Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Leidraad Beheersing Eikenprocessierups : Update 2019
    Spijker, J.H. ; Hellingman, S. ; Hellingman, Guus ; Hofhuis, Hidde ; Jans, H. ; Kuppen, Henry ; Vliet, A.J.H. van - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups - 64 p.
    Deze Leidraad beheersing eikenprocessierups is een complete vernieuwing van de voorheen door de NVWAin samenwerking met Alterra (Wageningen University & Research) en Vlinderstichting uitgegeven Leidraadbeheersing eikenprocessierups (oorspronkelijk uitgegeven in 2005, 1e update 2008, 2e update 2013)(Fransen 2013).Het ministerie van LNV heeft het Kenniscentrum Eikenprocessierups onder leiding van Wageningen University& Research opdracht gegeven om de Leidraad een voorlopige update te geven zodat boomeigenaren en groenbeheerders op korte termijn toegang krijgen tot de laatste kennis over de eikenprocessierups en daarmee zo optimaal mogelijk de beheersing van de eikenprocessierups kunnen organiseren. De versie 2019 zet zo goed mogelijk de huidige inzichten ten aanzien van de beheersing van de eikenprocessierups op een rij. Voor deze leidraad is gebruik gemaakt van per 1 augustus 2019 beschikbare literatuur en expert judgement. Gelet op de korte doorlooptijd was er geen gelegenheid voor het doen van aanvullend onderzoek en uitgebreide praktijk consultaties.
    Integrating priorities of disadvantaged parents and professionals for community family health
    Wink, G. ; Fransen, G.A.J. ; Huisman, M.J. ; Boersma, S.N. ; Assendelft, Willem J.J. ; Wagemakers, A. ; Velden, J. van der; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den - \ 2019
    The development of a monitoring instrument to measure the strength of health promoting systems
    Fransen, G. ; Wagemakers, Annemarie ; Molleman, Gerard - \ 2019
    Integrating priorities of disadvantaged parents and professionals for community family health
    Wink, G. ; Fransen, G.A.J. ; Huisman, M.J. ; Boersma, S.N. ; Assendelft, W.J.J. ; Wagemakers, M.A.E. ; Velden, J. van der; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den - \ 2019
    European Journal of Public Health 29 (2019)Supplement_4. - ISSN 1101-1262 - p. 374 - 375.
    Background
    Health inequalities persist, and policymakers, researchers and practitioners seek for effective ways to positively impact the health of disadvantaged people. Researchers point to a multi-component program with an integral design including various perspectives and involving different stakeholders. Few studies address the perspectives on health of disadvantaged people themselves. This study describes what parents in a socially disadvantaged situation and professionals working in that community perceived as 1) priority aspects to improve family health 2) barriers and facilitators for health behaviour changes 3) important health program activities.

    Methods
    Design: Community-based participatory action research. 10 parents participated in 6 panel meetings. 46 professionals received 4 panel meetings summaries. 18 parents and 25 professionals responded to questions in (panel) meetings and consultation by phone and e-mail.
    Results
    (preliminary) 1) Parents’ top priorities for improving health were: less stress related to finances and communication with related organizations, followed by a safe place for kids to meet. Of the program financers’ aims (reducing tobacco, alcohol use and overweight) reducing overweight got relatively most support of parents. 2) Parents perceived their family financial situation as barrier to behaviours reducing stress and overweight. 3) Program activities related to reducing stress got more support from parents and professionals than activities related to reducing overweight.

