Pathologists and entomologists must join forces against forest pest and pathogen invasions
Jactel, Hervé ; Desprez-Loustau, Marie Laure ; Battisti, Andrea ; Brockerhoff, Eckehard ; Santini, Alberto ; Stenlid, Jan ; Björkman, Christer ; Branco, Manuela ; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina ; Douma, Jacob C. ; Drakulic, Jassy ; Drizou, Fryni ; Eschen, René ; Franco, José Carlos ; Gossner, Martin M. ; Green, Samantha ; Kenis, Marc ; Klapwijk, Maartje J. ; Liebhold, Andrew M. ; Orazio, Christophe ; Prospero, Simone ; Robinet, Christelle ; Schroeder, Martin ; Slippers, Bernard ; Stoev, Pavel ; Sun, Jianghua ; Dool, Robbert van den; Wingfield, Michael J. ; Zalucki, Myron P. - \ 2020
NeoBiota 58 (2020). - ISSN 1619-0033 - p. 107 - 127.
Capacity building - Detection - Disease - Exotic - Forest health - Fungi - Identification - Insects - Interdisciplinarity - Management
The world's forests have never been more threatened by invasions of exotic pests and pathogens, whose causes and impacts are reinforced by global change. However, forest entomologists and pathologists have, for too long, worked independently, used different concepts and proposed specific management methods without recognising parallels and synergies between their respective fields. Instead, we advocate increased collaboration between these two scientific communities to improve the long-term health of forests. Our arguments are that the pathways of entry of exotic pests and pathogens are often the same and that insects and fungi often coexist in the same affected trees. Innovative methods for preventing invasions, early detection and identification of non-native species, modelling of their impact and spread and prevention of damage by increasing the resistance of ecosystems can be shared for the management of both pests and diseases. We, therefore, make recommendations to foster this convergence, proposing in particular the development of interdisciplinary research programmes, the development of generic tools or methods for pest and pathogen management and capacity building for the education and training of students, managers, decision-makers and citizens concerned with forest health.
Physicochemical-guided design of cathelicidin-derived peptides generates membrane active variants with therapeutic potential
Oliveira, Nelson G.J. ; Cardoso, Marlon H. ; Velikova, Nadya ; Giesbers, Marcel ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Rezende, Taia M.B. ; Vries, Renko de; Franco, Octávio L. - \ 2020
Scientific Reports 10 (2020)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
The spread of multi-drug resistance and the slow pace at which antibiotics come onto the market are undermining our ability to treat human infections, leading to high mortality rates. Aiming to overcome this global crisis, antimicrobial peptides are considered promising alternatives to counter bacterial infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria. The cathelicidins comprise a well-studied class of AMPs whose members have been used as model molecules for sequence modifications, aiming at enhanced biological activities and stability, along with reduced toxic effects on mammalian cells. Here, we describe the antimicrobial activities, modes of action and structural characterization of two novel cathelicidin-like peptides, named BotrAMP14 and CrotAMP14, which were re-designed from snake batroxicidin and crotalicidin, respectively. BotrAMP14 and CrotAMP14 showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against susceptible microorganisms and clinical isolates with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 2–35.1 μM. Moreover, both peptides had low cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cells in vitro. In addition, in vivo toxicity against Galleria mellonella moth larvae revealed that both peptides led to>76% larval survival after 144 h. Microscopy studies suggest that BotrAMP14 and CrotAMP14 destabilize E. coli membranes. Furthermore, circular dichroism and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that, in a membrane-like environment, both peptides adopt α-helical structures that interact with bilayer phospholipids through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interaction. Thus, we concluded that BotrAMP14 and CrotAMP14 are helical membrane active peptides, with similar antibacterial properties but lower cytotoxicity than the larger parent peptides batroxicidin and crotalicidin, having advantages for drug development strategies.
Antimicrobial usage and resistance in companion animals: A cross-sectional study in three european countries
Joosten, Philip ; Ceccarelli, Daniela ; Odent, Evelien ; Sarrazin, Steven ; Graveland, Haitske ; Gompel, Liese Van; Battisti, Antonio ; Caprioli, Andrea ; Franco, Alessia ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Mevius, Dik ; Dewulf, Jeroen - \ 2020
Antibiotics 9 (2020)2. - ISSN 2079-6382
Antimicrobial resistance - Antimicrobial use - Colistin resistance - Companion animals - Critically important antimicrobials - One health
Companion animals have been described as potential reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), however data remain scarce. Therefore, the objectives were to describe antimicrobial usage (AMU) in dogs and cats in three European countries (Belgium, Italy, and The Netherlands) and to investigate phenotypic AMR. A questionnaire and one fecal sample per animal (n = 303) were collected over one year and AMU was quantified using treatment incidence (TI). Phenotypic resistance profiles of 282 Escherichia coli isolates were determined. Nineteen percent of the animals received at least one antimicrobial treatment six months preceding sampling. On average, cats and dogs were treated with a standard daily dose of antimicrobials for 1.8 and 3.3 days over one year, respectively. The most frequently used antimicrobial was amoxicillin-clavulanate (27%). Broad-spectrum antimicrobials and critically important antimicrobials for human medicine represented 83% and 71% of the total number of treatments, respectively. Resistance of E. coli to at least one antimicrobial agent was found in 27% of the isolates. The most common resistance was to ampicillin (18%). Thirteen percent was identified as multidrug resistant isolates. No association between AMU and AMR was found in the investigated samples. The issue to address, regarding AMU in companion animal, lies within the quality of use, not the quantity. Especially from a One-Health perspective, companion animals might be a source of transmission of resistance genes and/or resistant bacteria to humans.
