Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Ultra-Processing or Oral Processing? A Role for Energy Density and Eating Rate in Moderating Energy Intake from Processed Foods
    Forde, Ciarán G. ; Mars, Monica ; Graaf, Kees De - \ 2020
    Current Developments in Nutrition 4 (2020)3. - ISSN 2475-2991
    eating rate - energy density - energy intake rate - food texture - metabolic disease - obesity - ultra-processed foods - unprocessed foods

    Background: Recent observational data and a controlled in-patient crossover feeding trial show that consumption of "ultra-processed foods" (UPFs), as defined by the NOVA classification system, is associated with higher energy intake, adiposity, and at a population level, higher prevalence of obesity. A drawback of the NOVA classification is the lack of evidence supporting a causal mechanism for why UPFs lead to overconsumption of energy. In a recent study by Hall the energy intake rate in the UPF condition (48 kcal/min) was >50% higher than in the unprocessed condition (31 kcal/min). Extensive empirical evidence has shown the impact that higher energy density has on increasing ad libitum energy intake and body weight. A significant body of research has shown that consuming foods at higher eating rates is related to higher energy intake and a higher prevalence of obesity. Energy density can be combined with eating rate to create a measure of energy intake rate (kcal/min), providing an index of a food's potential to promote increased energy intake. Objective: The current paper compared the association between measured energy intake rate and level of processing as defined by the NOVA classification. Methods: Data were pooled from 5 published studies that measured energy intake rates across a total sample of 327 foods. Results: We show that going from unprocessed, to processed, to UPFs that the average energy intake rate increases from 35.5 ± 4.4, to 53.7 ± 4.3, to 69.4 ± 3.1 kcal/min (P < 0.05). However, within each processing category there is wide variability in the energy intake rate. Conclusions: We conclude that reported relations between UPF consumption and obesity should account for differences in energy intake rates when comparing unprocessed and ultra-processed diets. Future research requires well-controlled human feeding trials to establish the causal mechanisms for why certain UPFs can promote higher energy intake.

    Oral processing behavior of drinkable, spoonable and chewable foods is primarily determined by rheological and mechanical food properties
    Aguayo-Mendoza, Monica G. ; Ketel, Eva C. ; Linden, Erik van der; Forde, Ciarán G. ; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2019
    Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 87 - 95.
    Bite size - Consumption time - Eating rate - Food consistency - Food oral processing - Liking

    Food oral processing plays a key role in sensory perception, consumer acceptance and food intake. However, little is known about the influence of physical food properties on oral processing of different type of food products. The primary objective of this study was to determine the influence of rheological and mechanical properties of foods on oral processing behavior of liquid (drinkable), semi-solid (spoonable) and solid foods (chewable). The secondary objective was to quantify the influence of product liking, frequency of consumption and familiarity on oral processing behavior. Rheological and mechanical properties of 18 commercially available foods were quantified. Parameters describing oral processing behavior such as sip and bite size, consumption time, eating rate, number of swallows, number of chews, cycle duration, and chewing rate were extracted from video recordings of 61 consumers. Subjects evaluated products’ liking, familiarity, and frequency of consumption using questionnaires. Consumers strongly adapted oral processing behavior with respect to bite size, consumption time, and eating rate to the rheological and mechanical properties of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods. This adaptation was observed within each food category. Chewing rate and chewing cycle duration of solid foods were not influenced by mechanical properties and remained relatively constant. Liking, familiarity, and consumption frequency showed to impact oral processing behavior, although to a lower degree than the rheological and mechanical properties of food. We conclude that the oral processing behaviors of liquid, semi-solid and solid foods are mainly determined by their rheological and mechanical properties.

