From water as curative agent to enabling waterscapes : Diverse experiences of the ‘therapeutic
Doughty, Karolina - \ 2019
In: Blue Space, Health and Wellbeing / Foley, Ronan, Kearns, Robin, Kistemann, Thomas, Wheeler, Ben, Routledge - ISBN 9780815359142 - p. 79 - 94.
Recent years have seen an increase in scholarly attention applied to the experiential relationship between humans and water. Significant insights have been gained into the human-water relationship more broadly, for instance in regard to the rich and evolving meanings of seascapes (Brown and Humberstone, 2015), as well as the growing literature on the health-enabling potential of being in or near water (Foley, 2010, 2011, 2014; Foley and Kistemann, 2015). In relation to questions about water and health, the literature within and beyond health geography exploring ‘therapeutic blue space’ has emerged strongly, contributing to the already large body of work which has applied the concept of therapeutic landscape (Gesler, 1992) to a wide range of contexts, to investigate how environmental, societal and individual factors interact in the creation of health-enabling places (for a scoping review, see Bell et al., 2018). In Gesler’s (1992) original conceptualisation, a therapeutic landscape is a place (a) where a material setting has been created to support the pursuit of health and wellbeing, (b) which is culturally associated with health and (c) where social practices related to ‘healing’ take place. Through these three elements the ‘healing process’ is situated geographically in places. As such, the therapeutic landscape concept has been applied to a wide range of environments from the perspective of exploring the attribution of health-related meaning to places and landscapes by individuals, groups and more broadly societies.
Visions for nature and nature’s contributions to people for the 21st century : Report from an IPBES visioning workshop held on 4-8 September 2017 in Auckland, New Zealand
Lundquist, Carolyn J. ; Pereira, H.M. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Belder, E. den; Carvalho Ribeiro, Sonja ; Davies, Kate ; Greenaway, Alison ; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Kim, H. ; Lazarova, Tanya ; Pereira, Laura ; Peterson, G. ; Ravera, Federica ; Brink, Thelma van den; Argumedo, Alejandro ; Arida, Clarissa ; Armenteras, Dolors ; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle ; Baptiste, Brigitte ; Belanger, Julie ; Bingham, Kelly ; Bowden-Kerby, Austin ; Cao, Mingchang ; Nettleton-Carino, Jocelyn ; Damme, Paul Andre Van; Devivo, R. ; Dickson, Fiona ; Dushimumuremyi, Jean Paul ; Ferrier, S. ; Flores-Díaz, Adriana ; Foley, Melissa ; Garcia Marquez, Jaime ; Giraldo-Perez, Paulina ; Greenhalgh, Suzie ; Hamilton, D.J. ; Hardison, Preston ; Hicks, Geoff ; Hughey, Ken ; Kahui-McConnell, Richelle ; Wangechi Karuri-Sebina, Geci ; Kock, M. de; Leadley, Paul ; Lemaitre, Frederic ; Maltseva, Elina ; Mattos Scaramuzza, Carlos A. de; Metwaly, Mona ; Nelson, W. ; Ngo, Hien ; Neumann, Christian ; Norrie, Craig ; Perry, Joanne ; Quintana, Rodrigo ; Rodriguez Osuna, Vanesa Eliana ; Röhrl, Richard ; Seager, J. ; Sharpe, Helen ; Shortland, Tui ; Shulbaeva, Polina ; Rashid Sumaila, U. ; Takahashi, Yasuo ; Titeux, Titeux ; Tiwari, Sunandan ; Trisos, Christopher ; Ursache, Andrei ; Wheatley, Amanda ; Wilson, David ; Wood, S. ; Wyk, Ernita van; Yue, Tian Xiang ; Zulfikar, Dina - \ 2017
NIWA Science and Technology (NIWA Science and Technology Series 83) - ISBN 9780473426101 - 123 p.
Existing scenarios of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES) have important limitations and gaps that constrain their usefulness for the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Specifically, they fail to incorporate policy objectives related to nature conservation and social-ecological feedbacks, they do not address the linkages between biodiversity and ecosystem services, and they are typically relevant at only a particular spatial scale. In addition, nature and its benefits are treated as the consequence of human decisions, but are not at the centre of the analysis. To address these issues, the IPBES Scenarios and Models Expert Group initiated the development of a set of Multiscale Scenarios for Nature Futures based on positive visions for human relationships with nature.