Mining conflict in the Dominican Republic : The case of Loma Miranda
Gómez-Valenzuela, Víctor ; Alpízar, Francisco ; Bonilla, Solhanlle ; Franco-Billini, Carol - \ 2020
Resources Policy 66 (2020). - ISSN 0301-4207
Contingent valuation - Dominican Republic - Loma miranda - Mining conflict
This paper assesses the willingness to pay (WTP) of the Dominican Republican society for a restoration and conservation program in Loma Miranda, an area rich in natural resources that is also proposed as a mining exploitation site. Loma Miranda is located in the Quisqueya mining concession, approximately 100 km from the country's capital, Santo Domingo, making the decision to exploit or conserve a national dilemma. A national face-to-face survey was conducted during the first quarter of 2019, reaching a representative sample of 1200 individuals. The estimation of the WTP was performed using a non-parametric and a parametric, logistic estimation by way of robustness check. The average WTP estimated by the parametric method was $DOP 159.00 (≈US$3.15) per month per household. The aggregate WTP reached a total amount of US$87.2 million per year. The WTP in favor of the conservation of Loma Miranda is higher in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo but lower in the vicinity of Loma Miranda.
Differential Network Analysis Reveals Metabolic Determinants Associated with Mortality in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients and Suggests Potential Mechanisms Underlying Different Clinical Scores Used To Predict Death
Vignoli, Alessia ; Tenori, Leonardo ; Giusti, Betti ; Valente, Serafina ; Carrabba, Nazario ; Balzi, Daniela ; Barchielli, Alessandro ; Marchionni, Niccolò ; Gensini, Gian Franco ; Marcucci, Rossella ; Gori, Anna Maria ; Luchinat, Claudio ; Saccenti, Edoardo - \ 2020
Journal of Proteome Research 19 (2020)2. - ISSN 1535-3893 - p. 949 - 961.
acute myocardial infarction - metabolite−metabolite association networks - metabolomics - network inference - nuclear magnetic resonance
We present here the differential analysis of metabolite-metabolite association networks constructed from an array of 24 serum metabolites identified and quantified via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a cohort of 825 patients of which 123 died within 2 years from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated differences in metabolite connectivity of patients who survived, at 2 years, the AMI event, and we characterized metabolite-metabolite association networks specific to high and low risks of death according to four different risk parameters, namely, acute coronary syndrome classification, Killip, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score, and metabolomics NOESY RF risk score. We show significant differences in the connectivity patterns of several low-molecular-weight molecules, implying variations in the regulation of several metabolic pathways regarding branched-chain amino acids, alanine, creatinine, mannose, ketone bodies, and energetic metabolism. Our results demonstrate that the characterization of metabolite-metabolite association networks is a promising and powerful tool to investigate AMI patients according to their outcomes at a molecular level.
Mutant analysis in the non‐legume Parasponia andersonii identifies NIN and NF‐YA1 transcription factors as a core genetic network in nitrogen‐fixing nodule symbioses
Bu, F. ; Rutten, L.J.J. ; Roswanjaya, Yuda ; Kulikova, O. ; Rodriguez-Franco, Marta ; Ott, Thomas ; Bisseling, A.H.J. ; Zeijl, A.L. van; Geurts, R. - \ 2020
New Phytologist 226 (2020)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 541 - 554.
Nitrogen‐fixing nodulation occurs in ten taxonomic lineages, either with rhizobia or Frankia bacteria. To establish such an endosymbiosis, two processes are essential: nodule organogenesis and intracellular bacterial infection. In the legume‐rhizobium endosymbiosis, both processes are guarded by the transcription factor NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) and its downstream target genes of the NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF‐Y) complex.
It is hypothesized that nodulation has a single evolutionary origin ~ 110 million years ago, followed by many independent losses. Despite a significant body of knowledge of the legume‐rhizobium symbiosis, it remains elusive which signalling modules are shared between nodulating species in different taxonomic clades. We used Parasponia andersonii to investigate the role of NIN and NF‐YA genes in rhizobium nodulation in a non‐legume system.
Consistent with legumes, P. andersonii PanNIN and PanNF‐YA1 are co‐expressed in nodules. By analyzing single, double and higher‐order CRISPR‐Cas9 knockout mutants, we show that nodule organogenesis and early symbiotic expression of PanNF‐YA1 are PanNIN‐dependent and that PanNF‐YA1 is specifically required for intracellular rhizobium infection.
This demonstrates that NIN and NF‐YA1 commit conserved symbiotic functions. As Parasponia and legumes diverged soon after the birth of the nodulation trait, we argue that NIN and NF‐YA1 represent core transcriptional regulators in this symbiosis.