    The Potential for Upscaling Kelp (Saccharina latissima) Cultivation in Salmon-Driven Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA)
    Fossberg, Julia ; Forbord, Silje ; Broch, Ole Jacob ; Malzahn, Arne M. ; Jansen, Henrice ; Handå, Aleksander ; Førde, Henny ; Bergvik, Maria ; Fleddum, Anne Lise ; Skjermo, Jorunn ; Olsen, Yngvar - \ 2018
    Frontiers in Marine Science 5 (2018). - ISSN 2296-7745
    nitrogen - bioremediation - stable isotope - numerical modeling - Norway
    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has the potential of reducing open-cage fish farming impacts on the environment while also introducing new value chains. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth and composition of the kelp Saccharina latissima in salmon-driven IMTA, and to assess the spatial extent of the influence of salmon derived nitrogen in order to evaluate the upscaling potential for IMTA. S. latissima was cultivated 100, 200, and 1,000 m east and 1,000 m west of a 5,000 tons salmon farm in Western Norway from February to September 2013. The proportion of salmon derived nitrogen available for the kelp showed a clear decline with distance from the farm. Accordingly, the kelp cultivated near the salmon cages grew faster during the spring season, and growth rate decreased with increasing distance from the farm. A spatially explicit numerical model system (SINMOD), including compartments for dissolved nutrients and kelp growth, was tuned to the field data and used to investigate the potential for upscaling IMTA production. The model was used to introduce a new metric—the impacted area IA—for the areal effects of IMTA in terms of the increase in production by IMTA. The model showed that a 25 hectare kelp farm in the vicinity of the studied salmon farm could take up 1.6 of the 13.5 tons of dissolved inorganic nitrogen released during kelp cultivation, amounting to almost 12% of the ammonia released during the cultivation period from February to June. The 25 hectare kelp farm would have a production yield of 1,125 tons fresh weight (FW), being 60% more than that of a non-IMTA kelp farm, while a 20% increase of kelp FW could be obtained over a 110 hectar area in salmon-driven IMTA. To achieve an even mass balance, an area of approximately 220 ha−1 would be needed to cultivate enough kelp to fix an equivalent of the nitrogen released by the fish
    Correlation of instrumental texture properties from textural profile analysis (TPA) with eating behaviours and macronutrient composition for a wide range of solid foods
    Wee, May Sui Mei ; Goh, Ai Ting ; Stieger, Markus ; Forde, Ciarán G. - \ 2018
    Food & Function 9 (2018)10. - ISSN 2042-6496 - p. 5301 - 5312.

    Faster eating rates have previously been associated with higher ad libitum energy intakes, and several studies have manipulated eating rates and intake by changing food textures. Food texture based changes to slow eating rates can produce reductions in energy intake without affecting post-meal satisfaction or re-bound hunger. However, an understanding of how specific food textures and instrumental texture properties influence oral processing behaviour remains limited. The current study sought to establish relationships between objective measures of oral processing behaviour (i.e. number of bites, average bite size, total chews, chews per bite, oro-sensory exposure time and eating rate) and instrumental measures of a food texture including hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, resilience and modulus. Across two studies, behavioural coding analysis was completed on video-recordings of participants consuming fixed portions of a wide range of different solid foods (n = 59) to derive objective measures of oral processing behaviours. These measures were correlated with instrumental Textural Profile Analysis (TPA) for the same set of foods. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between oral processing parameters and texture properties (i.e. springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and resilience). No significant correlations were found between hardness and modulus and oral processing parameters. Protein content of the food was associated with springiness and chewiness, which may help to further reduce eating rates. In terms of the ‘breakdown path model', hardness and modulus might represent degree of initial food structure while springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness and resilience seem to determine how fast the degree of structure is reduced to the swallowing plane. Water content and adhesiveness were associated with level of lubrication that is required before reaching the swallowing plane. The current study highlights opportunities to understand eating rate (g min−1) through the breakdown path model and the potential for specific features of a foods texture to influence rate and extent of energy intake. The correlation between instrumental texture properties and oral processing patterns provides guidance on the parameters that are likely to produce ‘faster' and ‘slower' versions of foods, and suggests how texture modifications could be applied to moderate eating rate and energy intake within meals.

