Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Livestock-Associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a young harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) with endocarditis
Rubio-Garcia, Ana ; Rossen, John W.A. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Friedrich, Alex W. ; Zeijl, Jan H. Van - \ 2019
Veterinary Record Case Reports 7 (2019)3. - ISSN 2052-6121
Bacterial diseases - Endocarditis - Infection - Marine mammals - MRSA - Phoca vitulina

A five-month-old male harbour seal was admitted for rehabilitation to the Sealcentre Pieterburen on November 16, 2015. During initial veterinary examination parasitic pneumonia and secondary bacterial pneumonia were suspected. Therefore, the seal received antiparasitic and antimicrobial treatment and appeared to recover but died unexpectedly after several weeks. Postmortem examination revealed a perforation in the aortic wall and histopathological examination of the aorta revealed mural necrosis with haemorrhage and suppurative to mixed inflammation. Bacterial culture resulted in isolation of a meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from the pericardial effusion. Subsequent culture of rectal swabs collected at arrival and during rehabilitation showed that the animal was already colonised with MRSA when admitted to the Sealcentre. MRSA has been isolated from marine mammals before, however, to our knowledge this is the first report of MRSA-Associated endocarditis in seals and the first time that livestock-Associated MRSA is reported in seals.

Gemini T-c: aerial surveys and passive acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoises 2015
Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Friedrich, E. ; Joost, M. ; Machiels, M.A.M. ; Stöber, N. - \ 2018
Den Helder : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C020/17) - 121
Climate change vs. socio-economic development : Understanding the future South Asian water gap
Wijngaard, René Reijer ; Biemans, Hester ; Friedrich Lutz, Arthur ; Bhakta Shrestha, Arun ; Wester, Philippus ; Willem Immerzeel, Walter - \ 2018
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 22 (2018)12. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 6297 - 6321.

The Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra (IGB) river basins provide about 900 million people with water resources used for agricultural, domestic, and industrial purposes. These river basins are marked as "climate change hotspots", where climate change is expected to affect monsoon dynamics and the amount of meltwater from snow and ice, and thus the amount of water available. Simultaneously, rapid and continuous population growth as well as strong economic development will likely result in a rapid increase in water demand. Since quantification of these future trends is missing, it is rather uncertain how the future South Asian water gap will develop. To this end, we assess the combined impacts of climate change and socio-economic development on the future "blue" water gap in the IGB until the end of the 21st century. We apply a coupled modelling approach consisting of the distributed cryospheric-hydrological model SPHY, which simulates current and future upstream water supply, and the hydrology and crop production model LPJmL, which simulates current and future downstream water supply and demand. We force the coupled models with an ensemble of eight representative downscaled general circulation models (GCMs) that are selected from the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, and a set of land use and socio-economic scenarios that are consistent with the shared socio-economic pathway (SSP) marker scenarios 1 and 3. The simulation outputs are used to analyse changes in the water availability, supply, demand, and gap. The outcomes show an increase in surface water availability towards the end of the 21st century, which can mainly be attributed to increases in monsoon precipitation. However, despite the increase in surface water availability, the strong socio-economic development and associated increase in water demand will likely lead to an increase in the water gap during the 21st century. This indicates that socio-economic development is the key driver in the evolution of the future South Asian water gap. The transgression of future environmental flows will likely be limited, with sustained environmental flow requirements during the monsoon season and unmet environmental flow requirements during the low-flow season in the Indus and Ganges river basins.

1.5°C Hotspots : Climate hazards, vulnerabilities, and impacts
Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich ; Deryng, Delphine ; Haen, Sarah D'; Hare, William ; Lissner, Tabea ; Ly, Mouhamed ; Nauels, Alexander ; Noblet, Melinda ; Pfleiderer, Peter ; Pringle, Patrick ; Rokitzki, Martin ; Saeed, Fahad ; Schaeffer, Michiel ; Serdeczny, Olivia ; Thomas, Adelle - \ 2018
Annual Review of Environment and Resources 43 (2018). - ISSN 1543-5938 - p. 135 - 163.
1.5°C - extreme weather events - hotspots - sea level rise - small islands - vulnerability

