Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Urinary Excretion of N1-Methylnicotinamide and N1-Methyl-2-Pyridone-5-Carboxamide and Mortality in Kidney Transplant Recipients
    Deen, Carolien P.J. ; Veen, Anna van der; Gomes-Neto, António W. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Borgonjen van den Berg, Karin J. ; Heiner-Fokkema, M.R. ; Kema, Ido P. ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. - \ 2020
    Nutrients 12 (2020)7. - ISSN 2072-6643
    dietary intake - mortality - N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide - N1-methylnicotinamide - niacin status - renal transplantation - tryptophan - urinary excretion - vitamin B3

    It is unclear whether niacin nutritional status is a target for improvement of long-term outcome after renal transplantation. The 24-h urinary excretion of N1-methylnicotinamide (N1-MN), as a biomarker of niacin status, has previously been shown to be negatively associated with premature mortality in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). However, recent evidence implies higher enzymatic conversion of N1-MN to N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2Py) in KTR, therefore the need exists for interpretation of both N1-MN and 2Py excretion for niacin status assessment. We assessed niacin status by means of the 24-h urinary excretion of the sum of N1-MN and 2Py (N1-MN + 2Py), and its associations with risk of premature mortality in KTR. N1-MN + 2Py excretion was measured in a longitudinal cohort of 660 KTR with LS-MS/MS. Prospective associations of N1-MN + 2Py excretion were investigated with Cox regression analyses. Median N1-MN + 2Py excretion was 198.3 (155.9-269.4) µmol/day. During follow-up of 5.4 (4.7-6.1) years, 143 KTR died, of whom 40 due to an infectious disease. N1-MN + 2Py excretion was negatively associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.47-0.79; p < 0.001), and infectious mortality specifically (HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.75; p = 0.002), independent of potential confounders. Secondary analyses showed effect modification of hs-CRP on the negative prospective association of N1-MN + 2Py excretion, and sensitivity analyses showed negative and independent associations of N1-MN and 2Py excretion with risk of all-cause mortality separately. These findings add further evidence to niacin status as a target for nutritional strategies for improvement of long-term outcome in KTR.

    Ontogenetic niche shifts as a driver of seasonal migration
    Fokkema, Wimke ; Jeugd, Henk P. van der; Lameris, Thomas K. ; Dokter, Adriaan M. ; Ebbinge, Barwolt S. ; Roos, André M. de; Nolet, Bart A. ; Piersma, Theunis ; Olff, Han - \ 2020
    Oecologia 193 (2020)2. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 285 - 297.
    Barnacle goose - Dark-bellied brent goose - Humpback whale - Matrix population modelling - Ontogeny - Pacific salmon - Reproduction - Seasonal migration

    Ontogenetic niche shifts have helped to understand population dynamics. Here we show that ontogenetic niche shifts also offer an explanation, complementary to traditional concepts, as to why certain species show seasonal migration. We describe how demographic processes (survival, reproduction and migration) and associated ecological requirements of species may change with ontogenetic stage (juvenile, adult) and across the migratory range (breeding, non-breeding). We apply this concept to widely different species (dark-bellied brent geese (Branta b. bernicla), humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) and migratory Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) to check the generality of this hypothesis. Consistent with the idea that ontogenetic niche shifts are an important driver of seasonal migration, we find that growth and survival of juvenile life stages profit most from ecological conditions that are specific to breeding areas. We suggest that matrix population modelling techniques are promising to detect the importance of the ontogenetic niche shifts in maintaining migratory strategies. As a proof of concept, we applied a first analysis to resident, partial migratory and fully migratory populations of barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis). We argue that recognition of the costs and benefits of migration, and how these vary with life stages, is important to understand and conserve migration under global environmental change.

    Use of disease suppressiveness in the battle against potato blackleg.