    The changing role of the senses in food choice and food intake across the lifespan
    Boesveldt, Sanne ; Bobowski, Nuala ; McCrickerd, Keri ; Maître, Isabelle ; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire ; Forde, Ciarán G. - \ 2018
    Food Quality and Preference 68 (2018). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 80 - 89.
    Cancer - Children - Elderly - Food choice - Food intake - Neurodegenerative disease - Obesity - Preference - Sensory perception
    Sensory perception begins before birth and enables us to interpret the biological relevance of stimuli in our near environment. In early life, the senses play a crucial role in informing acceptance and rejection of foods and beverages. Food preferences develop with experience based on associations formed between a foods flavour and the consequence of its consumption. In adulthood the role of the chemical senses is often simplified into simple ‘likes’ and ‘dislikes’, but recent evidence highlights a more functional role in guiding eating behaviours and nutrition. A food's perceptual properties are important for the detection of its nutrient content and through this, guide not only food choice but also habitual energy selection and consumption behaviour. As we age and the prevalence of chronic disease increases, sensory acuity often declines for taste, smell and texture perception, and this can have an impact on food perception, preference and food intake. This creates an opportunity to apply an understanding of sensory influences on choice and intake to stimulate appetite during periods where nutrient intakes may become compromised. This paper summarises current knowledge of the changing role of the senses during infancy and early childhood, through to adulthood, older age and illness. The aim is to highlight opportunities to improve health and wellness through a better understanding of how sensory factors can influence eating behaviours and nutrition at key time points across the lifespan.
    Knowledge gaps that hamper prevention and control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection
    Barkema, H.W. ; Orsel, K. ; Nielsen, S. ; Koets, Ad ; Rutten, V.P.M.G. ; Bannantine, J.P. ; Keefe, G.P. ; Kelton, D.F. ; Wells, S.J. ; Whittington, R.J. ; Mackintosh, C.G. ; Manning, E.J. ; Weber, M.F. ; Heuer, C. ; Forde, T.L. ; Ritter, C. ; Roche, S. ; Corbett, C.S. ; Wolf, R. ; Griebel, P.J. ; Kastelic, J.P. ; Buck, J. De - \ 2018
    Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 65 (2018)S1. - ISSN 1865-1674 - p. 125 - 148.
    In the last decades, many regional and country-wide control programmes for Johne's disease (JD) were developed due to associated economic losses, or because of a possible association with Crohn's disease. These control programmes were often not successful, partly because management protocols were not followed, including the introduction of infected replacement cattle, because tests to identify infected animals were unreliable, and uptake by farmers was not high enough because of a perceived low return on investment. In the absence of a cure or effective commercial vaccines, control of JD is currently primarily based on herd management strategies to avoid infection of cattle and restrict within-farm and farm-to-farm transmission. Although JD control programmes have been implemented in most developed countries, lessons learned from JD prevention and control programmes are underreported. Also, JD control programmes are typically evaluated in a limited number of herds and the duration of the study is less than 5 year, making it difficult to adequately assess the efficacy of control programmes. In this manuscript, we identify the most important gaps in knowledge hampering JD prevention and control programmes, including vaccination and diagnostics. Secondly, we discuss directions that research should take to address those knowledge gaps
    Animals and us: history, exciting developments, cross-pollination and new directions for applied ethology research
    Brown, J. ; Seddon, Y. ; Rault, J.L. ; Doyle, R. ; Jensen, P. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Marchant-Forde, J. - \ 2016
    In: Proceedings of the 50th congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862870 - p. 112 - 112.
    Applied ethology is a relatively new eld, which has grown rapidly in scope, geographical distribution and in€uence since the inception of the SVE/ISAE in 1966. There has been limited historical documentation of the eld, and students new to the area have little information available to understand the history of this science beyond what is found in journal publications.