Global patterns and drivers of ecosystem functioning in rivers and riparian zones
Tiegs, Scott D. ; Costello, David M. ; Isken, Mark W. ; Woodward, Guy ; McIntyre, Peter B. ; Gessner, Mark O. ; Chauvet, Eric ; Griffiths, Natalie A. ; Flecker, Alex S. ; Acuña, Vicenç ; Albariño, Ricardo ; Allen, Daniel C. ; Alonso, Cecilia ; Andino, Patricio ; Arango, Clay ; Aroviita, Jukka ; Barbosa, Marcus V.M. ; Barmuta, Leon A. ; Baxter, Colden V. ; Bell, Thomas D.C. ; Bellinger, Brent ; Boyero, Luz ; Brown, Lee E. ; Bruder, Andreas ; Bruesewitz, Denise A. ; Burdon, Francis J. ; Callisto, Marcos ; Canhoto, Cristina ; Capps, Krista A. ; Castillo, María M. ; Clapcott, Joanne ; Colas, Fanny ; Colón-Gaud, Checo ; Cornut, Julien ; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica ; Cross, Wyatt F. ; Culp, Joseph M. ; Danger, Michael ; Dangles, Olivier ; Eyto, Elvira De; Derry, Alison M. ; Villanueva, Veronica Díaz ; Douglas, Michael M. ; Elosegi, Arturo ; Encalada, Andrea C. ; Entrekin, Sally ; Espinosa, Rodrigo ; Ethaiya, Diana ; Ferreira, Verónica ; Ferriol, Carmen ; Flanagan, Kyla M. ; Fleituch, Tadeusz ; Follstad Shah, Jennifer J. ; Barbosa, André Frainer ; Friberg, Nikolai ; Frost, Paul C. ; Garcia, Erica A. ; Lago, Liliana García ; Soto, Pavel Ernesto García ; Ghate, Sudeep ; Giling, Darren P. ; Gilmer, Alan ; Gonçalves, José Francisco ; Gonzales, Rosario Karina ; Graça, Manuel A.S. ; Grace, Mike ; Grossart, Hans Peter ; Guérold, François ; Gulis, Vlad ; Hepp, Luiz U. ; Higgins, Scott ; Hishi, Takuo ; Huddart, Joseph ; Hudson, John ; Imberger, Samantha ; Iñiguez-Armijos, Carlos ; Iwata, Tomoya ; Janetski, David J. ; Jennings, Eleanor ; Kirkwood, Andrea E. ; Koning, Aaron A. ; Kosten, Sarian ; Kuehn, Kevin A. ; Laudon, Hjalmar ; Leavitt, Peter R. ; Lemes Da Silva, Aurea L. ; Leroux, Shawn J. ; LeRoy, Carri J. ; Lisi, Peter J. ; MacKenzie, Richard ; Marcarelli, Amy M. ; Masese, Frank O. ; McKie, Brendan G. ; Medeiros, Adriana Oliveira ; Meissner, Kristian ; Miliša, Marko ; Mishra, Shailendra ; Miyake, Yo ; Moerke, Ashley ; Mombrikotb, Shorok ; Mooney, Rob ; Moulton, Tim ; Muotka, Timo ; Negishi, Junjiro N. ; Neres-Lima, Vinicius ; Nieminen, Mika L. ; Nimptsch, Jorge ; Ondruch, Jakub ; Paavola, Riku ; Pardo, Isabel ; Patrick, Christopher J. ; Peeters, Edwin T.H.M. ; Pozo, Jesus ; Pringle, Catherine ; Prussian, Aaron ; Quenta, Estefania ; Quesada, Antonio ; Reid, Brian ; Richardson, John S. ; Rigosi, Anna ; Rincón, José ; Rîşnoveanu, Geta ; Robinson, Christopher T. ; Rodríguez-Gallego, Lorena ; Royer, Todd V. ; Rusak, James A. ; Santamans, Anna C. ; Selmeczy, Géza B. ; Simiyu, Gelas ; Skuja, Agnija ; Smykla, Jerzy ; Sridhar, Kandikere R. ; Sponseller, Ryan ; Stoler, Aaron ; Swan, Christopher M. ; Szlag, David ; Teixeira-De Mello, Franco ; Tonkin, Jonathan D. ; Uusheimo, Sari ; Veach, Allison M. ; Vilbaste, Sirje ; Vought, Lena B.M. ; Wang, Chiao Ping ; Webster, Jackson R. ; Wilson, Paul B. ; Woelfl, Stefan ; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A. ; Yates, Adam G. ; Yoshimura, Chihiro ; Yule, Catherine M. ; Zhang, Yixin X. ; Zwart, Jacob A. - \ 2019
Science Advances 5 (2019)1. - ISSN 2375-2548 - p. 14966 - 14973.