    Wolf, Jan van der; Swart-Coipan, Elena ; Krijger, Marjon ; Kastelein, Pieter ; Nijhuis, Els ; Kurm, Viola ; Warris, Sven ; Fokkema, J. - \ 2019
    Use of disease suppressiveness in the battle against potato blackleg
    Wolf, J.M. van der; Coipan, E.C. ; Krijger, M.C. ; Kastelein, P. ; Nijhuis, E.H. ; Kurm, V. ; Warris, S. ; Fokkema, J. - \ 2019
    Use of disease suppressiveness in the battle against potato blackleg
    Wolf, J.M. van der; Coipan, E.C. ; Krijger, M.C. ; Kastelein, P. ; Nijhuis, E.H. ; Kurm, V. ; Warris, S. ; Fokkema, J. - \ 2019
    Urinary Taurine Excretion and Risk of Late Graft Failure in Renal Transplant Recipients
    Post, Adrian ; Said, Yusof ; Gomes-Neto, Antonio W. ; Krogt, Jennifer van der; Blaauw, Pim de; Berger, Stefan P. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Borgonjen, Karin ; Berg, Else van den; Goor, Harry van; Rimbach, Gerald ; Kema, Ido P. ; Tsikas, Dimitrios ; Heiner-Fokkema, Rebecca ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. - \ 2019
    Nutrients 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2072-6643
    graft survival - renal transplant recipients - taurine - taurine excretion

    Taurine is a sulfur containing nutrient that has been shown to protect against oxidative stress, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology leading to late graft failure after renal transplantation. We prospectively investigated whether high urinary taurine excretion, reflecting high taurine intake, is associated with low risk for development of late graft failure in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Urinary taurine excretion was measured in a longitudinal cohort of 678 stable RTR. Prospective associations were assessed using Cox regression analyses. Graft failure was defined as the start of dialysis or re-transplantation. In RTR (58% male, 53 ± 13 years old, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 45 ± 19 mL/min/1.73 m2), urinary taurine excretion (533 (210-946) µmol/24 h) was significantly associated with serum free sulfhydryl groups (β = 0.126; P = 0.001). During median follow-up for 5.3 (4.5-6.0) years, 83 (12%) patients developed graft failure. In Cox regression analyses, urinary taurine excretion was inversely associated with graft failure (hazard ratio: 0.74 (0.67-0.82); P < 0.001). This association remained significant independent of potential confounders. High urinary taurine excretion is associated with low risk of late graft failure in RTR. Therefore, increasing taurine intake may potentially support graft survival in RTR. Further studies are warranted to determine the underlying mechanisms and the potential of taurine supplementation.

    Keuzedeel Landbouwhuisdieren (MBO)
    Ruis, M.A.W. ; Vorderman, Evert ; Dijk, Nienke van; Fokkema, R. ; Visser, Annewies ; Hessel, Huub ; Hoorweg, Fleur ; Groffen, H. ; Korsten, C. ; Goot, L. van der; Hoop, O. de - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Groen Kennisnet
    animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - pigs - poultry - animal health - animal behaviour - animal nutrition - education
    Data from: Agricultural pastures challenge the attractiveness of natural saltmarsh for a migratory goose
    Dokter, A.M. ; Fokkema, Wimke ; Ebbinge, B.S. ; Olff, H. ; Jeugd, Henk P. van der; Nolet, B.A. - \ 2018
    NIOO-KNAW
    pastures - saltmarsh - brent geese - human-goose conflict - accelerometer - GPS tracking - intertidal - habitat switching - migration - fuelling
    Broad-scale land conversions and fertilizer use have dramatically altered the available staging area for herbivorous long-distance migrants. Instead of natural land, these birds rely increasingly on pastures for migratory fuelling and stopover, often conflicting with farming practices. To be able to predict and manage birds’ future habitat use, the relative advantages and disadvantages of natural (e.g. saltmarsh, intertidal) versus anthropogenic staging sites for foraging need to be understood. 2. We compared the migratory staging of brent geese on saltmarsh and pasture sites in spring. Food quality (nitrogen and fibre content), intra-specific antagonistic behaviour, and body weight were quantified at nearby sites in simultaneous seasons. Individuals were tracked with high-resolution GPS and accelerometers to compare timing of migration and time-budgets during fuelling. 3. On pastures, birds rested more and experienced higher ingestion rates, similar or superior food quality and reduced antagonistic interactions than on saltmarsh. 4. Brent geese using fertilized grasslands advanced their fuelling and migration schedules compared to those using saltmarsh. Pasture birds reached heavy weights earlier, departed sooner, and arrived in the Arctic earlier. 5. Intertidal mudflats were frequently visited by saltmarsh birds during the day, and available food there (algae, some seagrass) was of higher quality than terrestrial resources. Availability of intertidal resources was an important factor balancing the otherwise more favourable conditions on pastures relative to saltmarsh. 6. Policy implications: Disadvantages of longer foraging effort, more antagonistic interactions and delayed fuelling schedules on traditional saltmarshes may cause a trend of geese exchanging this traditional niche in favour of pastures, especially in a warming climate that requires advancement of migratory schedules. However, the high quality of intertidal forage allows it to complement terrestrial foraging, potentially removing the incentive for habitat switches to pastures. The relatively high quality of green algae and seagrass, and birds’ remarkable preference for these resources when available, provides a key for managers to create landscapes that can sustain this specialist’s intertidal lifestyle. To keep natural habitats attractive to staging geese with the purpose to prevent conflicts with farming practices, management actions should focus on conservation and restoration of saltmarsh and especially intertidal habitat.