    To address this gap, several ISAE members and a‚liated researchers have compiled a book, ‘Animals and us: 50 years and more of applied ethology’ which documents and celebrates the rst 50 years of the ISAE. The book is written in four parts, including: (1) the history of the society and early pioneers; (2) research advances in behaviour; (3) global perspectives;
    and (4) future directions for applied ethology research. Contributing authors include many leading researchers in the field- too numerous to mention here. This presentation will explore highlights from the text related to achievements, trends in research, collaborative studies with other elds, and new directions for both basic and applied research, all in an attempt to explain why ethologists are so passionate about their work, and why this eld remains more exciting now than ever before. �emes include human-animal interaction, personality, play
    behaviour, cognition, multi-level selection, polyvagal theory, and the relationship between applied ethology and animal welfare science. We conclude that other animals, with their amazing and various forms and habits, may be the perfect human enrichment.
    Future directions for applied ethology
    Marchant-Forde, J. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2016
    In: Animals and Us Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862825 - p. 297 - 318.
    It is the expectation that the world population will grow to 9 billion people by 2050. There is no doubt that this dramatic increase will impact all of the animals with which we share this planet. A global population growing in size and affluence will greatly increase demand for food from animal sources, meaning global growth in livestock production. More livestock production means changes in land use, with more land being converted to grazing or animal feedstuff production, and more production of waste to be applied back to the land, together impacting natural habitats and wildlife species diversity. Greater affluence also means greater companion animal ownership, further increasing demand for food from animal sources, increasing feral populations with potential impacts on human health and wildlife diversity. In this chapter, we will attempt to gaze into the crystal ball and identify some future directions for applied ethology and for our Society. There is no doubt that applied ethologists can have exciting roles to play in shaping and safeguarding the welfare of domestic animals and wild animals in captivity, and also feral and wild animals living in their natural habitat, either impacting or being impacted by humans
    Slow Food: Sustained Impact of Harder Foods on the Reduction in Energy Intake over the Course of the Day
    Bolhuis, D.P. ; Forde, C.G. ; Cheng, Y.J. ; Xu, H.H. ; Martin, N. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
    bite size - young-adults - eating rate - weight - obesity - satiation - appetite - meal - men - viscosity
    Background: Previous research has shown that oral processing characteristics like bite size and oral residence duration are related to the satiating efficiency of foods. Oral processing characteristics are influenced by food texture. Very little research has been done on the effect of food texture within solid foods on energy intake. Objectives: The first objective was to investigate the effect of hardness of food on energy intake at lunch, and to link this effect to differences in food oral processing characteristics. The second objective was to investigate whether the reduction in energy intake at lunch will be compensated for in the subsequent dinner. Design: Fifty subjects (11 male, BMI: 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2), age: 24 +/- 2 y) participated in a cross-over study in which they consumed ad libitum from a lunch with soft foods or hard foods on two separate days. Oral processing characteristics at lunch were assessed by coding video records. Later on the same days, subjects consumed dinner ad libitum. Results: Hard foods led to a similar to 13% lower energy intake at lunch compared to soft foods (P <0.001). Hard foods were consumed with smaller bites, longer oral duration per gram food, and more chewing per gram food compared to the soft foods (P <0.05). Energy intake at dinner did not differ after both lunches (P=0.16). Conclusions: Hard foods led to reduced energy intake compared to soft foods, and this reduction in energy intake was sustained over the next meal. We argue that the differences in oral processing characteristics produced by the hardness of the foods explain the effect on intake. The sustained reduction in energy intake suggests that changes in food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing the overall daily energy intake.
