Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Characterizing the structure of aerobic granular sludge using ultra-high field magnetic resonance
    Kirkland, Catherine M. ; Krug, Julia R. ; Vergeldt, Frank J. ; Berg, Lenno van den; Velders, Aldrik H. ; Seymour, Joseph D. ; Codd, Sarah L. ; As, Henk Van; Kreuk, Merle K. de - \ 2020
    Water Science and Technology 82 (2020)4. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 627 - 639.
    Despite aerobic granular sludge wastewater treatment plants operating around the world, our understanding of internal granule structure and its relation to treatment efficiency remains limited. This can be attributed in part to the drawbacks of time-consuming, labor-intensive, and invasive microscopy protocols which effectively restrict samples sizes and may introduce artefacts. Time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allows non-invasive measurements which describe internal structural features of opaque, complex materials like biofilms. NMR was used to image aerobic granules collected from five full-scale wastewater treatment plants in the Netherlands and United States, as well as laboratory granules and control beads. T1 and T2 relaxation-weighted images reveal heterogeneous structures that include high- and low-density biofilm regions, water-like voids, and solid-like inclusions. Channels larger than approximately 50 μm and connected to the bulk fluid were not visible. Both cluster and ring-like structures were observed with each granule source having a characteristic structural type. These structures, and their NMR relaxation behavior, were stable over several months of storage. These observations reveal the complex structures within aerobic granules from a range of sources and highlight the need for non-invasive characterization methods like NMR to be applied in the ongoing effort to correlate structure and function.
    A DNA-Binding Bromodomain-Containing Protein Interacts with and Reduces Rx1-Mediated Immune Response to Potato Virus X
    Sukarta, Octavina C.A. ; Townsend, Philip D. ; Llewelyn, Alexander ; Dixon, Christopher H. ; Slootweg, Erik J. ; Pålsson, Lars-Olof ; Takken, Frank L.W. ; Goverse, Aska ; Cann, Martin J. - \ 2020
    Plant Communications 1 (2020)4. - ISSN 2590-3462 - p. 100086 - 100086.
    Plant NLR proteins enable the immune system to recognize and respond to pathogen attack. An early consequence of immune activation is transcriptional reprogramming. Some NLRs have been shown to act in the nucleus and interact with transcription factors. The Rx1 NLR protein of potato binds and distorts double-stranded DNA. However, the components of the chromatin-localized Rx1 complex are largely unknown. Here, we report a physical and functional interaction between Rx1 and NbDBCP, a bromodomain-containing chromatin-interacting protein. NbDBCP accumulates in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, interacts with chromatin, and redistributes Rx1 to the nucleolus in a subpopulation of imaged cells. Rx1 overexpression reduces the interaction between NbDBCP and chromatin. NbDBCP is a negative regulator of Rx1-mediated immune responses to potato virus X (PVX), and this activity requires an intact bromodomain. Previously, Rx1 has been shown to regulate the DNA-binding activity of a Golden2-like transcription factor, NbGlk1. Rx1 and NbDBCP act synergistically to reduce NbGlk1 DNA binding, suggesting a mode of action for NbDBCP’s inhibitory effect on immunity. This study provides new mechanistic insight into the mechanism by which a chromatin-localized NLR complex co-ordinates immune signaling after pathogen perception.
    De Allium-collectie van het CGN
    Groot, Liesbeth de; Menting, Frank - \ 2020
    Effects of diabetes mellitus on fibrin clot structure and mechanics in a model of acute neutrophil extracellular traps (Nets) formation
    Vries, Judith J. de; Hoppenbrouwers, Tamara ; Martinez-Torres, Cristina ; Majied, Rezin ; Özcan, Behiye ; Hoek, Mandy van; Leebeek, Frank W.G. ; Rijken, Dingeman C. ; Koenderink, Gijsje H. ; Maat, Moniek P.M. de - \ 2020
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21 (2020)19. - ISSN 1661-6596 - 15 p.
    Arterial thrombosis - Diabetes mellitus - Fibrin - Fibrinolysis - Neutrophil extracellular traps

    Subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM) have an increased risk of arterial thrombosis, to which changes in clot structure and mechanics may contribute. Another contributing factor might be an increased formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in DM. NETs are mainly formed during the acute phase of disease and form a network within the fibrin matrix, thereby influencing clot properties. Previous research has shown separate effects of NETs and DM on clot properties, therefore our aim was to study how DM affects clot properties in a model resembling an acute phase of disease with NETs formation. Clots were prepared from citrated plasma from subjects with and without DM with the addition of NETs, induced in neutrophils by S. aureus bacteria or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Structural parameters were measured using scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties using rheology, and sensitivity to lysis using a fluorescence-based fibrinolysis assay. Plasma clots from subjects with DM had significantly thicker fibers and fewer pores and branch points than clots from subjects without DM. In addition, fibrinolysis was significantly slower, while mechanical properties were similar between both groups. In conclusion, in a model of acute NETs formation, DM plasma shows prothrombotic effects on fibrin clots.

    Erratum : Author Correction: The planctomycete Stieleria maiorica Mal15T employs stieleriacines to alter the species composition in marine biofilms (Communications biology (2020) 3 1 (303))
    Kallscheuer, Nicolai ; Jeske, Olga ; Sandargo, Birthe ; Boedeker, Christian ; Wiegand, Sandra ; Bartling, Pascal ; Jogler, Mareike ; Rohde, Manfred ; Petersen, Jörn ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Surup, Frank ; Jogler, Christian - \ 2020
    Communications Biology 3 (2020). - ISSN 2399-3642

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    Data from: 30 years of large river restoration: how long do restored floodplain channels remain suitable for targeted rheophilic fishes in the lower river Rhine?
    Stoffers, Twan ; Collas, Frank ; Buijse, A.D. ; Geerling, G.W. ; Jans, L.H. ; Kessel, Nils Van; Verreth, Johan ; Nagelkerke, Leo - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    river rehabilitation - habitat succession - nursery area - riverine fishes - river management - cyclic rejuvenation
    The ecological efficacy of river restoration projects may change over time, resulting in the loss of their ecological function for targeted species. The goal of this study was to evaluate the rheophilic nursery function of restored floodplain channels over time, by analysing 30 years of monitoring data from 12 restoration projects in the lower river Rhine.
    Nonparametric bayesian estimation of a hölder continuous diffusion coefficient
    Gugushvili, Shota ; Meulen, Frank van der; Schauer, Moritz ; Spreij, Peter - \ 2020
    Brazilian Journal of Probability and Statistics 34 (2020)3. - ISSN 0103-0752 - p. 537 - 559.
    Diffusion coefficient - Gaussian likelihood - Non-parametric Bayesian estimation - Posterior contraction rate - Pseudo-likelihood - Stochastic differential equation - Volatility

    We consider a nonparametric Bayesian approach to estimate the diffusion coefficient of a stochastic differential equation given discrete time observations over a fixed time interval. As a prior on the diffusion coefficient, we employ a histogram-type prior with piecewise constant realisations on bins forming a partition of the time interval. Specifically, these constants are realizations of independent inverse Gamma distributed randoma variables. We justify our approach by deriving the rate at which the corresponding posterior distribution asymptotically concentrates around the data-generating diffusion coefficient. This posterior contraction rate turns out to be optimal for estimation of a Hölder-continuous diffusion coefficient with smoothness parameter 0 < λ ≤ 1. Our approach is straightforward to implement, as the posterior distributions turn out to be inverse Gamma again, and leads to good practical results in a wide range of simulation examples. Finally, we apply our method on exchange rate data sets.