The first step of this process was a visioning workshop with stakeholders and experts on 4-8 September 2017 in Auckland, New Zealand. A total of 73 participants from inter-governmental organisations, national government organisations, non-governmental organisations, academia and the private sector, from 31 countries, and with a range of sectoral expertise on biodiversity topics, from urban development to agriculture to fisheries, worked together in a visioning exercise. This report documents the results from this visioning workshop to inform further stakeholder consultation and the development of the associated multiscale scenarios by modelers and experts.
This creative visioning exercise was carried out in four steps based on a suite of participatory methods that were used to develop visions of alternative futures. First the participants identified important themes to develop the visions. Next, thematic groups identified the main trends for BES in each theme and a set of “Seeds” of emerging initiatives leading to positive futures for our relationship with nature. Implications of what would happen across a range of sectors were identified for each seed. Then a pathway analysis of how the current regime in each theme may be transformed into the future desirable regime was carried
out. Narratives were then built for the visions emerging from each group. Finally, commonalities of visions across the groups were identified, and the regional relevance of each vision for different parts of the world was assessed.
Rebalancing food production and nature conservation; the need for design-oriented research
Rossing, W.A.H. ; Sabatier, R. ; Teillard, F. ; Groot, J.C.J. ; Tittonell, P.A. - \ 2016
In: Food production and nature conservation. Conflicts and Solutions / Gordon, Iain J., Squire, Geoff R., Prins, Herbert H.T., Earthscan - ISBN 9781138859395 - p. 261 - 280.
The unprecedented impacts of humans on the Earth (e.g. Rockström et al., 2009; Sachs et al., 2010; Foley, 2011) have prompted a debate on the future of land use and, with agriculture as the major anthropogenic use, on new models of agricultural production. In addition to concerns about the eects of current agricultural land use, the debate is fuelled by the predicted growth of the human population, at least until 2050, and the associated need to nourish an extra 3 billion people in the face of a limited unused area of agriculturally exploitable land (e.g. Godfray et al., 2010). Leadley et al. (2014) predict rapid shifts in the state of ecosystems at regional scales within the next decades that it will be dicult to reverse. Assuming business-as-usual socioeconomic development pathways, these shifts will drive coupled human-environment systems to highly degraded states in terms of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being. Steen et al. (2015) describe how planetary boundaries that delimit a ‘safe space’ for global societal development have been exceeded in the domains of climate change and land-system change and are reaching well into high-risk zones for biosphere integrity (operationalized as genetic diversity) and biogeochemical ows of P and N. For various indicators, it is not the absolute global levels that are a cause for concern, but the speed at which current levels are being reached, which is unprecedented in the Anthropocene (Kidwell, 2015).
Host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on Neotropical vertebrates
Esser, Helen J. ; Foley, Janet E. ; Bongers, Frans ; Herre, Edward Allen ; Miller, Matthew J. ; Prins, Herbert H.T. ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2016
International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 5 (2016)3. - ISSN 2213-2244 - p. 295 - 304.
20/80 Rule - Panama - Parasite fauna - Pareto principle - Proportional similarity - Species richness
Identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodida) across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. The species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we evaluate this relationship using a comparative dataset of feeding associations from Panama between 45 tick species and 171 host species that range in body size by three orders of magnitude. We found that tick species diversity increased with host body size for adult ticks but not for immature ticks. We also found that closely related host species tended to have similar tick species diversity, but correcting for host phylogeny did not alter the relationships between host body size and tick species diversity. The distribution of tick species was highly aggregated, with approximately 20% of the host species harboring 80% of all tick species, following the Pareto principle or 20/80 Rule. Thus, the aggregated pattern commonly observed for tick burdens and disease transmission also holds for patterns of tick species richness. Our finding that the adult ticks in this system preferentially parasitize large-bodied host species suggests that the ongoing anthropogenic loss of large-bodied vertebrates is likely to result in host-tick coextinction events, even when immature stages feed opportunistically. As parasites play critical roles in ecological and evolutionary processes, such losses may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services.
Proficiency testing of laboratories for paralytic shelfish poisoning toxons in shellfish by QUASIMEME: A review
Burrell, S. ; Crum, S.J.H. ; Foley, B. ; Turner, A. - \ 2016
TrAC : Trends in Analytical Chemistry 75 (2016). - ISSN 0165-9936 - p. 10 - 23.