Differentiating the impacts of climate change between 1.5°C and 2°C requires a regional and sector-specific perspective. Whereas for some regions and sectors the difference in climate variables might be indistinguishable from natural variability, other areas especially in the tropics and subtropics will experience significant shifts. In addition to region-specific changes in climatic conditions, vulnerability and exposure also differ substantially across the world. Even small differences in climate hazards can translate into sizeable impact differences for particularly vulnerable regions or sectors. Here, we review scientific evidence of regional differences in climate hazards at 1.5°C and 2°C and provide an assessment of selected hotspots of climate change, including small islands as well as rural, urban, and coastal areas in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, that are particularly affected by the additional 0.5°C global mean temperature increase. We interlink these with a review of the vulnerability and exposure literature related to these hotspots to provide an integrated perspective on the differences in climate impacts between 1.5°C and 2°C.

Native Chemical Ligation for Cross-Linking of Flower-Like Micelles
Najafi, Marzieh ; Kordalivand, Neda ; Moradi, Mohammad Amin ; Dikkenberg, Joep van den; Fokkink, Remco ; Friedrich, Heiner ; Sommerdijk, Nico A.J.M. ; Hembury, Mathew ; Vermonden, Tina - \ 2018
Biomacromolecules 19 (2018)9. - ISSN 1525-7797 - p. 3766 - 3775.

In this study, native chemical ligation (NCL) was used as a selective cross-linking method to form core-cross-linked thermosensitive polymeric micelles for drug delivery applications. To this end, two complementary ABA triblock copolymers having polyethylene glycol (PEG) as midblock were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The thermosensitive poly isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) outer blocks of the polymers were copolymerized with either N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide-cysteine (HPMA-Cys), P(NIPAM-co-HPMA-Cys)-PEG-P(NIPAM-co-HPMA-Cys) (PNC) or N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide-ethylthioglycolate succinic acid (HPMA-ETSA), P(NIPAM-co-HPMA-ETSA)-PEG-P(NIPAM-co-HPMA-ETSA) (PNE). Mixing of these polymers in aqueous solution followed by heating to 50 °C resulted in the formation of thermosensitive flower-like micelles. Subsequently, native chemical ligation in the core of micelles resulted in stabilization of the micelles with a Z-average of 65 nm at body temperature. Decreasing the temperature to 10 °C only affected the size of the micelles (increased to 90 nm) but hardly affected the polydispersity index (PDI) and aggregation number (Nagg) confirming covalent stabilization of the micelles by NCL. CryoTEM images showed micelles with an uniform spherical shape and dark patches close to the corona of micelles were observed in the tomographic view. The dark patches represent more dense areas in the micelles which coincide with the higher content of HPMA-Cys/ETSA close to the PEG chain revealed by the polymerization kinetics study. Notably, this cross-linking method provides the possibility for conjugation of functional molecules either by using the thiol moieties still present after NCL or by simply adjusting the molar ratio between the polymers (resulting in excess cysteine or thioester moieties) during micelle formation. Furthermore, in vitro cell experiments demonstrated that fluorescently labeled micelles were successfully taken up by HeLa cells while cell viability remained high even at high micelle concentrations. These results demonstrate the potential of these micelles for drug delivery applications.

The NanoDefiner e-tool - A decision support framework for recommendation of suitable measurement techniques for the assessment of potential nanomaterials
Brungel, Raphael ; Ruckert, Johannes ; Wohlleben, Wendel ; Babick, Frank ; Ghanem, Antoine ; Gaillard, Claire ; Mech, Agnieszka ; Rauscher, Hubert ; Weigel, Stefan ; Friedrich, Christoph M. - \ 2018
In: 2017 IEEE 12th Nanotechnology Materials and Devices Conference, NMDC 2017. - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. - ISBN 9781538627730 - p. 71 - 72.