    Data from: Body stores persist as fitness correlate in a long-distance migrant released from food constraints
    Dokter, Adriaan M. ; Fokkema, Wimke ; Bekker, Steven K. ; Bouten, Willem ; Ebbinge, B.S. ; Muskens, G.J.D.M. ; Olff, H. ; Jeugd, Henk P. van der; Nolet, B.A. - \ 2018
    Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW)
    arctic waterfowl - cultivated grassland - recruitment - GPS tracking - migratory fueling - carry-over effects
    Long-distance migratory birds rely on acquisition of body reserves to fuel their migration and reproduction. Breeding success depends on the amount of body reserve acquired prior to migration, which is thought to increase with access to food at the fuelling site. Here we studied how food abundance during fuelling affected time budgets and reproductive success. In a regime of plenty, we expected that (1) limitations on food harvesting would become lifted, allowing birds to frequently idle, and (2) that birds would reach sufficient fuel loads, such that departure weight would no longer affect reproductive success. Our study system comprised brent geese (Branta b. bernicla) staging on high-quality agricultural pastures. Fuelling conditions were assessed by a combination of high-resolution GPS-tracking, acceleration-based behavioural classification, thermoregulation modelling, and measurements of food digestibility and excretion rates. Mark-resighting analysis was used to test for correlations between departure weight and offspring recruitment. Our results confirm that birds loafed extensively, actively postponed fuelling in early spring, and took frequent digestion pauses, suggesting that traditional time constraints on harvest and fuelling rates are absent on modern-day fertilized grasslands. Nonetheless, departure weight remained correlated with recruitment success. The persistence of this correlation after a prolonged stopover with access to abundant high-quality food, suggests that between-individual differences in departure condition are not so much enforced by food quality and availability during stopover, but reflect individual quality and longer-lived life-history traits, such as health status and digestive capacity, which may be developed before the fuelling period.
    Agricultural pastures challenge the attractiveness of natural saltmarsh for a migratory goose
    Dokter, Adriaan M. ; Fokkema, Wimke ; Ebbinge, Barwolt S. ; Olff, Han ; Jeugd, Henk P. van der; Nolet, Bart A. - \ 2018
    Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (2018)6. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 2707 - 2718.
    accelerometer - brent geese - GPS tracking - habitat switching - human–goose conflict - migration - pastures - saltmarsh

    Broad-scale land conversions and fertilizer use have dramatically altered the available staging area for herbivorous long-distance migrants. Instead of natural land, these birds rely increasingly on pastures for migratory fuelling and stopover, often conflicting with farming practices. To predict and manage birds’ future habitat use, the relative advantages and disadvantages of natural (e.g. saltmarsh, intertidal) versus anthropogenic staging sites for foraging need to be understood. We compared the migratory staging of brent geese on saltmarsh and pasture sites in spring. Food quality (nitrogen and fibre content), antagonistic behaviour, and body weight were quantified at nearby sites in simultaneous seasons. Individuals were tracked with high-resolution GPS and accelerometers to compare timing of migration and time budgets during fuelling. On pastures, birds rested more and experienced higher ingestion rates, similar or superior food quality and reduced antagonistic interactions than on saltmarsh. Brent geese using fertilized grasslands advanced their fuelling and migration schedules compared to those using saltmarsh. Pasture birds reached heavy weights earlier, departed sooner, and arrived in the Arctic earlier. Intertidal mudflats were frequently visited by saltmarsh birds during the day, and available food there (algae, some seagrass) was of higher quality than terrestrial resources. Availability of intertidal resources was an important factor balancing the otherwise more favourable conditions on pastures relative to saltmarsh. Synthesis and applications. Disadvantages of longer foraging effort, more antagonistic interactions and delayed fuelling schedules on traditional saltmarshes may cause geese to exchange this traditional niche in favour of pastures, especially in a warming climate that requires advancement of migratory schedules. However, due to its high quality, intertidal forage can complement terrestrial foraging, potentially removing the incentive for habitat switches to pastures. The relatively high quality of green algae and seagrass, and birds’ remarkable preference for these resources when available, provides a key for managers to create landscapes that can sustain this specialist’s intertidal lifestyle. To keep natural habitats attractive to staging geese with the purpose of preventing conflicts with farming practices, management actions should focus on conservation and restoration of saltmarsh and especially intertidal habitat.