River ecosystems receive and process vast quantities of terrestrial organic carbon, the fate of which depends strongly on microbial activity. Variation in and controls of processing rates, however, are poorly characterized at the global scale. In response, we used a peer-sourced research network and a highly standardized carbon processing assay to conduct a global-scale field experiment in greater than 1000 river and riparian sites. We found that Earth's biomes have distinct carbon processing signatures. Slow processing is evident across latitudes, whereas rapid rates are restricted to lower latitudes. Both the mean rate and variability decline with latitude, suggesting temperature constraints toward the poles and greater roles for other environmental drivers (e.g., nutrient loading) toward the equator. These results and data set the stage for unprecedented "next-generation biomonitoring" by establishing baselines to help quantify environmental impacts to the functioning of ecosystems at a global scale.
Global distribution of earthworm diversity
Phillips, Helen R.P. ; Guerra, Carlos A. ; Bartz, Marie L.C. ; Briones, Maria J.I. ; Brown, George ; Crowther, Thomas W. ; Ferlian, Olga ; Gongalsky, Konstantin B. ; Hoogen, Johan Van Den; Krebs, Julia ; Orgiazzi, Alberto ; Routh, Devin ; Schwarz, Benjamin ; Bach, Elizabeth M. ; Bennett, Joanne ; Brose, Ulrich ; Decaëns, Thibaud ; König-Ries, Birgitta ; Loreau, Michel ; Mathieu, Jérôme ; Mulder, Christian ; Putten, Wim H. Van Der; Ramirez, Kelly S. ; Rillig, Matthias C. ; Russell, David ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Thakur, Madhav P. ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Wall, Diana H. ; Wardle, David A. ; Arai, Miwa ; Ayuke, Fredrick O. ; Baker, Geoff H. ; Beauséjour, Robin ; Bedano, José C. ; Birkhofer, Klaus ; Blanchart, Eric ; Blossey, Bernd ; Bolger, Thomas ; Bradley, Robert L. ; Callaham, Mac A. ; Capowiez, Yvan ; Caulfield, Mark E. ; Choi, Amy ; Crotty, Felicity V. ; Dávalos, Andrea ; Diaz Cosin, Darío J. ; Dominguez, Anahí ; Duhour, Andrés Esteban ; Eekeren, Nick Van; Emmerling, Christoph ; Falco, Liliana B. ; Fernández, Rosa ; Fonte, Steven J. ; Fragoso, Carlos ; Franco, André L.C. ; Fugère, Martine ; Fusilero, Abegail T. ; Gholami, Shaieste ; Gundale, Michael J. ; Gutiérrez Lopez, Monica ; Hackenberger, Davorka K. ; Hernández, Luis M. ; Hishi, Takuo ; Holdsworth, Andrew R. ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Hopfensperger, Kristine N. ; Lwanga, Esperanza Huerta ; Huhta, Veikko ; Hurisso, Tunsisa T. ; Iannone, Basil V. ; Iordache, Madalina ; Joschko, Monika ; Kaneko, Nobuhiro ; Kanianska, Radoslava ; Keith, Aidan M. ; Kelly, Courtland A. ; Kernecker, Maria L. ; Klaminder, Jonatan ; Koné, Armand W. ; Kooch, Yahya ; Kukkonen, Sanna T. ; Lalthanzara, H. ; Lammel, Daniel R. ; Lebedev, Iurii M. ; Li, Yiqing ; Jesus Lidon, Juan B. ; Lincoln, Noa K. ; Loss, Scott R. ; Marichal, Raphael ; Matula, Radim ; Moos, Jan Hendrik ; Moreno, Gerardo ; Mor n-Ríos, Alejandro ; Muys, Bart ; Neirynck, Johan ; Norgrove, Lindsey ; Novo, Marta ; Nuutinen, Visa ; Nuzzo, Victoria ; Mujeeb Rahman, P. ; Pansu, Johan ; Paudel, Shishir ; Pérès, Guénola ; Pérez-Camacho, Lorenzo ; Piñeiro, Raúl ; Ponge, Jean François ; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz ; Rebollo, Salvador ; Rodeiro-Iglesias, Javier ; Rodríguez, Miguel ; Roth, Alexander M. ; Rousseau, Guillaume X. ; Rozen, Anna ; Sayad, Ehsan ; Schaik, Loes Van; Scharenbroch, Bryant C. ; Schirrmann, Michael ; Schmidt, Olaf ; Schröder, Boris ; Seeber, Julia ; Shashkov, Maxim P. ; Singh, Jaswinder ; Smith, Sandy M. ; Steinwandter, Michael ; Talavera, José A. ; Trigo, Dolores ; Tsukamoto, Jiro ; Valença, Anne W. De; Vanek, Steven J. ; Virto, Iñigo ; Wackett, Adrian A. ; Warren, Matthew W. ; Wehr, Nathaniel H. ; Whalen, Joann K. ; Wironen, Michael B. ; Wolters, Volkmar ; Zenkova, Irina V. ; Zhang, Weixin ; Cameron, Erin K. ; Eisenhauer, Nico - \ 2019
Science 366 (2019)6464. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 480 - 485.
Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.
Implications of horizontal and vertical relationships on farmers performance in the Brazilian pork industry
Martins, Franco Müller ; Trienekens, Jacques ; Omta, Onno - \ 2019
Livestock Science 228 (2019). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 161 - 169.