In this paper the NanoDefiner e-tool for classification of potential nanomaterial, according to the European Commission's definition, is introduced. Its knowledge base enables rule-based multi-criteria decision making on recommendation of suitable measurement techniques for a specific material. Its rule base was established with help of experts from industry and academia via literature analysis and lab experiments. Beside its potential to support material classification, its capability to facilitate suitability testing of measurement techniques for materials by manufacturers is outlined.

Genomic identification and analysis of specialized metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in plants using plantiSMASH
Kautsar, Satria A. ; Suarez Duran, Hernando G. ; Medema, Marnix H. - \ 2018
In: Plant Chemical Genomics / Fauser, Friedrich, Jonikas, Martin, New York : Humana Press Inc. (Methods in Molecular Biology ) - ISBN 9781493978731 - p. 173 - 188.
Bioinformatics - Biosynthetic gene cluster - Biosynthetic pathway - Genomic - Plant - Secondary metabolite - Specialized metabolite

Plants produce a vast diversity of specialized metabolites, which play important roles in the interactions with their microbiome, as well as with animals and other plants. Many such molecules have valuable biological activities that render them (potentially) useful as medicines, flavors and fragrances, nutritional ingredients, or cosmetics. Recently, plant scientists have discovered that the genes for many biosynthetic pathways for the production of such specialized metabolites are physically clustered on the chromosome within biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). The Plant Secondary Metabolite Analysis Shell (plantiSMASH) allows for the automated identification of such plant BGCs, facilitates comparison of BGCs across genomes, and helps users to predict the functional interactions of pairs of genes within and between BGCs based on coexpression analysis. In this chapter, we provide a detailed protocol on how to install and run plantiSMASH, and how to interpret its results to draw biological conclusions that are supported by the data.

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in wildlife, food-producing, and companion animals : a systematic review
Köck, R. ; Daniels-Haardt, I. ; Becker, K. ; Mellmann, A. ; Friedrich, A.W. ; Mevius, D. ; Schwarz, S. ; Jurke, A. - \ 2018
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 24 (2018)12. - ISSN 1198-743X - p. 1241 - 1250.
Antibiotic resistance - Carbapenemase - Enterobacteriales - Epidemiology - Livestock - Zoonosis
Objectives: The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in healthcare settings challenges clinicians worldwide. However, little is known about dissemination of CRE in livestock, food, and companion animals and potential transmission to humans. Methods: We performed a systematic review of all studies published in the PubMed database between 1980 and 2017 and included those reporting the occurrence of CRE in samples from food-producing and companion animals, wildlife, and exposed humans. The primary outcome was the occurrence of CRE in samples from these animals; secondary outcomes included the prevalence of CRE, carbapenemase types, CRE genotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibilities. Results: We identified 68 articles describing CRE among pigs, poultry, cattle, seafood, dogs, cats, horses, pet birds, swallows, wild boars, wild stork, gulls, and black kites in Africa, America, Asia, Australia, and Europe. The following carbapenemases have been detected (predominantly affecting the genera Escherichia and Klebsiella): VIM, KPC, NDM, OXA, and IMP. Two studies found that 33–67% of exposed humans on poultry farms carried carbapenemase-producing CRE closely related to isolates from the farm environment. Twenty-seven studies selectively screened samples for CRE and found a prevalence of <1% among livestock and companion animals in Europe, 2–26% in Africa, and 1–15% in Asia. Wildlife (gulls) in Australia and Europe carried CRE in 16–19%. Conclusions: The occurrence of CRE in livestock, seafood, wildlife, pets, and directly exposed humans poses a risk for public health. Prospective prevalence studies using molecular and cultural microbiological methods are needed to better define the scope and transmission of CRE.
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase inhibition by a synthetic nicotinamide cofactor biomimetic
Kailing, Lyn L. ; Bertinetti, Daniela ; Paul, Caroline E. ; Manszewski, Tomasz ; Jaskolski, Mariusz ; Herberg, Friedrich W. ; Pavlidis, Ioannis V. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018)MAR. - ISSN 1664-302X
Biomimetic - Crystallography - Inhibition - Nicotinamide cofactor - S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) hydrolases (SAHases) are involved in the regulation of methylation reactions in many organisms and are thus crucial for numerous cellular functions. Consequently, their dysregulation is associated with severe health problems. The SAHase-catalyzed reaction is reversible and both directions depend on the redox activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a cofactor. Therefore, nicotinamide cofactor biomimetics (NCB) are a promising tool to modulate SAHase activity. In the present in vitro study, we investigated 10 synthetic truncated NAD+ analogs against a SAHase from the root-nodulating bacterium Bradyrhizobium elkanii. Among this set of analogs, one was identified to inhibit the SAHase in both directions. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and crystallography experiments suggest that the inhibitory effect is not mediated by a direct interaction with the protein. Neither the apo-enzyme (i.e., deprived of the natural cofactor), nor the holo-enzyme (i.e., in the NAD+-bound state) were found to bind the inhibitor. Yet, enzyme kinetics point to a non-competitive inhibition mechanism, where the inhibitor acts on both, the enzyme and enzyme-SAH complex. Based on our experimental results, we hypothesize that the NCB inhibits the enzyme via oxidation of the enzyme-bound NADH, which may be accessible through an open molecular gate, leaving the enzyme stalled in a configuration with oxidized cofactor, where the reaction intermediate can be neither converted nor released. Since the reaction mechanism of SAHase is quite uncommon, this kind of inhibition could be a viable pharmacological route, with a low risk of off-target effects. The NCB presented in this work could be used as a template for the development of more potent SAHase inhibitors.
Piecing Together the Adaptation Puzzle for Small Island States
Lissner, Tabea K. ; Schleussner, Carl Friedrich ; Serdeczny, Olivia ; Baarsch, Florent ; Schaeffer, Michiel ; Hare, Bill - \ 2017
In: Climate Change Adaptation in Pacific Countries / Filho, W.L., Cham : Springer (Climate Change Management ) - ISBN 9783319500935 - p. 325 - 337.
Climate impacts - Database - Knowledge integration