    Body stores persist as fitness correlate in a long-distance migrant released from food constraints
    Dokter, Adriaan M. ; Fokkema, Wimke ; Bekker, Steven K. ; Bouten, Willem ; Ebbinge, Barwolt S. ; Müskens, Gerard ; Olff, Han ; Jeugd, Henk P. van der; Nolet, Bart A. - \ 2018
    Behavioral Ecology 29 (2018)5. - ISSN 1045-2249 - p. 1157 - 1166.
    arctic waterfowl - carry-over effects - cultivated grassland - GPS tracking - migratory fueling - recruitment

    Long-distance migratory birds rely on the acquisition of body stores to fuel their migration and reproduction. Breeding success depends on the amount of body stores acquired prior to migration, which is thought to increase with access to food at the fueling site. Here, we studied how food abundance during fueling affected time budgets and reproductive success. In a regime of plenty, we expected that 1) limitations on food harvesting would become lifted, allowing birds to frequently idle, and 2) birds would reach sufficient fuel loads, such that departure weight would no longer affect reproductive success. Our study system comprised brent geese (Branta b. bernicla) staging on high-quality agricultural pastures. Fueling conditions were assessed by a combination of high-resolution GPS tracking, acceleration-based behavioral classification, thermoregulation modeling, and measurements of food digestibility and excretion rates. Mark-resighting analysis was used to test for correlations between departure weight and offspring recruitment. Our results confirm that birds loafed extensively, actively postponed fueling in early spring, and took frequent digestion pauses, suggesting that traditional time constraints on harvest and fueling rates are absent on modern-day fertilized grasslands. Nonetheless, departure weight remained correlated with recruitment success. The persistence of this correlation after a prolonged stopover with access to abundant high-quality food, suggests that between-individual differences in departure condition are not so much enforced by food quality and availability during stopover, but reflect individual quality and longer-lived life-history traits, such as health status and digestive capacity, which may be developed before the fueling period.

    Suppressiveness of Potato against Dickeya solani
    Wolf, J.M. van der; Coipan, E.C. ; Kastelein, P. ; Krijger, M.C. ; Tom, Jolanda ; Riksen, Natasja ; Nijhuis, E.H. ; Warris, S. ; Fokkema, Jenny - \ 2017
    In: Euphresco III Dickeya / Pectobacterium workshop. - - p. 8 - 8.