    Burger in zicht, overheid aan zet : Balans van de Leefomgeving 2020
    Bouma, Jetske ; Boot, Pieter ; Bredenoord, Hendrien ; Dietz, Frank ; Eerdt, Martha van; Grinsven, Hans van; Kishna, Maikel ; Ligtvoet, Willem ; Wouden, Ries van der; Sanders, Marlies - \ 2020
    Den Haag : PBL Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - 96
    Coagulation and precipitation of cyanobacterial blooms
    Lürling, Miquel ; Kang, Li ; Mucci, Maíra ; Oosterhout, Frank van; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa ; Miranda, Marcela ; Huszar, Vera L.M. ; Waajen, Guido ; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi - \ 2020
    Ecological Engineering 158 (2020). - ISSN 0925-8574
    Alum - Geo-engineering - Lake restoration - Managing cyanobacterial nuisance - P control - Phoslock

    Eutrophication is the prime water quality issue in inland waters. Eutrophication and its key symptom, harmful cyanobacterial blooms, is expected to further increase in the future, which highlights the importance of managing the issue. The reduction of external nutrient load is crucial but might not bring fast relief to eutrophic waters due to ongoing diffuse pollution and legacy nutrients in the sediment. In this context, in-lake measures are needed to speed-up recovery. In this review, we discuss different in-lake measures based on coagulation and precipitation of cyanobacteria and/or phosphate for different lake categories (e.g., shallow or deep, mainly external or internal nutrient load, occurrence of perennial or summer blooms). In deep lakes with an external nutrient load higher than the internal load, a “Floc and Sink” method could be used in which a coagulant (e.g. aluminium salts, Al-salts; chitosan) combined with a ballast (e.g. soil, clay) removes a cyanobacterial bloom out of the water column. In case the deep lake suffers from high internal load, a phosphate (P)-fixative (e.g. lanthanum modified bentonite or Al-salts) can be used to “Lock” the legacy P, possibly combined with a coagulant – a “Floc and Lock” technique. The latter approach will target both the particulate P in a bloom and the internal P load. A shallow lake that suffers from summer blooms and in which the internal load is higher than the external load, a “Lock” strategy of winter application of a P-fixative is proposed to prevent bloom development. In shallow lakes with perennial blooms, an agent to damage the cells (such as H2O2) is required together with a coagulant and a ballast to avoid recolonization of the water column due to resuspension – a “Kill, Floc and Sink/Lock” method. The selection of the most promising in-lake measures and materials should be based on a proper system diagnosis and tests prior to a full-scale intervention. These methods can be effective, but evidently reduction of external nutrient loads, both from point- and non-pointed sources, is an absolute necessity to restore aquatic ecosystems in a holistic sense.

    Intensief telen onder full-LED in emissievrije proefkas succesvol. Biologische gewasbescherming uitdaging in Demokas 2030.
    Leman, Ada ; Kempkes, Frank - \ 2020
    Manifest van 170 wetenschappers: het is een blunder als we niet groener uit de coronacrisis komen
    Büscher, Bram - \ 2020

    Manifesto on post-Corona, co-ordinated by Bram Buscher - interviewed in Trouw

    Mutation of the second sialic acid-binding of influenza A virus neuraminidase drives compensatory mutations in hemagglutinin
    Du, Wenjuan ; Wolfert, Margreet A. ; Peeters, B.P.H. ; Kuppeveld, Frank J.M. van; Boons, Geert-Jan ; Vries, Erik de - \ 2020
    PLoS Pathogens 16 (2020)8. - ISSN 1553-7366
    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Most pandemics occurred upon adaptation of avian IAVs to humans. This adaptation includes a hallmark receptor-binding specificity switch of hemagglutinin (HA) from avian-type α2,3- to human-type α2,6-linked sialic acids. Complementary changes of the receptor-destroying neuraminidase (NA) are considered to restore the precarious, but poorly described, HA-NA-receptor balance required for virus fitness. In comparison to the detailed functional description of adaptive mutations in HA, little is known about the functional consequences of mutations in NA in relation to their effect on the HA-NA balance and host tropism. An understudied feature of NA is the presence of a second sialic acid-binding site (2SBS) in avian IAVs and absence of a 2SBS in human IAVs, which affects NA catalytic activity. Here we demonstrate that mutation of the 2SBS of avian IAV H5N1 disturbs the HA-NA balance. Passaging of a 2SBS-negative H5N1 virus on MDCK cells selected for progeny with a restored HA-NA balance. These viruses obtained mutations in NA that restored a functional 2SBS and/or in HA that reduced binding of avian-type receptors. Importantly, a particular HA mutation also resulted in increased binding of human-type receptors. Phylogenetic analyses of avian IAVs show that also in the field, mutations in the 2SBS precede mutations in HA that reduce binding of avian-type receptors and increase binding of human-type receptors. Thus, 2SBS mutations in NA can drive acquisition of mutations in HA that not only restore the HA-NA balance, but may also confer increased zoonotic potential.
    Erratum: The planctomycete Stieleria maiorica Mal15T employs stieleriacines to alter the species composition in marine biofilms
    Kallscheuer, Nicolai ; Jeske, Olga ; Sandargo, Birthe ; Boedeker, Christian ; Wiegand, Sandra ; Bartling, Pascal ; Jogler, Mareike ; Rohde, Manfred ; Petersen, Jörn ; Medema, Marnix H. ; Surup, Frank ; Jogler, Christian - \ 2020
    Communications Biology 3 (2020)1. - ISSN 2399-3642 - 1 p.