    Conclusions
    Insight in the perspectives of disadvantaged parents and professionals resulted in a program plan supported by them, aiming to reduce stress and overweight. Most participating parents and professionals committed themselves to invest time in program activities execution.
    Key messages
    Disadvantaged parents perceived reducing stress related to finances as top priority to improve family health. They perceived family finances as barrier to behaviours reducing stress and overweight.
    Community-based participatory action research with disadvantaged parents and professionals can result in an integrated family health program plan with stakeholder support.
    The development of a monitoring instrument to measure the strength of health promoting systems
    Fransen, G. ; Wagemakers, A. ; Molleman, G. - \ 2019
    European Journal of Public Health 29 (2019)Supplement_4. - ISSN 1101-1262 - p. 224 - 224.
    Background: In the region of the Municipality Health Services GelderlandSouth, each municipality has its own health broker. He or sheadvises the local policy makers, signals/pleads for addressinghealth problems, and facilitates effective approaches. By doingthis health brokers try to strengthen the local health promotingsystem. To show the results of health brokers and to monitorchanges of the local health promoting system, the MHS needs amonitoring instrument. The aim of this study was to developthis instrument and to test it in practice. Methods: Participatory action (qualitative) research is used to develop anonline questionnaire. Structured group processes with the healthbrokers has led to the identification and definition of eightvariables, reflecting the health promoting system: collaboration,support, integrated approach, visibility of results, health monitordata assessment, consistency, reach of the target population andsustainability. A literature study identified appropriate instruments. The online questionnaire is expanded to test the reliability,to evaluate the usability and to gain insight into the strength ofthe health promoting system in 16 municipalities. Results: The questionaire is based on validated questionaires like theCoordinated Action Checklist, and contains 28 items.Sumscores per variable ranged from 0 (weak) to 100(strong). Health brokers and their partners (N = 147, 4-9per municipality) filled out the questionnaire. Support andcollaboration had the highest mean scores (70,5 resp. 69,8),and visibility of results and sustainability the lowest (61,3 resp.59,4). Differences between municipalities were identified andcan be used to know which variables can be improved. Thetest-retest reliability (mean r = 0,713) and the Crohnbachsalphas (all > 0,70) were reasonable good. Conclusions: The questionnaire can help to provide useful insights in the strengths and weaknesses of the local health promoting system.
    Key messages: Eight variables reflect the health promoting system: collaboration, support, integrated approach, visibility ofresults, health monitor data assessment, consistency, reach and sustainability. The questionnaire can help to provide useful insights in the strengths and weaknesses of the local health promoting system.
    Oxidative stress and immune aberrancies in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a case–control comparison
    Verlaet, Annelies A.J. ; Breynaert, Annelies ; Ceulemans, Berten ; Bruyne, Tess De; Fransen, Erik ; Pieters, Luc ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Hermans, Nina - \ 2019
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 28 (2019)5. - ISSN 1018-8827 - p. 719 - 729.
    ADHD - Antioxidants - Diet - Immunity - Oxidative stress

    The objective of this study is to compare oxidative stress and immune biomarkers between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and controls without ADHD. A case–control comparison between 57 paediatric (6–12 years) untreated ADHD patients from the Antwerp University Hospital and 69 controls without ADHD from random schools in Flanders, Belgium, was conducted. Erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) and plasma lipid-soluble antioxidants (retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, β-carotene, and co-enzyme Q10) were determined by HPLC with electrochemical detection, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) by HPLC with fluorescence detection, plasma cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (INF)-γ) and immunoglobulins (IgE, IgG and IgM) by flow cytometry and urinary 8-hydroxy-2′deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels by ELISA assay. Dietary habits were determined by a food frequency questionnaire. Plasma MDA levels were on average 0.031 µM higher in patients than in controls (p < 0.05), and a trend for higher urinary 8-OHdG was observed. Erythrocyte GSH and plasma retinyl palmitate levels, as well as IgG and IgE levels, were higher in patients than in controls as well (on average 93.707 µg/ml, 0.006 µg/ml, 301.555 µg/ml and 125.004 µg/ml, resp., p < 0.05). Finally, a trend for lower plasma IL-5 levels was observed. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the difference in GSH levels remained statistically significant (nominally significant for retinyl palmitate), while significance was lost for MDA, IgG and IgE levels. Dietary habits do not appear to cause the observed differences. These results point at the potential involvement of slight oxidative stress and immune disturbances in ADHD.