    A systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effect of eating rate on energy intake and hunger
    Robinson, E. ; Almiron-Roig, E. ; Rutters, F. ; Graaf, C. de; Forde, C.G. ; Smith, C.T. ; Nolan, S.J. ; Jebb, S.A. - \ 2014
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (2014)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 123 - 151.
    libitum food-intake - particle-size - gut hormones - obese - meal - women - appetite - men - weight - consumption
    Background: Reductions in eating rate are recommended to prevent and treat obesity; yet, the relation between eating rate and energy intake has not been systematically reviewed, with studies producing mixed results. Objective: Our main objective was to examine how experimentally manipulated differences in eating rate influence concurrent energy intake and subjective hunger ratings. Design: We systematically reviewed studies that experimentally manipulated eating rate and measured concurrent food intake, self-reported hunger, or both. We combined effect estimates from studies by using inverse variance meta-analysis, calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake between fast and slow eating rate conditions. Results: Twenty-two studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that a slower eating rate was associated with lower energy intake in comparison to a faster eating rate (random-effects SMD: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.65; P <0.0001). Subgroup analysis indicated that the effect was consistent regardless of the type of manipulation used to alter eating rate, although there was a large amount of heterogeneity between studies. There was no significant relation between eating rate and hunger at the end of the meal or up to 3.5 h later. Conclusions: Evidence to date supports the notion that eating rate affects energy intake. Research is needed to identify effective interventions to reduce eating rate that can be adopted in everyday life to help limit excess consumption.
    Texture and savoury taste influences on food intake in a realistic hot lunch time meal
    Forde, C.G. ; Kuijk, N.L. van; Thaler, T. ; Graaf, C. de; Martin, N. - \ 2013
    Appetite 60 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 180 - 186.
    bite size - energy-intake - portion size - questionnaire - satiation - weight - young - consumption - intensity - healthy
    Background: Previous studies with model foods have shown that softer textures lead to higher eating rates and higher ad libitum food intake and higher intensity of salt taste has been shown to result in a lower ad libitum food intake. These observations have yet to be replicated in the context of realistic solid hot meal components. Aim: The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of texture and taste on the ad libitum intake of a realistic hot lunchtime meal. Methods: The meals consisted of potatoes, carrots, steak and gravy varied according to a 2 (texture: mashed vs. whole) x 2 (taste: standard taste vs. strong taste) design. The texture dimension referred to mashed potatoes, mashed carrots and pieces of steak vs. whole boiled potatoes, whole boiled carrots and whole steak. The taste was varied by manipulating the taste intensity of the gravy to be either standard or high intensity savoury taste. The current study used a between groups, single course ad libitum design whereby subjects were recruited for a one off meal study, during which their food intake was measured. The four groups consisted of about 40 subjects (mashed, standard, n = 37; mashed, savoury n = 39; whole, standard n = 40; and whole, savoury n = 41) matched for age (average age = 44.8 +/- 5.3), gender (on average 19 males and 20 females), normal BMI (average 22.6 +/- 1.7) and dietary restraint score (DEBQ score = 1.74 +/- 0.6). Results: The results showed that the estimated means of the intake of the two mashed conditions was 563.2 +/- 20.3 g and intake of whole meal was 527.5 +/- 20.0 g (p = 0.23). The texture effect was significant in the higher savoury condition with an average of 91 g less food consumed in the solid-savoury meal than in the mashed savoury meal. This effect was not replicated in the standard gravy condition, with no significant difference between solid and mashed textures. This was reflected in an interaction effect that was approaching significance (p = 0.051). The estimated mean eating rate in the two mashed conditions was 57.0 +/- 2.5 g and was significantly higher than the whole meal condition (47.2 +/- 2.5 g (p <0.05), with no difference in eating rate between the standard and savoury gravy conditions. Discussion: Although interpretation was made difficult by the between groups design and the interaction between taste * texture, the results nonetheless confirm the effect of texture on eating rate and ad libitum intake for solid savoury meal components. The impact of taste on ad libitum intake of a solid meal remains unclear. We conclude that people consumed more of the meal when the food was simultaneously mashed and savoury. Food texture may be used to produce slower eating rates that result in a reduced overall energy intake within a realistic hot lunchtime meal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Oral processing characteristics of solid meal components and relationship with foord composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.