    Genome-wide Modeling of Polygenic Risk Score in Colorectal Cancer Risk
    Thomas, Minta ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A. ; Lee, Jeffrey K. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Dampier, Christopher H. ; Chapelle, Albert de la; Wolk, Alicja ; Joshi, Amit D. ; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea ; Gsur, Andrea ; Lindblom, Annika ; Castells, Antoni ; Win, Aung Ko ; Namjou, Bahram ; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Tangen, Catherine M. ; He, Qianchuan ; Li, Christopher I. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Joshu, Corinne E. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Bishop, D.T. ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Schaid, Daniel ; Drew, David A. ; Muller, David C. ; Duggan, David ; Crosslin, David R. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Giovannucci, Edward L. ; Larson, Eric ; Qu, Flora ; Mentch, Frank ; Giles, Graham G. ; Hakonarson, Hakon ; Hampel, Heather ; Stanaway, Ian B. ; Figueiredo, Jane C. ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Minnier, Jessica ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Hampe, Jochen ; Harley, John B. ; Visvanathan, Kala ; Curtis, Keith R. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Li, Li ; Marchand, Loic Le; Vodickova, Ludmila ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Lemire, Mathieu ; Woods, Michael O. ; Song, Mingyang ; Murphy, Neil ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Dikilitas, Ozan ; Pharoah, Paul D.P. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Milne, Roger L. ; MacInnis, Robert J. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Ogino, Shuji ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Thibodeau, Stephen N. ; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Zaidi, Syed H. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Vymetalkova, Veronika ; Moreno, Victor ; Martín, Vicente ; Arndt, Volker ; Wei, Wei Qi ; Chung, Wendy ; Su, Yu Ru ; Hayes, Richard B. ; White, Emily ; Vodicka, Pavel ; Casey, Graham ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Potter, John D. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Jarvik, Gail P. ; Corley, Douglas A. ; Peters, Ulrike ; Hsu, Li - \ 2020
    American Journal of Human Genetics 107 (2020)3. - ISSN 0002-9297 - p. 432 - 444.
    cancer risk prediction - colorectal cancer - machine learning - polygenic risk score

    Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.

    Key principles and operational practices for improved nanotechnology environmental exposure assessment
    Svendsen, Claus ; Walker, Lee A. ; Matzke, Marianne ; Lahive, Elma ; Harrison, Samuel ; Crossley, Alison ; Park, Barry ; Lofts, Stephen ; Lynch, Iseult ; Vázquez-Campos, Socorro ; Kaegi, Ralf ; Gogos, Alexander ; Asbach, Christof ; Cornelis, Geert ; Kammer, Frank von der; Brink, Nico W. van den; Mays, Claire ; Spurgeon, David J. - \ 2020
    Nature Nanotechnology 15 (2020). - ISSN 1748-3387 - p. 731 - 742.