    Plan van Aanpak voor MBO 'training en opleiding' rond Smart Dairy Farming : onderdeel van BOGO project 'Sensoren in SDF 1.0: lessen voor validatie en informatievoorziening'
    Lokhorst, C. ; Fokkema, R. - \ 2015
    Livestock Research Wageningen UR (Livestock Research rapport 934) - 14
    melkveehouderij - gegevens verzamelen - gegevensanalyse - sensors - bedrijfsvoering - opleiding melkveehouderij - beroepsopleiding - onderwijsprogramma's - dairy farming - data collection - data analysis - sensors - management - dairy education - vocational training - education programmes
    Versterken van de positie van de school in de regio
    Beers, P.J. ; Sol, A.J. ; Beckhoven, K. van; Essing, D. ; Kupper, F. ; Meij, M. van der; Rooze, R. ; Clasquin, A. ; Pillen, T. ; Mulder, E. ; Waggelink, W. ; Nawijn, A. ; Fokkema, R. - \ 2013
    [Wageningen] : Wageningen University - 54
    regioleren - onderwijsinstellingen - publiek-private samenwerking - netwerken (activiteit) - regio - kennisoverdracht - onderwijsmethoden - onderwijsvernieuwing - Nederland - regional atelier - educational institutions - public-private cooperation - networking - regions - knowledge transfer - teaching methods - educational innovation - Netherlands
    Samen met studenten werken aan een betere toekomst voor de regio. Dat is regioleren. Ondernemers, overheden en maatschappelijke organisaties bepalen de agenda en werken samen met onderwijs en onderzoek aan oplossingen. Waar liggen de uitdagingen? Voor de instellingen is het een belangrijke uitdaging om aansluiting te vinden bij de regio. Hoe verander je van een onderwijsinstelling in een regionaal kenniscentrum? Hoe wordt je een volwaardige partner in een kenniswerkplaats? Een tweede belangrijke uitdaging ligt in de koppeling van het leren in de regio aan de lerende regio. In het programma Regionale Transitie is deze taak bij de kenniswerkplaatsen gelegd. De kenniswerkplaats is gebaseerd op een gezamenlijke regionale kennisagenda van overheid, ondernemers, maatschappelijke organisaties, onderwijs en onderzoek.
    Feasilbility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils
    Koopmans, G.F. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. ; Fokkema, M.J. ; Song, J. ; Luo, Y.M. ; Japenga, J. ; Zhao, F.J. - \ 2008
    Environmental Pollution 156 (2008)3. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 905 - 914.
    hyperaccumulator thlaspi-caerulescens - metal-accumulating plants - polluted soils - heavy-metals - sandy soil - zn - cd - phytoremediation - rhizosphere - field
    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and Zn exceeded the decrease of the soluble metal concentrations by several orders of magnitude. Hence, desorption of metals must have occurred to maintain the soil solution concentrations. A coupled regression model was developed to describe the transfer of metals from soil to solution and plant shoots. This model was applied to estimate the phytoextraction duration required to decrease the soil Cd concentration from 10 to 0.5 mg kg¿1. A biomass production of 1 and 5 t dm ha¿1 yr¿1 yields a duration of 42 and 11 yr, respectively. Successful phytoextraction operations based on T. caerulescens require an increased biomass production.
    Feasibility of phytoextraction to remediate cadmium and zinc contaminated soils
    Koopmans, G.F. ; Romkens, P.F.A.M. ; Fokkema, M.J. ; Song, J. ; Luo, Y. ; Japenga, J. ; Zhao, F.J. - \ 2008
    In: The 3rd International Conference on Soil Pollution and Remediation, 18 - 21 October, 2008, Nanjing, China. - Nanjing : - p. 138 - 140.
    A Cd and Zn contaminated soil was mixed and equilibrated with an uncontaminated, but otherwise similar soil to establish a gradient in soil contamination levels. Growth of Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype) significantly decreased the metal concentrations in soil solution. Plant uptake of Cd and Zn exceeded the decrease of the soluble metal concentrations by several orders of magnitude. Hence, desorption of metals must have occurred to maintain the soil solution concentrations. A coupled regression model was developed to describe the transfer of metals from soil to solution and plant shoots. This model was applied to estimate the phytoextraction duration required to decrease the soil Cd concentration from 10 to 0.5mgkg(-1). A biomass production of 1 and 5tdmha(-1)yr(-1) yields a duration of 42 and 11yr, respectively. Successful phytoextraction operations based on T. caerulescens require an increased biomass production.