Brazil - Contracts - Performance - Pork supply chain - Relationship characteristics
According to the literature, vertical and horizontal relationships are of key importance to farmer performance. However, most studies have examined these relationships using distinct models. This paper contributes with new insights to the supply chain management and network theories by using a single model to analyse how horizontal relationships impact on vertical relationships and how these jointly affect the performance of Brazilian pig farmers. Data were obtained from 269 farmers delivering pigs through contracts and spot markets in southern Brazil. The results demonstrate that both vertical and horizontal relationships can improve farmer performance. Moreover, horizontal relationships positively influence vertical relationships by improving the exchange of information between farmers and buyers. Furthermore, the findings suggest that these relationships are sensitive to the context (spot market or contracted production) in which the transactions are executed. The study draws relevant management implications for pig farmers, buyers and farmer associations.
Loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2017/18 in 36 countries participating in the COLOSS survey, including effects of forage sources
Gray, Alison ; Brodschneider, Robert ; Adjlane, Noureddine ; Ballis, Alexis ; Brusbardis, Valters ; Charrière, Jean Daniel ; Chlebo, Robert ; F. Coffey, Mary ; Cornelissen, Bram ; Amaro da Costa, Cristina ; Csáki, Tamás ; Dahle, Bjørn ; Danihlík, Jiří ; Dražić, Marica Maja ; Evans, Garth ; Fedoriak, Mariia ; Forsythe, Ivan ; Graaf, Dirk de; Gregorc, Aleš ; Johannesen, Jes ; Kauko, Lassi ; Kristiansen, Preben ; Martikkala, Maritta ; Martín-Hernández, Raquel ; Medina-Flores, Carlos Aurelio ; Mutinelli, Franco ; Patalano, Solenn ; Petrov, Plamen ; Raudmets, Aivar ; Ryzhikov, Vladimir A. ; Simon-Delso, Noa ; Stevanovic, Jevrosima ; Topolska, Grazyna ; Uzunov, Aleksandar ; Vejsnaes, Flemming ; Williams, Anthony ; Zammit-Mangion, Marion ; Soroker, Victoria - \ 2019
Journal of Apicultural Research 58 (2019)4. - ISSN 0021-8839 - p. 479 - 485.
Apis mellifera - beekeeping - citizen science - colony winter losses - forage sources - monitoring - mortality - survey
This short article presents loss rates of honey bee colonies over winter 2017/18 from 36 countries, including 33 in Europe, from data collected using the standardized COLOSS questionnaire. The 25,363 beekeepers supplying data passing consistency checks in total wintered 544,879 colonies, and reported 26,379 (4.8%, 95% CI 4.7–5.0%) colonies with unsolvable queen problems, 54,525 (10.0%, 95% CI 9.8–10.2%) dead colonies after winter and another 8,220 colonies (1.5%, 95% CI 1.4–1.6%) lost through natural disaster. This gave an overall loss rate of 16.4% (95% CI 16.1–16.6%) of honey bee colonies during winter 2017/18, but this varied greatly from 2.0 to 32.8% between countries. The included map shows relative risks of winter loss at regional level. The analysis using the total data-set confirmed findings from earlier surveys that smaller beekeeping operations with at most 50 colonies suffer significantly higher losses than larger operations (p <.001). Beekeepers migrating their colonies had significantly lower losses than those not migrating (p <.001), a different finding from previous research. Evaluation of six different forage sources as potential risk factors for colony loss indicated that intensive foraging on any of five of these plant sources (Orchards, Oilseed Rape, Maize, Heather and Autumn Forage Crops) was associated with significantly higher winter losses. This finding requires further study and explanation. A table is included giving detailed results of loss rates and the impact of the tested forage sources for each country and overall.
Modeling the Sensitivity of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates to Chemicals Using Traits
Berg, Sanne J.P. Van Den; Baveco, Hans ; Butler, Emma ; Laender, Frederik De; Focks, Andreas ; Franco, Antonio ; Rendal, Cecilie ; Brink, Paul J. Van Den - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)10. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 6025 - 6034.
In this study, a trait-based macroinvertebrate sensitivity modeling tool is presented that provides two main outcomes: (1) it constructs a macroinvertebrate sensitivity ranking and, subsequently, a predictive trait model for each one of a diverse set of predefined Modes of Action (MOAs) and (2) it reveals data gaps and restrictions, helping with the direction of future research. Besides revealing taxonomic patterns of species sensitivity, we find that there was not one genus, family, or class which was most sensitive to all MOAs and that common test taxa were often not the most sensitive at all. Traits like life cycle duration and feeding mode were identified as important in explaining species sensitivity. For 71% of the species, no or incomplete trait data were available, making the lack of trait data the main obstacle in model construction. Research focus should therefore be on completing trait databases and enhancing them with finer morphological traits, focusing on the toxicodynamics of the chemical (e.g., target site distribution). Further improved sensitivity models can help with the creation of ecological scenarios by predicting the sensitivity of untested species. Through this development, our approach can help reduce animal testing and contribute toward a new predictive ecotoxicology framework.