Island states are especially at risk of climate impacts and are already feeling the effects of rising sea levels, acidification, climate extremes and other impacts. Small islands face several unique challenges: They usually have limited resources to react, but are exceptionally exposed due to their physical setting and limited livelihood options. In addition, they are remote and not easily reached in time of crisis, making adaptation an imperative. This contribution presents the concept for an integrated database on climate impacts and adaptation, focussing specifically on the requirements of small island states. The database contains information on climate impact projections, linked to examples of existing adaptation projects. The database provides a structured overview of success-factors and limitations, piecing together fragmented knowledge and fostering knowledge exchange across regions in order to support science-based adaptation. While adaptation experience is increasing, including an evolving understanding of prerequisites and limitations to specific forms of adaptation, knowledge is still fragmented, due to the mostly local nature of adaptation. Island states across the world can benefit from a structured exchange, focussing on the transferability of success-criteria for adaptation. An improved knowledge base is also important for other regions, which will face similar challenges in the coming years.

Counts of bovine monocyte subsets prior to calving are predictive for postpartum occurrence of mastitis and metritis
Pomeroy, Brianna ; Sipka, Anja ; Hussen, Jamal ; Eger, Melanie ; Schukken, Ynte - \ 2017
medicine - cell biology - genetics - ecology - immunology - mathematical sciences - developmental biology - infectious diseases - computational biology
The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14+/CD16−), intermediate (CD14+/CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14−/CD16+) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences. This study investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets counts in blood at 42 and 14 days prior to expected calving date to occurrence of metritis and mastitis within 2 weeks postpartum. In the enrolled prospective cohort of 27 German Holstein cows, housed at the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute Braunschweig, Germany, n = 13 developed metritis and/or mastitis postpartum. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between prepartum cell counts of monocyte subsets and neutrophils with postpartum disease. Our model revealed that higher counts of the two CD14+ monocyte subsets were predictive of disease. In contrast, higher numbers of the CD14− monocyte subset were negatively associated with disease. Interestingly, the neutrophil count, a common hallmark for inflammatory response, was not associated with the outcome variable at either time point. The results indicate that the number and composition of monocyte subsets before calving are related to the susceptibility to infectious disease within 2 weeks postpartum. Furthermore the oppositional effect of CD14+ and CD14− subsets strengthens the hypothesis that these subsets have different functional roles in the inflammatory response in dairy cows.
Deep Learning in Remote Sensing: A Comprehensive Review and List of Resources
Zhu, Xiao Xiang ; Tuia, Devis ; Mou, Lichao ; Xia, Gui-Song ; Zhang, Liangpei ; Xu, Feng ; Fraundorfer, Friedrich - \ 2017
IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine 5 (2017)4. - ISSN 2168-6831 - p. 8 - 36.
Central to the looming paradigm shift toward data-intensive science, machine-learning techniques are becoming increasingly important. In particular, deep learning has proven to be both a major breakthrough and an extremely powerful tool in many fields. Shall we embrace deep learning as the key to everything? Or should we resist a black-box solution? These are controversial issues within the remote-sensing community. In this article, we analyze the challenges of using deep learning for remote-sensing data analysis, review recent advances, and provide resources we hope will make deep learning in remote sensing seem ridiculously simple. More importantly, we encourage remote-sensing scientists to bring their expertise into deep learning and use it as an implicit general model to tackle unprecedented, large-scale, influential challenges, such as climate change and urbanization.