    Nanotechnology is identified as a key enabling technology due to its potential to contribute to economic growth and societal well-being across industrial sectors. Sustainable nanotechnology requires a scientifically based and proportionate risk governance structure to support innovation, including a robust framework for environmental risk assessment (ERA) that ideally builds on methods established for conventional chemicals to ensure alignment and avoid duplication. Exposure assessment developed as a tiered approach is equally beneficial to nano-specific ERA as for other classes of chemicals. Here we present the developing knowledge, practical considerations and key principles need to support exposure assessment for engineered nanomaterials for regulatory and research applications.

    Height-diameter allometric relationships for seedlings and trees across China
    Zhang, Wei Ping ; Zhao, Lei ; Larjavaara, Markku ; Morris, E.C. ; Sterck, Frank J. ; Wang, Gen Xuan - \ 2020
    Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology 108 (2020). - ISSN 1146-609X
    Allometric exponent - Canopy species - Gymnosperm - Scaling relationships - Seedling - Understory species

    Height–diameter allometric (H-D) relationships play an important role in the light capture and stability of a tree, and it is poorly understood whether the relationships changes with growth stages or functional groups along a large scale environmental gradients. We present a comparative study of H-D relationships of 6810 seedlings and 19,707 trees from about 1000 species in 9 different sites across China. We showed that allometric exponents for seedlings and trees differ between different sites and do not represent a single, constant theoretical value (e.g. 2/3, 1/2 or 1). Seedlings had greater exponents than trees in most sites. The exponents varied between canopy and understory trees in 5 sites, while were indistinguishable from each other in the remaining 4 sites. Canopy-tree seedlings had smaller exponents than understory-tree seedlings in 3 sites but had indistinguishable exponents in the other 6 sites. Gymnosperm trees had exponents greater than or indistinguishable from angiosperm trees. Elevation alone, or together with mean temperature of the warmest month explained variation of tree allometries for canopy-tree and understory-tree seedlings. The exponents of canopy trees decreased with mean annual precipitation. Our results do not support the predictions from metabolic scaling theory or biomechanical models that height–diameter allometries are invariant. Our study provides insight into how ontogeny, adult stature, phyletic affiliations and environmental limitations affect height–diameter allometric relationships at biogeographical scales.

    Rapid and robust on-scene detection of cocaine in street samples using a handheld near-infrared spectrometer and machine learning algorithms
    Kranenburg, Ruben F. ; Verduin, Joshka ; Weesepoel, Yannick ; Alewijn, Martin ; Heerschop, Marcel ; Koomen, Ger ; Keizers, Peter ; Bakker, Frank ; Wallace, Fionn ; Esch, Annette van; Hulsbergen, Annemieke ; Asten, Arian C. van - \ 2020
    Drug Testing and Analysis (2020). - ISSN 1942-7603
    cocaine - forensic illicit-drug analysis - indicative testing - k-nearest neighbors - near-infrared

    On-scene drug detection is an increasingly significant challenge due to the fast-changing drug market as well as the risk of exposure to potent drug substances. Conventional colorimetric cocaine tests involve handling of the unknown material and are prone to false-positive reactions on common pharmaceuticals used as cutting agents. This study demonstrates the novel application of 740–1070 nm small-wavelength-range near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to confidently detect cocaine in case samples. Multistage machine learning algorithms are used to exploit the limited spectral features and predict not only the presence of cocaine but also the concentration and sample composition. A model based on more than 10,000 spectra from case samples yielded 97% true-positive and 98% true-negative results. The practical applicability is shown in more than 100 case samples not included in the model design. One of the most exciting aspects of this on-scene approach is that the model can almost instantly adapt to changes in the illicit-drug market by updating metadata with results from subsequent confirmatory laboratory analyses. These results demonstrate that advanced machine learning strategies applied on limited-range NIR spectra from economic handheld sensors can be a valuable procedure for rapid on-site detection of illicit substances by investigating officers. In addition to forensics, this interesting approach could be beneficial for screening and classification applications in the pharmaceutical, food-safety, and environmental domains.