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins are some of the most toxic substances known to man and consumption of shellfish containing these naturally-occurring neurotoxins can lead to a range of different symptoms including death in extreme cases. It is imperative therefore, to implement robust shellfish monitoring programs to minimise the possibility of contaminated product reaching the marketplace. To improve the quality assurance of these programs, QUASIMEME, the proficiency test provider added to its scope PSP toxins in shellfish. Since 2009, six proficiency testing exercises have been delivered by QUASIMEME with a total of thirty-four different laboratories submitting data using a range of different methods. These include animal and antibody based assays, together with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) techniques using post and pre-column oxidation and more recently LC-MS/MS methodologies. Data from these exercises is presented and laboratory performance is assessed to determine any changes in overall performance over the six rounds, together with any potential method-related performance issues. The data showed the improvement of laboratories over the six exercises with between laboratory CV% values decreasing from an average of 39% in the first year to 22% in 2014 and the average percentage of participants receiving satisfactory z-scores increasing from 50% in 2009 to over 66% in 2014.
Amblyomma tapirellum (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from tropical forest canopy
Loaiza, J.R. ; Miller, M.J. ; Bermingham, E. ; Sanjur, O.I. ; Jansen, P.A. ; Rovira, J.R. ; Alvarez, E. ; Rodriguez, E. ; Davis, P. ; Dutari, L.C. ; Pecor, J. ; Foley, D. ; Radtke, M. ; Pongsiri, M.J. - \ 2013
F1000 Research 2 (2013). - ISSN 2046-1402
Free-ranging ticks are widely known to be restricted to the ground level of vegetation. Here, we document the capture of the tick species Amblyomma tapirellum in light traps placed in the forest canopy of Barro Colorado Island, central Panama. A total of forty eight adults and three nymphs were removed from carbon dioxide–octenol baited CDC light traps suspended 20 meters above the ground during surveys for forest canopy mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of questing ticks from the canopy of tropical forests. Our finding suggests a novel ecological relationship between A. tapirellum and arboreal mammals, perhaps monkeys that come to the ground to drink or to feed on fallen fruits.
The need for improved maps of global cropland
Fritz, S. ; See, L. ; Justice, C. ; Becker-Reshef, I. ; Bydekerke, L. ; Cumani, R. ; Defourny, P. ; Erb, K. ; Foley, J. ; Gilliams, S. ; Gong, P. ; Hansen, M. ; Hertel, T. ; Herold, M. ; Herrero, M. ; Kayitakire, F. ; Latham, J. ; Leo, O. ; MCCallum, I. ; Obersteiner, M. ; Ramankutty, N. ; Rocha, J. ; Tang, H. ; Thornton, P. ; Vancutsem, C. ; Velde, M. van der; Wood, S. ; Woodcock, C. - \ 2013
EOS: Transactions, American Geophysical Union 94 (2013)3. - ISSN 0096-3941 - p. 31 - 32.
Food security is a key global concern. By 2050, the global population will exceed 9 billion, and a 50% increase in annual agricultural output will be required to keep up with demand. There are significant additional pressures on existing agricultural land through increased competition from the biofuel sector and the need to elevate feed production, which is being driven by higher levels of meat consumption in low- and middle-income countries
A high-resolution and harmonized model approach for reconstructing and analysing historic land changes in Europe
Fuchs, R. ; Herold, M. ; Verburg, P.H. ; Clevers, J.G.P.W. - \ 2013
Biogeosciences 10 (2013). - ISSN 1726-4170 - p. 1543 - 1559.
mediterranean landscapes - atmospheric co2 - cover changes - future - carbon - maps - classification - emissions - centuries
Human-induced land use changes are nowadays the second largest contributor to atmospheric carbon dioxide after fossil fuel combustion. Existing historic land change reconstructions on the European scale do not sufficiently meet the requirements of greenhouse gas (GHG) and climate assessments, due to insufficient spatial and thematic detail and the consideration of various land change types. This paper investigates if the combination of different data sources, more detailed modelling techniques, and the integration of land conversion types allow us to create accurate, high-resolution historic land change data for Europe suited for the needs of GHG and climate assessments. We validated our reconstruction with historic aerial photographs from 1950 and 1990 for 73 sample sites across Europe and compared it with other land reconstructions like Klein Goldewijk et al. (2010, 2011), Ramankutty and Foley (1999), Pongratz et al. (2008) and Hurtt et al. (2006). The results indicate that almost 700 000 km2 (15.5%) of land cover in Europe has changed over the period 1950–2010, an area similar to France. In Southern Europe the relative amount was almost 3.5% higher than average (19%). Based on the results the specific types of conversion, hot-spots of change and their relation to political decisions and socio-economic transitions were studied. The analysis indicates that the main drivers of land change over the studied period were urbanization, the reforestation program resulting from the timber shortage after the Second World War, the fall of the Iron Curtain, the Common Agricultural Policy and accompanying afforestation actions of the EU. Compared to existing land cover reconstructions, the new method considers the harmonization of different datasets by achieving a high spatial resolution and regional detail with a full coverage of different land categories. These characteristics allow the data to be used to support and improve ongoing GHG inventories and climate research
Impact of climate change on risk of incursion of Crimian-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Livestock in Europe through migratory birds
Gale, P. ; Stevenson, R.B. ; Brouwer, A. ; Martinez, M. ; Torre, A. de la; Munoz, M.J. ; Bosch, J. ; Foley-Fisher, M. ; Bonilauri, P. ; Lindstrom, A. ; Ulrich, R.G. ; Vos, C.J. de; Scremin, M. ; Liu, Z. - \ 2012
Journal of Applied Microbiology 112 (2012)2. - ISSN 1364-5072 - p. 246 - 257.