    Ondervoeding bij ouderen staat nog te weinig op het netvlies
    Groot, Lisette de - \ 2019
    Are the G20 economies making enough progress to meet their NDC targets?
    Elzen, Michel den; Kuramochi, Takeshi ; Höhne, Niklas ; Cantzler, Jasmin ; Esmeijer, Kendall ; Fekete, Hanna ; Fransen, Taryn ; Keramidas, Kimon ; Roelfsema, Mark ; Sha, Fu ; Soest, Heleen van; Vandyck, Toon - \ 2019
    Energy Policy 126 (2019). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 238 - 250.
    China - G20 economies - National climate and energy policies - NDCs - Paris Agreement

    Under the Paris Agreement, countries committed to a variety of climate actions, including post-2020 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets. This study compares projected GHG emissions in the G20 economies under current climate policies to those under the GHG targets outlined in the nationally determined contributions (NDCs). It is based on an assessment of official governmental estimates and independent national and global studies. The study concludes that six G20 members (China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Russia and Turkey) are projected to meet their unconditional NDC targets with current policies. Eight members (Argentina, Australia, Canada, the European Union, Republic of Korea, South Africa and the United States) require further action to achieve their targets. Insufficient information is available for Saudi Arabia, and emission projections for Brazil and Mexico are subject to considerable uncertainty. The study also presents high-level decarbonisation indicators to better understand the current progress towards meeting the NDCs – Saudi Arabia and South Africa were found to continue increasing both emission intensity per unit GDP and emissions per capita under current policies by 2030 from 2015 levels.

    Groen in het gedrang
    Marcelis, Leo - \ 2018
    Voluntary Sustainability Standards, Trade and Sustainable Development : 3rd Flagship Report of the United Nations Forum on Sustainability Standards (UNFSS)
    Fernandez de Cordoba, Santiago ; Onguglo, Bonapas ; Hoekman, Bernard ; Schleifer, Philip ; Fiorini, Matteo ; Fransen, Luc ; Gjaltema, J.G. - \ 2018
    - 74 p.
    Aged mice display altered numbers and phenotype of basophils, and bone marrow-derived basophil activation, with a limited role for aging-associated microbiota
    Beek, Adriaan A. Van; Fransen, Floris ; Meijer, Ben ; Vos, Paul de; Knol, Edward F. ; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. - \ 2018
    Immunity and Ageing 15 (2018)1. - ISSN 1742-4933
    Aging - Basophils - Bone marrow - Immunity - Microbiota - Spleen

    Background: The influence of age on basophils is poorly understood, as well as the effect of aging-associated microbiota on basophils. Therefore, we studied the influence of aging and aging-associated microbiota on basophil frequency and phenotype, and differentiation from basophil precursors. Results: Basophils became more abundant in bone marrow (BM) and spleens of 19-month-old mice compared with 4-month-old mice. Aged basophils tended to express less CD200R3 and more CD123, both in BM and spleen. Differences in microbiota composition with aging were confirmed by 16S sequencing. Microbiota transfers from young and old mice to germ-free recipients revealed that CD11b tended to be lowered on splenic basophils by aging-associated microbiota. Furthermore, abundance of Alistipes, Oscillibacter, Bacteroidetes RC9 gut group, and S24-7 family positively correlated and CD123 expression, whereas Akkermansia abundance negatively correlated with basophils numbers. Subsequently, we purified FcϵRIα+CD11c-CD117- BM-derived basophils and found that those from aged mice expressed lower levels of CD11b upon stimulation. Higher frequencies of IL-4+ basophils were generated from basophil precursors of aged mice, which could be reproduced in basophils derived from germ-free recipients of aging-associated microbiota. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show the influence of aging on basophils. Furthermore, this study shows that aging-associated microbiota altered activation of BM-derived basophils in a similar fashion as observed in BM-derived basophils from aged mice.

    Sex differences in lipid metabolism are affected by presence of the gut microbiota
    Baars, Annemarie ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Lohuis, Mirjam ; Koehorst, Martijn ; Aidy, Sahar El; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Smidt, Hauke ; Mischke, Mona ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Verkade, Henkjan J. ; Garssen, Johan ; Beek, Eline M. van der; Knol, Jan ; Vos, Paul de; Bergenhenegouwen, Jeroen van; Fransen, Floris - \ 2018
    Scientific Reports 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2045-2322