Counts of bovine monocyte subsets prior to calving are predictive for postpartum occurrence of mastitis and metritis
Pomeroy, Brianna ; Sipka, Anja ; Hussen, Jamal ; Eger, Melanie ; Schukken, Ynte ; Schuberth, Hans Joachim - \ 2017
Veterinary Research 48 (2017). - ISSN 0928-4249 - 11 p.

The heightened susceptibility to infectious diseases in postpartum dairy cows is often attributed to immune dysfunction associated with the transition period. However, the cell populations involved in this immune dysfunction and the dynamics between those populations are not well defined. Monocytes play a crucial role in governing initial immune response in bacterial infections. Bovine monocytes are subdivided in classical (CD14+/CD16-), intermediate (CD14+/CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14-/CD16+) with distinct phenotypic and functional differences. This study investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets counts in blood at 42 and 14 days prior to expected calving date to occurrence of metritis and mastitis within 2 weeks postpartum. In the enrolled prospective cohort of 27 German Holstein cows, housed at the Institute of Animal Nutrition of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute Braunschweig, Germany, n = 13 developed metritis and/or mastitis postpartum. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between prepartum cell counts of monocyte subsets and neutrophils with postpartum disease. Our model revealed that higher counts of the two CD14+ monocyte subsets were predictive of disease. In contrast, higher numbers of the CD14- monocyte subset were negatively associated with disease. Interestingly, the neutrophil count, a common hallmark for inflammatory response, was not associated with the outcome variable at either time point. The results indicate that the number and composition of monocyte subsets before calving are related to the susceptibility to infectious disease within 2 weeks postpartum. Furthermore the oppositional effect of CD14+ and CD14- subsets strengthens the hypothesis that these subsets have different functional roles in the inflammatory response in dairy cows.

Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks
Zemp, Delphine Clara ; Schleussner, Carl Friedrich ; Barbosa, Henrique M.J. ; Hirota, Marina ; Montade, Vincent ; Sampaio, Gilvan ; Staal, Arie ; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan ; Rammig, Anja - \ 2017
Nature Communications 8 (2017). - ISSN 2041-1723
Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation–atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss increases nonlinearly with dry-season intensification. We apply a novel complex-network approach, in which Amazon forest patches are linked by observation-based atmospheric water fluxes. Our results suggest that the risk of self-amplified forest loss is reduced with increasing heterogeneity in the response of forest patches to reduced rainfall. Under dry-season Amazonian rainfall reductions, comparable to Last Glacial Maximum conditions, additional forest loss due to self-amplified effects occurs in 10–13% of the Amazon basin. Although our findings do not indicate that the projected rainfall changes for the end of the twenty-first century will lead to complete Amazon dieback, they suggest that frequent extreme drought events have the potential to destabilize large parts of the Amazon forest.
Science and policy characteristics of the Paris Agreement temperature goal
Schleussner, Carl Friedrich ; Rogelj, Joeri ; Schaeffer, Michiel ; Lissner, Tabea ; Licker, Rachel ; Fischer, Erich M. ; Knutti, Reto ; Levermann, Anders ; Frieler, Katja ; Hare, William - \ 2016
Nature Climate Change 6 (2016)9. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 827 - 835.