Colonizing rural waters: the politics of hydro-territorial transformation in the Guadalhorce Valley, Málaga, Spain
Duarte-Abadía, Bibiana ; Boelens, Rutgerd - \ 2019
Water International 44 (2019)2. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 148 - 168.
governmentality - Hydraulic utopia - hydro-politics - hydro-territorial transformation - Spain - water transfers
This paper explores how, historically, the utopian thinking built into Spain’s water policies has legitimized profound transformations of the Guadalhorce Valley’s hydro-social territory (in Málaga), also justifying water transfers from rural to urban areas. It analyzes how the ‘regenerationist hydraulic utopia’ has been materialized through different ‘governmentality strategies’. This intensified during Francisco Franco’s dictatorship, decaying gradually into dystopias that, to this day, express profound socio-environmental impacts: dispossession, displacement, uprooting and breaking up local water governance institutions and practices. Meanwhile, the urban and tourism industries in Málaga have been strengthened by giving them priority for water supply.
A mediterranean diet mix has chemopreventive effects in a murine model of colorectal cancer modulating apoptosis and the gut microbiota
Piazzi, Giulia ; Prossomariti, Anna ; Baldassarre, Maurizio ; Montagna, Claudio ; Vitaglione, Paola ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Biagi, Elena ; Candela, Marco ; Brigidi, Patrizia ; Balbi, Tiziana ; Munarini, Alessandra ; Belluzzi, Andrea ; Pariali, Milena ; Bazzoli, Franco ; Ricciardiello, Luigi - \ 2019
Frontiers in Oncology 9 (2019)MAR. - ISSN 2234-943X
Chemoprevention - Colorectal cancer - Mediterranean diet - Microbiota - Omega-3
Objectives: Unhealthy dietary patterns have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) onset while Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been proposed for CRC prevention. This study evaluated the effect of a Mediterranean Diet Mix (MD-MIX) on colonic tumors development in A/J mice fed a low-fat (LFD) or a high-fat western diet (HFWD), and injected with the procarcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). Materials and Methods: Forty A/J male mice were randomly assigned into four feeding arms (10 mice/arm; LFD, LFD-MD-MIX, HFWD, HFWD-MD-MIX) to be treated with AOM. Ten mice were exposed to the diets alone (Healthy LFD and Healthy HFWD) to be used as control. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were evaluated at sacrifice. Mucosal fatty acid content and urinary phenolic compounds were assayed by mass spectrometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay and gene expression markers. Cell proliferation was evaluated by Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Microbiota composition was assessed at different time points by 16S RNA sequencing. Results: A tumor incidence of 100% was obtained in AOM-treated mice. The MD-MIX supplementation was able to reduce the number of colonic lesions in both LFD and HFWD-fed mice and to induce apoptosis, in particular in the LFD-MD-MIX arm. Moreover, a preventive effect on low-grade dysplasia and macroscopical lesions (>1 mm) development was found in HFWD-fed mice together with a regulation of the AOM-driven intestinal dysbiosis. Conclusions: MD-MIX was able to counteract CRC development in mice under different dietary backgrounds through the regulation of apoptosis and gut microbiota.
Mobilizing water actors and bodies of knowledge. The multi-scalar movement against the Río Grande Dam in Málaga, Spain
Duarte-Abadía, Bibiana ; Boelens, R.A. ; Pré, Lucas Du - \ 2019
Water 11 (2019)3. - ISSN 2073-4441 - 21 p.
Just as in other parts of Spain, the Guadalhorce Valley, Málaga, has a long history of policies based on ‘hydraulic utopianism’ (regenerationist and Franco-ist), bent on ‘reorganizing’ political, geographic, and human nature. Residents of the neighboring sub-basin, the Río Grande valley, have seen how these policies, designed to transfer rural water to modern urban centers, have turned the Guadalhorce hydrosocial territory into a ‘hydraulic dystopia’. In this article, we examine how Río Grande valley residents mobilized to maintain control over the development and use of their resources, livelihoods, and knowledge systems, when modernist-urbanist policies planned to take their water from a major dam on the Río Grande. Interviewing actors at different scales we examined how this anti-dam movement organized massively in a creative, multi-actor, and multi-scale network. Our results also show that this unified, successful fight against the ‘common enemy’, the mega-hydraulic construction, has become more complex, as threats crop up not only from the ‘city over there’ but also from ‘internal’ hydro-territorial transformations. These sprout from policies to modernize traditional irrigation systems, supposedly to ‘save water’, but critical voices assume that it is all about passing on the ‘surplus’ to Málaga city, or using that water to expand agribusiness. We conclude that the challenge lies in critically integrating multiple forms of knowledge, stakeholders, and scales to both defend collective water management and creatively construct anti-hegemonic alternatives.
How to slow the global spread of small hive beetles, Aethina tumida
Schäfer, M.O. ; Cardaio, Ilaria ; Cilia, Giovanni ; Cornelissen, A.C.M. ; Crailsheim, Karl ; Formato, Giovanni ; Lawrence, A.K. ; Conte, Y. Le; Mutinelli, Franco ; Nanetti, Antonio ; Rivera-Gomis, Jorge ; Teepe, Anneke ; Neumann, P. - \ 2019
Biological Invasions 21 (2019)5. - ISSN 1387-3547 - p. 1451 - 1459.