    Anticipatory governance of solar geoengineering: conflicting visions of the future and their links to governance proposals
    Gupta, Aarti ; Möller, Ina ; Biermann, Frank ; Jinnah, Sikina ; Kashwan, Prakash ; Mathur, Vikrom ; Morrow, David R. ; Nicholson, Simon - \ 2020
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 45 (2020). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 10 - 19.

    This article identifies diverse rationales to call for anticipatory governance of solar geoengineering, in light of a climate crisis. In focusing on governance rationales, we step back from proliferating debates in the literature on ‘how, when, whom, and where’ to govern, to address the important prior question of why govern solar geoengineering in the first place: to restrict or enable its further consideration? We link these opposing rationales to contrasting underlying visions of a future impacted by climate change. These visions see the future as either more or less threatening, depending upon whether it includes the possible future use of solar geoengineering. Our analysis links these contrasting visions and governance rationales to existing governance proposals in the literature. In doing so, we illustratewhy some proposals differ so significantly, while also showing that similar-sounding proposals may emanate from quite distinct rationales and thus advance different ends, depending upon how they are designed in practice.

    A nature inclusive vision for Bonaire in 2050
    Verweij, Peter ; Cormont, Anouk ; Nel, Jeanne ; Rooij, Bertram de; Jones-Walters, Lawrence ; Slijkerman, Diana ; Soma, Katrine ; Eurpen, Michiel van; Pourier, Sherwin ; Coolen, Quirijn ; Mone, Ghislaine ; Bervoets, Tadzio ; Clarenda, Julianka ; Slobbe, Frank van; Christiaan, Danilo ; Meyer, Kalli de; Vries, Yoeri de; Eleana, Reynolds ; Hoetjes, Paul ; Meijer-Sedney, Esther ; Velden, Henk van de; Bertuol, Paulo ; Eckrich, Caren ; Engel, Sabine ; Francisca, Roxanne-Liana ; Wolf, Wijnand de; Beukeboom, Elsmarie ; Cranston, Cristely ; Almenkerk, Jan Jaap van; Baren, Pieter van; Debrot, Dolfi ; Janssen, John ; Hennen, Wil ; Henkens, Rene ; Mücher, Sander ; vd Geest, Matthijs ; Selnes, Trond ; Dominguez Teles, Iago - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 3023) - 41
    Effect of recycled content and rPET quality on the properties of PET bottles, part II: Migration
    Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. ; Stärker, Carina ; Welle, Frank - \ 2020
    Packaging Technology and Science 33 (2020)9. - ISSN 0894-3214 - p. 359 - 371.
    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were produced from three types of recycled PET (rPET) with four levels of recycled content. The migration of substances from these bottles to water was studied. Several migrated substances were detected. The migrated amounts of acetaldehyde and ethylene glycol complied with the limits given in the food contact material (FCM) legislation. Migration of 2‐methyl‐1,3‐dioxolane was below the limit of 10 μg·L−1, which is conventionally applied for non‐intentionally added substances (NIAS) not classified as ‘carcinogenic’, ‘mutagenic’ or ‘toxic to reproduction’ (CMR). Limonene, acetone, butanone and furan were also detected as migrants, of which limonene is a natural fragrant, and the other three are probably residues from solvents used to clean and protect the mould at the small‐scale production facility. Finally, benzene and styrene were also found as migrants from rPET. These migrants appear to originate from heat‐induced reactions within the PET matrix, which involve contaminants. The formation of benzene in rPET is attributed to polyvinylchloride as contaminant. The migrated amounts of benzene from the PET bottles with recycled content to the water simulant are relatively small (0.03–0.44 μg·L−1) after 10 days at 40°C. Consequently, the margin of exposure is 3.105–8.106. Hence, the level of concern for the public health is low, and the migrated amount represents a low priority for risk management. The FCM legislation demands a risk assessment for migrating NIAS. Depending on the underlying data and exposure scenario, different threshold limits in the food can be derived which can still be considered as safe.
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