The Paris Agreement sets a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, and pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here, we present an overview of science and policy aspects related to this goal and analyse the implications for mitigation pathways. We show examples of discernible differences in impacts between 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming. At the same time, most available low emission scenarios at least temporarily exceed the 1.5 °C limit before 2100. The legacy of temperature overshoots and the feasibility of limiting warming to 1.5 °C, or below, thus become central elements of a post-Paris science agenda. The near-term mitigation targets set by countries for the 2020-2030 period are insufficient to secure the achievement of the temperature goal. An increase in mitigation ambition for this period will determine the Agreement's effectiveness in achieving its temperature goal.

Differential climate impacts for policy-relevant limits to global warming : The case of 1.5 °c and 2 °c
Schleussner, Carl Friedrich ; Lissner, Tabea K. ; Fischer, Erich M. ; Wohland, Jan ; Perrette, Mahé ; Golly, Antonius ; Rogelj, Joeri ; Childers, Katelin ; Schewe, Jacob ; Frieler, Katja ; Mengel, Matthias ; Hare, William ; Schaeffer, Michiel - \ 2016
Earth System dynamics 7 (2016)2. - ISSN 2190-4979 - p. 327 - 351.

Robust appraisals of climate impacts at different levels of global-mean temperature increase are vital to guide assessments of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The 2015 Paris Agreement includes a two-headed temperature goal: "holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C". Despite the prominence of these two temperature limits, a comprehensive overview of the differences in climate impacts at these levels is still missing. Here we provide an assessment of key impacts of climate change at warming levels of 1.5 °C and 2 °C, including extreme weather events, water availability, agricultural yields, sea-level rise and risk of coral reef loss. Our results reveal substantial differences in impacts between a 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming that are highly relevant for the assessment of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. For heat-related extremes, the additional 0.5 °C increase in global-mean temperature marks the difference between events at the upper limit of present-day natural variability and a new climate regime, particularly in tropical regions. Similarly, this warming difference is likely to be decisive for the future of tropical coral reefs. In a scenario with an end-of-century warming of 2 °C, virtually all tropical coral reefs are projected to be at risk of severe degradation due to temperature-induced bleaching from 2050 onwards. This fraction is reduced to about 90 % in 2050 and projected to decline to 70 % by 2100 for a 1.5 °C scenario. Analyses of precipitation-related impacts reveal distinct regional differences and hot-spots of change emerge. Regional reduction in median water availability for the Mediterranean is found to nearly double from 9 % to 17 % between 1.5 °C and 2 °C, and the projected lengthening of regional dry spells increases from 7 to 11 %. Projections for agricultural yields differ between crop types as well as world regions. While some (in particular high-latitude) regions may benefit, tropical regions like West Africa, South-East Asia, as well as Central and northern South America are projected to face substantial local yield reductions, particularly for wheat and maize. Best estimate sea-level rise projections based on two illustrative scenarios indicate a 50 cm rise by 2100 relative to year 2000-levels for a 2 °C scenario, and about 10 cm lower levels for a 1.5 °C scenario. In a 1.5 °C scenario, the rate of sea-level rise in 2100 would be reduced by about 30 % compared to a 2 °C scenario. Our findings highlight the importance of regional differentiation to assess both future climate risks and different vulnerabilities to incremental increases in global-mean temperature. The article provides a consistent and comprehensive assessment of existing projections and a good basis for future work on refining our understanding of the difference between impacts at 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming.