    Physiological processes are differentially regulated between men and women. Sex and gut microbiota have each been demonstrated to regulate host metabolism, but it is unclear whether both factors are interdependent. Here, we determined to what extent sex-specific differences in lipid metabolism are modulated via the gut microbiota. While male and female Conv mice showed predominantly differential expression in gene sets related to lipid metabolism, GF mice showed differences in gene sets linked to gut health and inflammatory responses. This suggests that presence of the gut microbiota is important in sex-specific regulation of lipid metabolism. Further, we explored the role of bile acids as mediators in the cross-talk between the microbiome and host lipid metabolism. Females showed higher total and primary serum bile acids levels, independent of presence of microbiota. However, in presence of microbiota we observed higher secondary serum bile acid levels in females compared to males. Analysis of microbiota composition displayed sex-specific differences in Conv mice. Therefore, our data suggests that bile acids possibly play a role in the crosstalk between the microbiome and sex-specific regulation of lipid metabolism. In conclusion, our data shows that presence of the gut microbiota contributes to sex differences in lipid metabolism.

    On a collection of deep-water shrimp (Crustacea, Decapoda) from the Dutch Caribbean, with the description of a new species of Pseudocoutierea
    Olthof, Gabriël ; Becking, Leontine E. ; Fransen, Charles H.J.M. - \ 2018
    Zootaxa 4415 (2018)3. - ISSN 1175-5326 - p. 533 - 548.
    Crustacea - Decapoda - Deep reef - Dutch Caribbean - New records - New species - Pseudocoutierea
    A collection of shrimp from deep reefs in the Dutch Caribbean is described. Most material originates from the Bonaire deep reef expedition (2013) by Wageningen Marine Research of Wageningen University. Some additional material was available from dives on Curaçao (2014). A new species of Pseudocoutierea Holthuis was recognized in the material collected off Bonaire. The new species is described and illustrated and its position in the phylogeny of the genus Pseudocoutierea analyzed. A key to the species in the genus is presented.
    De Fransen haten hen om hun pulsjes
    Kraan, Marloes - \ 2018
    β2→1-fructans modulate the immune system in vivo in a microbiota-dependent and -independent fashion
    Fransen, Floris ; Sahasrabudhe, Neha M. ; Elderman, Marlies ; Bosveld, M. ; Aidy, Sahar El; Hugenholtz, F. ; Borghuis, Theo ; Kousemaker, Ben ; Winkel, Simon ; Gaast-de Jongh, Christa van der; Jonge, Marien I. de; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Smidt, H. ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2018
    Wageningen University
    Mus musculus - GSE94516 - PRJNA371228
    It has been shown in vitro that only specific dietary-fibers contribute to immunity but studies in vivo are not conclusive. Here we investigated degree of polymerization (DP) dependent effects of β2→1-fructans on immunity via microbiota-dependent and -independent effects. To this end, conventional or germ-free mice received short- or long-chain β2→1-fructan for 5 days. Immune cell populations in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and Peyer's patches (PPs) were analyzed with flow cytometry, genome-wide gene expression in the ileum was measured with microarray, and gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples. We found that β2→1-fructans modulated immunity by both microbiota and microbiota-independent effects. Moreover, effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans type polymer. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans enhanced T-helper 1 cells in Peyer's patches, whereas only short-chain β2→1-fructans increased regulatory T cells and CD11b-CD103- DCs in the MLN. A common feature after short- and long-chain β2→1-fructan treatment was enhanced Fut2 expression and other IL-22-dependent genes in the ileum of conventional mice. These effects were not associated with shifts in gut microbiota composition, or altered production of short-chain fatty acids. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans also induced immune effects in germ-free animals, demonstrating direct effect independent from the gut microbiota. Also, these effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans. Short-chain β2→1-fructan induced lower CD80 expression by CD11b-CD103- DCs in PPs, whereas long-chain β2→1-fructan specifically modulated B cell responses in germ-free mice. In conclusion, support of immunity is determined by the chemical structure of β2→1-fructans and is partially microbiota-independent.
    Aged gut microbiota contributes to systemical inflammaging after transfer to germ-free mice
    Fransen, Floris ; Beek, A.A. van; Borghuis, Theo ; Aidy, Sahar El; Hugenholtz, F. ; Gaast-de Jongh, Christa van der; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Jonge, Marien I. De; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Smidt, H. ; Faas, Marijke M. ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2018
    Wageningen University
    Mus musculus - GSE104063 - PRJNA408136
    Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this study gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer immune cell populations in spleen, Peyer’s patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes from conventionalized germ-free mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, whole-genome gene expression in the ileum was analyzed by microarray. Gut microbiota composition of donor and recipient mice was analyzed with 16S rDNA sequencing. Here we show by transferring aged microbiota to young germ-free mice that certain bacterial species within the aged microbiota promote inflammaging. This effect was associated with lower levels of Akkermansia and higher levels of TM7 bacteria and Proteobacteria in the aged microbiota after transfer. The aged microbiota promoted inflammation in the small intestine in the germ-free mice and enhanced leakage of inflammatory bacterial components into the circulation was observed. Moreover, the aged microbiota promoted increased T cell activation in the systemic compartment. In conclusion, these data indicate that the gut microbiota from old mice contributes to inflammaging after transfer to young germ-free mice.
    Aged gut microbiota contributes to systemical inflammaging after transfer to germ-free mice
    Fransen, Floris ; Beek, Adriaan A. van; Borghuis, Theo ; Aidy, Sahar El; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Gaast - de Jongh, Christa van der; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Jonge, Marien I. de; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Faas, Marijke M. ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2017
    Frontiers in Immunology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-3224
    Aging - Germ-free mice - Gut microbiome - Immune system - Inflammaging
    Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this study, gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free (GF) mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer immune cell populations in spleen, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes from conventionalized GF mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, whole-genome gene expression in the ileum was analyzed by microarray. Gut microbiota composition of donor and recipient mice was analyzed with 16S rDNA sequencing. Here, we show by transferring aged microbiota to young GF mice that certain bacterial species within the aged microbiota promote inflammaging. This effect was associated with lower levels of Akkermansia and higher levels of TM7 bacteria and Proteobacteria in the aged microbiota after transfer. The aged microbiota promoted inflammation in the small intestine in the GF mice and enhanced leakage of inflammatory bacterial components into the circulation was observed. Moreover, the aged microbiota promoted increased T cell activation in the systemic compartment. In conclusion, these data indicate that the gut microbiota from old mice contributes to inflammaging after transfer to young GF mice.
    The impact of gut microbiota on gender-specific differences in immunity
    Fransen, Floris ; Beek, Adriaan A. van; Borghuis, Theo ; Meijer, Ben ; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Gaast-de Jongh, Christa van der; Savelkoul, Huub F. ; Jonge, Marien I. de; Faas, Marijke M. ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Aidy, Sahar El ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2017
    Frontiers in Immunology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-3224 - 14 p.
    Gender - Germ-free mice - Gut microbiota - Immunity - Inflammation