Apis mellifera - Apiculture - Bees - Contingency plan - Honeybee - Parasite
Small hive beetles (SHBs) are parasites of social bee colonies endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and have become a widespread invasive species. In the new ranges, SHBs can cause damage to apiculture and wild bees. Although the further spread seems inevitable, eradication of new introductions and containment of established ones are nevertheless urgently required to slow down the invasion speed until better mitigation options are available. However, at present there is no adequate action plan at hand. Here, we propose to take advantage of SHB invasion history and biology to enrol a feasible plan involving all stakeholders. Raising awareness, education and motivation of stakeholders (incl. adequate and timely compensation of beekeepers) is essential for success. Moreover, sentinel apiaries are recommended in areas at risk, because early detection is crucial for the success of eradication efforts. Given that introductions are detected early, SHB eradication is recommended, incl. destruction of all infested apiaries, installation of sentinel colonies to lure escaped SHBs and a ban on migratory beekeeping. If wild perennial social bee colonies are infested, eradication programs are condemned to fail and a strategic switch to a containment strategy is recommended. Containment includes adequate integrated pest management and a strict ban on migratory beekeeping. Despite considerable gaps in our knowledge of SHBs, the proposed action plan will help stakeholders to slow down the global spread of SHBs.
Diet quality in childhood : the Generation R Study
Velde, Laura A. van der; Nguyen, Anh N. ; Schoufour, Josje D. ; Geelen, Anouk ; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V. ; Franco, Oscar H. ; Voortman, Trudy - \ 2019
European Journal of Nutrition 58 (2019). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1259 - 1269.
Determinants - Diet quality - Dietary patterns - Epidemiology - Tracking - Validation
Purpose: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. Methods: For 4733 children participating in a population-based cohort, we assessed dietary intake using a validated food-frequency questionnaire at a median age of 8.1 years (interquartile range 8.0–8.2) (2011–2014). Based on dietary guidelines, we developed and validated a food-based diet quality score for children consisting of ten components (score 0–10): sufficient intake of vegetables; fruit; whole grains; fish; legumes; nuts; dairy; oils and soft fats; and low intake of sugar-containing-beverages; and high-fat and processed meat. Results: We observed a mean (± SD) diet quality score of 4.5 (± 1.2) out of a maximum of 10. On average, intake of legumes, nuts, and oils or soft fats was below recommendations, whereas intake of sugar-containing beverages and high-fat or processed meat was higher than recommended. The main factors associated with higher diet quality were higher maternal educational level (β = 0.29, 95% CI 0.21, 0.37 versus low education), higher household income (β = 0.15, 95% CI 0.05, 0.25 versus low income), no maternal smoking (β = 0.13, 95% CI 0.02, 0.25 versus current smoking), and less screen time (β = 0.31, 95% CI 0.24, 0.38)—all independent of each other. For children with available dietary data at age 1 year (n = 2608), we observed only weak tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood (Pearson’s r = 0.19, k = 0.11 for extreme quartiles). Conclusion: Overall diet quality of 8-year-old children did not conform to dietary guidelines, especially for children having more screen time, children of lower educated or smoking mothers, or from lower-income households.
Flood tolerance in two tree species that inhabit both the Amazonian floodplain and the dry Cerrado savanna of Brazil
Pires, Hérica Ribeiro Almeida ; Franco, Augusto Cesar ; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez ; Scudeller, Veridiana Vizoni ; Kruijt, Bart ; Ferreira, Cristiane Silva - \ 2018
AoB Plants 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 2041-2851
Adaptation - Environmental stress - Flood tolerance - Phenotypic plasticity - Population differentiation - Seed germination in water - Submergence tolerance - Waterlogging
Comparing plants of the same species thriving in flooded and non-flooded ecosystems helps to clarify the interplay between natural selection, phenotypic plasticity and stress adaptation. We focussed on responses of seeds and seedlings of Genipa americana and Guazuma ulmifolia to substrate waterlogging or total submergence. Both species are commonly found in floodplain forests of Central Amazonia and in seasonally dry savannas of Central Brazil (Cerrado). Although seeds of Amazonian and Cerrado G. americana were similar in size, the germination percentage of Cerrado seeds was decreased by submergence (3 cm water) and increased in Amazonian seeds. The seeds of Amazonian G. ulmifolia were heavier than Cerrado seeds, but germination of both types was unaffected by submergence. Three-month-old Amazonian and Cerrado seedlings of both species survived 30 days of waterlogging or submersion despite suffering significant inhibition in biomass especially if submerged. Shoot elongation was also arrested. Submersion triggered chlorosis and leaf abscission in Amazonian and Cerrado G. ulmifolia while waterlogging did so only in Cerrado seedlings. During 30 days of re-exposure to non-flooded conditions, G. ulmifolia plants that lost their leaves produced a replacement flush. However, they attained only half the plant dry mass of non-flooded plants. Both submerged and waterlogged G. americana retained their leaves. Consequently, plant dry mass after 30 days recovery was less depressed by these stresses than in G. ulmifolia. Small amounts of cortical aerenchyma were found in roots 2 cm from the tip of well-drained plants. The amount was increased by flooding. Waterlogging but not submergence promoted hypertrophy of lenticels at the stem base of both species and adventitious rooting in G. ulmifolia. Despite some loss of performance in dryland plants, flood tolerance traits were present in wetland and dryland populations of both species. They are part of an overall stress-response potential that permits flexible acclimation to locally flooded conditions.