    Forde, R.M. ; Kuijk, N. van; Thaler, T. ; Graaf, C. de; Martin, N.A. - \ 2013
    Appetite 60 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 208 - 219.
    sugar-sweetened beverages - energy-intake - bite size - portion size - eating rate - dietary fiber - body-weight - satiety - women - humans
    Background: The modern food supply is often dominated by a large variety of energy dense, softly textured foods that can be eaten quickly. Previous studies suggest that particular oral processing characteristics such as large bite size and lack of chewing activity contribute to the low satiating efficiency of these foods. To better design meals that promote greater feelings of satiation, we need an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a range of solid food items that could be used to replace softer textures during a normal hot meal. Aim: The primary aim of this study was to establish an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a set of solid savoury meal components. The secondary aim was to determine the associations between oral processing characteristics, food composition, sensory properties, and expected satiation. Methods: In a within subjects design, 15 subjects consumed 50 g of 35 different savoury food items over 5 sessions. The 35 foods represented various staples, vegetables and protein rich foods such a meat and fish. Subjects were video-recorded during consumption and measures included observed number of bites, number of chews, number of swallows and derived measures such as chewing rate, eating rate, bite size, and oral exposure time. Subjects rated expected satiation for a standard 200 g portion of each food using a 100 mm and the sensory differences between foods were quantified using descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel. Statistical analysis focussed on the oral processing characteristics and associations between nutritional, sensory and expected satiation parameters of each food. Results: Average number of chews for 50 g of food varied from 27 for mashed potatoes to 488 for tortilla chips. Oral exposure time was highly correlated with the total number of chews, and varied from 27 s for canned tomatoes to 350 s for tortilla chips. Chewing rate was relatively constant with an overall average chewing rate of approximately 1 chew/s. Differences in oral processing were not correlated with any macronutrients specifically. Expected satiation was positively related to protein and the sensory attributes chewiness and saltiness. Foods that consumed in smaller bites, were chewed more and for longer and expected to impart a higher satiation. Discussion: This study shows a large and reliable variation in oral exposure time, number of required chews before swallowing and expected satiation across a wide variety of foods. We conclude that bite size and oral-sensory exposure time could contribute to higher satiation within a meal for equal calories.
    Behavior in natural and captive environments compared to assess and enhance welfare of zoo animals
    Koene, P. - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the 45th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE), Indianapolis, USA, 31 July - 4 August 2011. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - p. 6 - 6.
    How do different amounts of solid feed in the diet affect time spent performing abnormal oral behaviours in veal calves?
    Webb, L.E. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Reenen, C.G. van - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the 45th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE), 30 July - 4 August 2011, Indianapolis, USA. - Wageningen Academic Publishers - p. 67 - 67.
    Maternal care and selection for low mortality affect immune competence of laying hens
    Rodenburg, T.B. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Ellen, E.D. ; Vries Reilingh, G. de; Nieuwland, M.G.B. ; Koopmanschap, R.E. ; Parmentier, H.K. - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the 45th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE), 31 July - 4 August 2011, Indianapolis, USA. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861798 - p. 30 - 30.
    Feather pecking and serotonin: 'the chicken or the egg?'
    Kops, M. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Haas, E.N. de; Korte-Bouws, G.A.H. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Olivier, B. ; Korte, S.M. - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the 45th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE), 31 July - 4 August 2011, Indianapolis, USA. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861798 - p. 49 - 49.
    The relationship between fearfulness at a young age and stress responses in the later life of laying hens
    Haas, E.N. de; Kops, M. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the 45th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE), 31 July - 4 August 2011, Indianapolis, USA. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861798 - p. 19 - 19.
    Learning how to eat like a pig: effectiveness of mechanisms for vertical social learning in piglets
    Oostindjer, M. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Mendl, M. ; Held, S. ; Brand, H. van den; Kemp, B. - \ 2011
    In: Proceedings of the 45th Congress of the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE), 31 July - 4 August 2011. - Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861798 - p. 33 - 33.
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