    Males and females are known to have gender-specific differences in their immune system and gut microbiota composition. Whether these differences in gut microbiota composition are a cause or consequence of differences in the immune system is not known. To investigate this issue, gut microbiota from conventional males or females was transferred to germ-free (GF) animals of the same or opposing gender. We demonstrate that microbiota-independent gender differences in immunity are already present in GF mice. In particular, type I interferon signaling was enhanced in the intestine of GF females. Presumably, due to these immune differences bacterial groups, such as Alistipes, Rikenella, and Porphyromonadaceae, known to expand in the absence of innate immune defense mechanism were overrepresented in the male microbiota. The presence of these bacterial groups was associated with induction of weight loss, inflammation, and DNA damage upon transfer of the male microbiota to female GF recipients. In summary, our data suggest that microbiota-independent gender differences in the immune system select a gender-specific gut microbiota composition, which in turn further contributes to gender differences in the immune system.

    Gezondheidsmakelaars verbeteren het Gezondheidsbevorderend Systeem van hun wijk of gemeente
    Fransen, G.A.J. ; Riet, A. v.d.; Ham, L.T.J. v.d.; Wagemakers, Annemarie ; Molleman, G.R.M. - \ 2017
    In: Nederlands Congres Volksgezondheid 2017 - De professional maakt het verschil. -
    Achtergrond en doelstelling:
    Sinds 2009 zijn er gezondheidsmakelaars werkzaam bij GGD Gelderland-Zuid, iedere gezondheidsmakelaar heeft zijn eigen wijken of gemeenten. Zij hebben als taak om het GezondheidsBevorderend Systeem (GBS) in hun gemeente/wijk te verbeteren, zoals beschreven in ons logisch model (gepresenteerd op NCVGZ 2015). Het doel van dit onderzoek is om een monitoringsinstrument te ontwikkelen voor het meten van het GBS en een eerste meting uit te voeren, zodat we inzicht krijgen in hoe “sterk” het GBS van iedere gemeente/wijk is.