    Inventarisatie en preventie van de belangrijkste bladvlekkenziekten in tarwe veroorzaakt door Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (DTR) en Septoria tritici: verslag over deel 2
    Köhl, J. ; Kema, G.H.J. ; Fokkema, N.J. ; Goosseen-van de Geijn, H.M. ; Kastelein, P. ; Verstappen, E.C.P. - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Rapport / Plant Research International 43) - 98
    pyrenophora tritici-repentis - septoria - triticum aestivum - tarwe - plantenziekten - bladvlekkenziekte - ziektepreventie - ziektedistributie - nederland - pyrenophora tritici-repentis - septoria - triticum aestivum - wheat - plant diseases - leaf spotting - disease prevention - disease distribution - netherlands
    De gele bladvlekkenziekte (DTR) is in 1999 en 2000 respectievelijk op 75% en 25% van de geïnventariseerde percelen aangetroffen. De aantasting was gering; toch wijzen de ernstige aantastingen die op enkele percelen zijn aangetroffen op een potentieel gevaar. Het onderzoek heeft aangetoond dat het risico van een zware DTR-aantasting, naast ruime vruchtwisseling, sterk vermindert door intensieve grondbewerking waardoor de eerste infecties door ascosporen van besmette tarwestoppels onmogelijk worden
    Joint toxicity of copper and zinc to a terrestrial nematode community in an acid sandy soil
    Korthals, G.W. ; Bongers, M. ; Fokkema, A. ; Dueck, T.A. ; Lexmond, T.M. - \ 2000
    Ecotoxicology 9 (2000). - ISSN 0963-9292 - p. 219 - 228.
    Heavy metal toxicity to an indigenous nematode community was examined following the addition of Cu and Zn, alone or in combination, to agricultural soil. The dissolved Cu or Zn concentrations measured after equilibrating soil samples with a 0.01 M solution of CaCl2 showed that the metal concentrations found in soils with combined metal additions were not significantly different from those with single metal additions. After an exposure period of six months, many nematode community parameters and individual nematode taxa were significantly affected by increasing concentrations of Cu and Zn up to 200 mg kg-1. Some nematode taxa, such as Thonus, Alaimus and Aporcelaimellus were very sensitive and disappeared at Cu and Zn concentrations exceeding 50 mg kg-1. For several nematode community parameters and nematode taxa, EC50 values for single metal exposures were used to calculate TU50 values for the joint toxicity of Cu and Zn. Based on these calculations, it is concluded that the effects of a combined exposure to Cu and Zn were additive or less than additive. Before this conclusion can be generalised, however, more data are needed on other types of soil, other pH values and other combinations of pollutants.
    Long-term biosanitation by application of Coniothyrium minitans on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum--infected crops
    Gerlagh, M. ; Goossen-van de Geijn, H.M. ; Fokkema, N.J. ; Vereijken, P.F.G. - \ 1999
    Phytopathology 89 (1999)2. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 141 - 147.
    The effect of the fungal mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans applied as a spray to crops infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (causal agent of white mold) on contamination of soil with S. sclerotiorum sclerotia was studied in a 5-year field experiment. Sclerotial survival also was monitored during two subsequent years, when the field was returned to commercial agriculture. In a randomized block design, factorial combinations of four crops and three treatments were repeated 10 times. Potato (Solanum tuberosum), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), and chicory (Cichorium intybus), which are all susceptible to S. sclerotiorum, were grown in rotation. Plots were treated with C. minitans or Trichoderma spp. or were nontreated (control). Crops were rotated in each plot, but treatments were applied to the same plot every year. After 3 years during which it showed no effect on sclerotial survival, the Trichoderma spp. treatment was replaced by a single spray with C. minitans during the fourth and fifth years of the trial. The effect of treatments was monitored in subsequent seasons by counting apothecia as a measure of surviving S. sclerotiorum sclerotia and scoring disease incidence. Trichoderma spp. did not suppress S. sclerotiorum, but C. minitans infected at least 90% of S. sclerotiorum sclerotia on treated crops by the end of the each season. C. minitans lowered the number of apothecia compared with the other treatments during the second year after the bean crop. C. minitans reduced the number of apothecia by ~90% when compared with the control and Trichoderma spp. treatments and reduced disease incidence in the bean crop by 50% during the fifth year of the trial, resulting in a slightly higher yield. In 1993, but not 1994, a single spray with C. minitans was nearly as effective at reducing apothecia as three sprays (monitored in 1995). The final population size of sclerotia in soil at the end of the 7-year period was lower in all C. minitans plots than at the beginning of the trial, even in plots where two highly susceptible bean crops were grown during the period. The results indicate that the mycoparasite C. minitans has the potential to keep contamination of soil with sclerotia low in crop rotations with a high number of crops susceptible to S. sclerotiorum.
    Biological control of necrotrophic foliar fungal pathogens
    Köhl, J. ; Fokkema, N.J. - \ 1998
    In: Plant-Microbe Interactions and Biological control / Boland, G.J., Kuykendall, L.V., New York : Marcel Dekker - p. 49 - 88.
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