ticks - transmission
Aims: To predict the risk of incursion of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in livestock in Europe introduced through immature Hyalomma marginatum ticks on migratory birds under current conditions and in the decade 2075–2084 under a climate-change scenario. Methods and Results: A spatial risk map of Europe comprising 14 282 grid cells (25 × 25 km) was constructed using three data sources: (i) ranges and abundances of four species of bird which migrate from sub-Saharan Africa to Europe each spring, namely Willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus), Northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), Tree pipit (Anthus trivialis) and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix); (ii) UK Met Office HadRM3 spring temperatures for prediction of moulting success of immature H. marginatum ticks and (iii) livestock densities. On average, the number of grid cells in Europe predicted to have at least one CCHFV incursion in livestock in spring was 1·04 per year for the decade 2005–2014 and 1·03 per year for the decade 2075–2084. In general with the assumed climate-change scenario, the risk increased in northern Europe but decreased in central and southern Europe, although there is considerable local variation in the trends. Conclusions: The absolute risk of incursion of CCHFV in livestock through ticks introduced by four abundant species of migratory bird (totalling 120 million individual birds) is very low. Climate change has opposing effects, increasing the success of the moult of the nymphal ticks into adults but decreasing the projected abundance of birds by 34% in this model. Significance and Impact of the Study: For Europe, climate change is not predicted to increase the overall risk of incursion of CCHFV in livestock through infected ticks introduced by these four migratory bird species.
Wildlife management in Gonarezhou National Park, southeast Zimbabwe: Climate change and implications for management
Gandiwa, E. ; Zisadza, P. - \ 2010
Nature and Faune 25 (2010)1. - ISSN 2026-5611 - p. 95 - 104.
Climate change is not a new phenomenon; the only constant about climate throughout Earth’s history is that it has changed (Marchant, 2010). An earlier study in Africa indicated that some Southern African ecosystems are highly sensitive to climate change (e.g., Magadza, 1994). Climate change in Africa is expected to lead to higher occurrence of severe droughts in semiarid and arid ecosystems (Foley et al., 2008). For instance, a severe drought associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon was recorded in 1991–92 in Southern Africa. In Zimbabwe, the most affected areas in terms of wildlife and ecological systems in the 1991–92 drought were recorded in the southeastern parts of the country (Magadza, 1994).
Regime shifts in the Sahara and Sahel: interactions between ecological and climatic systems in northern Africa
Foley, J.A. ; Coe, M.T. ; Scheffer, M. ; Wang, G.L. - \ 2003
Ecosystems 6 (2003)6. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 524 - 539.