    Methode:
    8 variabelen zijn benoemd om het GBS te operationaliseren: samenwerking; samenhang; duurzaamheid; integrale aanpak; draagvlak; aanpak gebaseerd op een gezondheidsprofiel; in staat zijn tussentijdse resultaten zichtbaar te maken; bereik einddoelgroep. Vanuit literatuurstudie is gezocht naar valide instrumenten om deze variabelen te meten en te kwantificeren en is een monitoringsinstrument ontwikkeld.
    Per gemeente/wijk zijn 8 stakeholders uitgenodigd om de vragenlijst in te vullen: de gezondheidsmakelaar, ambtenaar volksgezondheid, huisarts, wijkverpleegkundige, welzijn, sportservice, fysiotherapeut en adviseur gezonde school. De meting vindt nu plaats in het hele werkgebied van GGD Gelderland-Zuid (16 gemeenten waaronder Nijmegen (8 wijken) en Wijchen (2 wijken)). Naast de vragenlijst vindt er documentanalyse plaats en gesprekken met gezondheidsmakelaar en evt andere stakeholders om de resultaten goed te kunnen duiden en in de context te beoordelen.

    Resultaten:
    Per gemeente/wijk zal een factsheet gemaakt worden met daarop de scores per variabele (gemiddelde van de 8 stakeholders). De resultaten verwachten wij in februari 2017.

    Conclusie en aanbevelingen: Met dit monitoringsinstrument zijn we in staat om de sterke van het GBS te meten, waarmee de gezondheidsmakelaar beter kan bepalen waar het GBS van zijn/haar gemeente versterkt kan worden en hij/zij op zou kunnen inzetten. Daarnaast dragen deze metingen bij aan het zichtbaar maken van de resultaten van de gezondheidsmakelaars.
    β2→1-fructans modulate the immune system in vivo in a microbiota-dependent and -independent fashion
    Fransen, Floris ; Sahasrabudhe, Neha M. ; Elderman, Marlies ; Bosveld, Margaret ; Aidy, Sahar El; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Borghuis, Theo ; Kousemaker, Ben ; Winkel, Simon ; Gaast-de Jongh, Christa van der; Jonge, Marien I. de; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Schols, Henk A. ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2017
    Frontiers in Immunology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-3224
    Germ-free mice - Gut microbiota - Mucosal immunology - Prebiotics - β2→1-fructans
    It has been shown in vitro that only specific dietary fibers contribute to immunity, but studies in vivo are not conclusive. Here, we investigated degree of polymerization (DP) dependent effects of β2→1-fructans on immunity via microbiota-dependent and -independent effects. To this end, conventional or germ-free mice received short- or long-chain β2→1-fructan for 5 days. Immune cell populations in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and Peyer's patches (PPs) were analyzed with flow cytometry, genome-wide gene expression in the ileum was measured with microarray, and gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples. We found that β2→1-fructans modulated immunity by both microbiota and microbiota-independent effects. Moreover, effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans type polymer. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans enhanced T-helper 1 cells in PPs, whereas only short-chain β2→1-fructans increased regulatory T cells and CD11b-CD103- dendritic cells (DCs) in the MLN. A common feature after short- and long-chain β2→1-fructan treatment was enhanced 2-alpha-l-fucosyltransferase 2 expression and other IL-22-dependent genes in the ileum of conventional mice. These effects were not associated with shifts in gut microbiota composition, or altered production of short-chain fatty acids. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans also induced immune effects in germ-free animals, demonstrating direct effect independent from the gut microbiota. Also, these effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans. Short-chain β2→1-fructan induced lower CD80 expression by CD11b-CD103- DCs in PPs, whereas long-chain β2→1-fructan specifically modulated B cell responses in germ-free mice. In conclusion, support of immunity is determined by the chemical structure of β2→1-fructans and is partially microbiota independent.
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