Gemini T-0: passive acoustic monitoring and aerial surveys of harbour porpoises
Geelhoed, S.C.V. ; Friedrich, E. ; Joost, M. ; Juhre, H. ; Kirkwood, R.J. ; Leeuwen, P.W. van; Machiels, M.A.M. ; Stoeber, N. ; Verdaat, J.P. - \ 2015
Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C144/15) - 110
phocoenidae - akoestisch sporen - luchtkarteringen - monitoring - offshore - windmolenpark - noordzee - nederland - acoustic tracking - aerial surveys - wind farms - north sea - netherlands
In accordance with the monitoring and evaluation plan (MEP) for the ‘Gemini Offshore Wind Farm’ the ecological monitoring of harbour porpoises was carried out by IMARES and IBL Umweltplanung, concerning the distribution and numbers of harbour porpoises in and around the wind farm prior to construction (T-0). For this purpose aerial surveys as well as passive acoustic monitoring were performed.
Groundwater modeling in shales at a steep hill near Jena
Dijksma, R. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van; Bier, G. ; Jahr, T. - \ 2013
Bodenkultur 64 (2013)3-4. - ISSN 0006-5471 - p. 27 - 32.
Water flow and water storage in hill slopes have a strong interest in the hydrological scientific community. The use of the gravimetrical signal of superconducting gravimeters can help to understand water flow in such areas. At the Geodynamic Observatory Moxa of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany), the relation between hill slope hydrological processes and gravity residuals are investigated. For this purpose a linear reservoir model was developed to quantify canopy storage and storage changes in the unsaturated zone. A groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) was developed to quantify flow in fractured shales. Cross correlation showed significant gravimetrical response on heavy precipitation events after a dry period. The groundwater model simulated the expected flow patterns reasonably well.
My favourite flowering image
Koornneef, M. - \ 2013
Journal of Experimental Botany 64 (2013)18. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 5801 - 5803.
arabidopsis - mutants
I selected my favourite image from a paper by Professor Friedrich Laibach, the founder of Arabidopsis research. His paper from 1951 is the first paper dealing with natural variation for flowering time in this species, a topic many scientists including myself, have followed up and has resulted in large steps forward in our understanding of flowering time regulation. How this topic came to be of interest in my laboratory in Wageningen is described in this short overview
Functional Characteristics of an Endophyte Community Colonizing Rice Roots as Revealed by Metagenomic Analysis
Sessitsch, A. ; Hardoim, P.R. ; Doring, J. ; Weilharter, A. ; Krause, A. ; Woyke, T. ; Mitter, B. ; Hauberg-Lotte, L. ; Friedrich, F. ; Rahalkar, M. ; Hurek, T. ; Sarkar, A. ; Bodrossy, L. ; Overbeek, L.S. van; Brar, D. ; Elsas, J.D. ; Reinhold-Hurek, B. - \ 2012
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 25 (2012)1. - ISSN 0894-0282 - p. 28 - 36.
oryza-sativa l. - sp strain bh72 - microbial communities - bacterial endophytes - complete genome - rhizosphere - plant - sequence - nitrogen - growth
Roots are the primary site of interaction between plants and microorganisms. To meet food demands in changing climates, improved yields and stress resistance are increasingly important, stimulating efforts to identify factors that affect plant productivity. The role of bacterial endophytes that reside inside plants remains largely unexplored, because analysis of their specific functions is impeded by difficulties in cultivating most prokaryotes. Here, we present the first metagenomic approach to analyze an endophytic bacterial community resident inside roots of rice, one of the most important staple foods. Metagenome sequences were obtained from endophyte cells extracted from roots of field-grown plants. Putative functions were deduced from protein domains or similarity analyses of protein-encoding gene fragments, and allowed insights into the capacities of endophyte cells. This allowed us to predict traits and metabolic processes important for the endophytic lifestyle, suggesting that the endorhizosphere is an exclusive microhabitat requiring numerous adaptations. Prominent features included flagella, plant-polymer-degrading enzymes, protein secretion systems, iron acquisition and storage, quorum sensing, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Surprisingly, endophytes might be involved in the entire nitrogen cycle, as protein domains involved in N2-fixation, denitrification, and nitrification were detected and selected genes expressed. Our data suggest a high potential of the endophyte community for plant-growth promotion, improvement of plant stress resistance, biocontrol against pathogens, and bioremediation, regardless of their culturability.
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