the climate models. In a low probability-high impact worst-case assessment, almost the whole inhabited world is at risk for multisectoral pressures. Hence, there is a pressing need for an increased research effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of impacts, as well as for the development of policy measures under existing uncertainty.
    Climate Adaptation – modelling water scenarios and sectoral impacts. Final Report ClimWatAdapt project
    Florke, M.F. ; Wimmer, F. ; Laaser, C. ; Vidaurre, R. ; Troltzsch, J. ; Dworak, T. ; Stein, U. ; Marinova, N.A. ; Jaspers, A.M.J. ; Ludwig, F. ; Swart, R.J. ; Hoang, L.P. ; Giupponi, C. ; Bosello, F. ; Mysiak, J. - \ 2011
    Kassel, Germany : CESR – Center for Environmental Systems Research - 158 p.
    Water for utilities: climate change impacts on water quality and water availability for utilities in Europe
    Zwolsman, J.J.G. ; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bonte, M. ; Gorski, N. ; Flörke, M. ; Eisner, S. ; Ludwig, F. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit (Technical report / WATCH no. 55) - 49
    waterkwaliteit - klimaatverandering - watervoorziening - rivieren - europa - water quality - climatic change - water supply - rivers - europe
    This report provides an assessment of the consequences of changing water availability for production of drinking water, the manufacturing industry and power production in Europe, due to climate change and socio-economic developments. The report is based up on projections of demographic and socio-economic trends and climate change impacts, according to the SRES A2 and B1 scenario’s also used by IPCC
    Climate adaption - modelling water scenarios and sectoral impacts. Final report ClimWatAdapt project
    Florke, M.F. ; Wimmer, F. ; Laaser, C. ; Vidaurre, R. ; Trolzsch, J. ; Dworak, T. ; Stein, U. ; Marinova, N. ; Jaspers, F. ; Ludwig, F. ; Swart, R. ; Hoang, L.P. ; Giupponi, C. ; Bosello, F. ; Mysiak, J. - \ 2011
    Kassel : CESR – Center for Environmental Systems Research - 159
    klimaatverandering - gevoeligheidsanalyse - maatregelen - waterkwaliteit - ecosystemen - regio's - europese unie - climatic change - sensitivity analysis - measures - water quality - ecosystems - regions - european union
    The main objective of this project is the assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts and adaptation measures. Therefore, the main aim of this project was to set up an Integrated Assessment Framework (IAF), which allows to analyze which regions in Europe are potentially vulnerable to climate change and to identify which adaptation measures could potentially be promoted at the EU level.
    Climate Adaptation – modelling water scenarios and sectoral impacts
    Florke, M.F. ; Wimmer, F. ; Laaser, C. ; Vidaurre, R. ; Troltzsch, J. ; Dworak, T. ; Stein, U. ; Marinova, N.A. ; Jaspers, F. ; Ludwig, F. ; Swart, R.J. ; Hoang, L.P. ; Giupponi, C. ; Bosello, F. ; Mysiak, J. - \ 2009
    Kassel : CESR – Center for Environmental Systems Research - 31 p.
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