Fusion of plectasin derivative NZ2114 with hydrophilic random coil polypeptide : Recombinant production in Pichia pastoris and antimicrobial activity against clinical strain MRSA
Lima, L.A. ; Vries, R. de; Biswaro, L.S. ; Vasconcelos, I.M. ; Franco, O.L. ; Dias, S.C. - \ 2018
Peptide Science 110 (2018)1. - ISSN 2475-8817
antimicrobial peptides - MRSA - Pichia pastoris - plectasin NZ2114
One of the roadblocks towards the practical use of antimicrobial peptides for medical use is their relatively high cost when synthesized chemically. Effective recombinant production has only been successful in some cases, such as the previously reported production in Pichia pastoris of the antimicrobial plectasin derivative peptide NZ2114. The same production host has also been used extensively to produce so-called protein-polymers: sequences that consist of repetitions of simple amino acid motifs found in structural proteins such as collagen and elastin, and that can be designed to self-assemble in micelles, fibers and hydrogels. With the eventual goal of producing recombinant biomaterials such as antimicrobial protein polymer, we here explore the secreted production in Pichia pastoris of a fusion of NZ2114 with a hydrophilic random coil protein polymer Cp 4. The intact NZ2114- Cp 4 fusion copolymer was produced with a yield of purified protein in the order of 1 g L−1 supernatant. We find that purified NZ2114-Cp 4 has an activity against clinical strain MRSA, but very much lower than activity of chemically synthesized NZ2114. We conclude that possibly, the activity of NZ2114 is impaired by the C-terminal attachment to the protein polymer chain, but other reasons for the low activity cannot yet be excluded either.
An acidic model pro-peptide affects the secondary structure, membrane interactions and antimicrobial activity of a crotalicidin fragment
Júnior, Nelson G.O. ; Cardoso, Marlon H. ; Cândido, Elizabete S. ; Broek, Danielle van den; Lange, Niek de; Velikova, Nadya ; Kleijn, J.M. ; Wells, Jerry M. ; Rezende, Taia M.B. ; Franco, Octávio Luiz ; Vries, Renko de - \ 2018
Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322
In order to study how acidic pro-peptides inhibit the antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial peptides, we introduce a simple model system, consisting of a 19 amino-acid long antimicrobial peptide, and an N-terminally attached, 10 amino-acid long acidic model pro-peptide. The antimicrobial peptide is a fragment of the crotalicidin peptide, a member of the cathelidin family, from rattlesnake venom. The model pro-peptide is a deca (glutamic acid). Attachment of the model pro-peptide only leads to a moderately large reduction in the binding to- and induced leakage of model liposomes, while the antimicrobial activity of the crotalicidin fragment is completely inhibited by attaching the model pro-peptide. Attaching the pro-peptide induces a conformational change to a more helical conformation, while there are no signs of intra- or intermolecular peptide complexation. We conclude that inhibition of antimicrobial activity by the model pro-peptide might be related to a conformational change induced by the pro-peptide domain, and that additional effects beyond induced changes in membrane activity must also be involved.
Effects of a multi-component nutritional telemonitoring intervention on nutritional status, diet quality, physical functioning and quality of life of community-dwelling older adults
Doorn-van Atten, M.N. van; Haveman-Nies, A. ; Bakel, M.M. van; Ferry, M. ; Franco, M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Vries, J.H.M. de - \ 2018
The British journal of nutrition 119 (2018)10. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1185 - 1194.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an intervention including nutritional telemonitoring, nutrition education, and follow-up by a nurse on nutritional status, diet quality, appetite, physical functioning and quality of life of Dutch community-dwelling elderly. We used a parallel arm pre-test post-test design with 214 older adults (average age 80 years) who were allocated to the intervention group (n 97) or control group (n 107), based on the municipality. The intervention group received a 6-month intervention including telemonitoring measurements, nutrition education and follow-up by a nurse. Effect measurements took place at baseline, after 4·5 months, and at the end of the study. The intervention improved nutritional status of participants at risk of undernutrition (β (T1)=2·55; 95 % CI 1·41, 3·68; β (T2)=1·77; 95 % CI 0·60, 2·94) and scores for compliance with Dutch guidelines for the intake of vegetables (β=1·27; 95 % CI 0·49, 2·05), fruit (β=1·24; 95 % CI 0·60, 1·88), dietary fibre (β=1·13; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·57), protein (β=1·20; 95 % CI 0·15, 2·24) and physical activity (β=2·13; 95 % CI 0·98, 3·29). The intervention did not have an effect on body weight, appetite, physical functioning and quality of life. In conclusion, this intervention leads to improved nutritional status in older adults at risk of undernutrition, and to improved diet quality and physical activity levels of community-dwelling elderly. Future studies with a longer duration should focus on older adults at higher risk of undernutrition than this study population to investigate whether the impact of the intervention on nutritional and functional outcomes can be improved.