atmosphere-vegetation system - sea-surface temperature - lake status data - model simulations - summer rainfall - midholocene insolation - arabian peninsula - middle holocene - late quaternary - eastern sahara
The Sahara and Sahel regions of northern Africa have complex environmental histories punctuated by sudden and dramatic "regime shifts" in climate and ecological conditions. Here we review the current understanding of the causes and consequences of two environmental regime shifts in the Sahara and Sahel. The first regime shift is the sudden transition from vegetated to desert conditions in the Sahara about 5500 years ago. Geologic data show that wet environmental conditions in this region-giving rise to extensive vegetation, lakes, and wet-lands-came to an abrupt end about 5500 years ago. Explanations for climatic changes in northern Africa during the Holocene have suggested that millennial-scale changes in the Earth's orbit could have caused the wet conditions that prevailed in the early Holocene and the dry conditions prevalent today. However, the orbital hypothesis, by itself, does not explain the sudden regime shift 5500 years ago. Several modeling studies have proposed that strong, nonlinear feedbacks between vegetation and the atmosphere could amplify the effects of orbital variations and create two alternative stable states (or "regimes") in the climate and ecosystems of the Sahara: a "green Sahara" and a "desert Sahara." A recent coupled atmosphere-ocean-land model confirmed that there was a sudden shift from the "green Sahara" to the "desert Sahara" regime approximately 5500 years ago. The second regime shift is the onset of a major 30-year drought over the Sahel around 1969. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the interactions between atmosphere and vegetation act to reinforce either a "wet Sahel" or a "dry Sahel" climatic regime, which may persist for decades at a time. Recent modeling studies have indicated that the shift from a "wet Sahel" to a "dry Sahel" regime was caused by strong feedbacks between the climate and vegetation cover and may have been triggered by slow changes in either land degradation or sea-surface temperatures. Taken together, we conclude that the existence of alternative stable states (or regimes) in the climate and ecosystems of the Sahara and Sahel may be the result of strong, nonlinear interactions between vegetation and the atmosphere. Although the shifts between these regimes occur rapidly, they are made possible by slow, subtle changes in underlying environmental conditions, including slow changes in incoming solar radiation, sea-surface temperatures, or the degree of land degradation.
Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems
Scheffer, M. ; Carpenter, S. ; Foley, J.A. ; Folke, C. ; Walker, B. - \ 2001
Nature 413 (2001)6856. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 591 - 596.
All ecosystems are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state. This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such ecosystems should focus on maintaining resilience.
Land-cover change over the three last centuries due to human activities
Ramankutty, N. ; Klein Goldewijk, C.G.M. ; Leemans, R. ; Foley, J.A. - \ 2001
Global Change Newsletter (2001)47. - ISSN 0284-5865 - p. 17 - 19.
|Phase IV Mid-Term Review 2000 : FAO Inter-Country Programme for Community IPM in Asia
Röling, N. ; Foley, S. ; Markie, J. ; Pimbert, M. ; Salazar, R. ; Yongfan, P. - \ 2000
Rome : Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO ) - 64 p.
Changes in the woody component of an East African savanna during 25 years
Vijver, C.A.D.M. van de; Foley, C.A. ; Olff, H. - \ 1999
Journal of Tropical Ecology 15 (1999). - ISSN 0266-4674 - p. 545 - 564.
ruaha-national-park - luangwa valley - woodland structure - northern botswana - elephant damage - tanzania - serengeti - zambia - population - ecosystem
Changes in density, structure and species composition of the woody component of the two predominant savanna types in Tarangire National Park, northern Tanzania, during a period of 25 y were investigated. The park is known for its large, increasing elephant numbers and high frequency of fires. In 1996 a study on woody species density, composition and age structure, which was first performed in 1971, was repeated, using the same transects and method. Access to the original data of 1971 allowed for a full comparison of the changes and an investigation whether these could be related to changes in elephant numbers and fire frequency. The total tree density declined during the 25 y, but the decline was not evenly distributed over the different height classes. Although the density of trees taller than 5 m declined significantly, the greatest decline occurred in the density of trees shorter than 1 m. The density of trees in the intermediate height class of 1-5 m did not decline. Although damage to trees by elephants increased during the 25-y period, c. 25% showed no browse damage and, except for some severely damaged trees, elephant damage was not found to reduce tree vigour. Elephants affected the size distribution of the savanna woody component much more than the density, while the data suggest no significant effect of fire on changes in tree density. The large decline in density of small trees was attributed to a severe drought in 1993. Based on large numbers of elephants during the past decades and on relatively low elephant impact on the total tree density, the present study suggests that the current elephant number of 2300 can be sustained in the park without causing detrimental effects, provided that their current range is maintained.
|Dynamics in Camping Styles?! The Background of Change and/or Repetitive Behaviour of the Camper in the Netherlands
Hout, F.A.G. ; Kloeze, J.W. te; Voet, J.L.M. van der - \ 1999
In: Leisure, Tourism and Environment: Participation, Perceptions and Preferences / Foley, M., Frew, M., McPherson, G., - p. 97 - 112.
|Tree growing by rural people.
Foley, G. ; Barnard, G. ; Castro, A.P. ; Wiersum, K.F. ; Dewees, P. ; Campbell, J.G. - \ 1986
Unknown Publisher - 130 p.