Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Is the trend your friend? An analysis of technology 4.0 investment decisions in agricultural SMEs
Annosi, Maria Carmela ; Brunetta, Federica ; Monti, Alberto ; Nat, Francesco - \ 2019
Computers in Industry 109 (2019). - ISSN 0166-3615 - p. 59 - 71.
4.0 technologies adoption - Agri-food - Managerial capabilities - Managerial cognition - Managerial perception - Smart agriculture - SMEs

Smart Agriculture and 4.0 Technologies have brought several benefits to agricultural small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Nonetheless, the penetration of such digital technologies is still poor and slow. This study addresses the issue and provides some insights on the reasons related to the still limited adoption of 4.0 technologies within agricultural SMEs. Authors do not simply focus on the adoption per se, but rather devote attention to the SMEs owners/managers' subjective perception of the opportunity behind the technology adoption, and of the incentives or constraints given by the external environment as well as the organizational capabilities as embedded in the owners/managers’ skills and organizational routines. Authors analyze data collected by surveying 96 Italian agricultural SMEs owners/managers, and empirically confirm the relevance of managerial capabilities, managerial cognition, and managerial perception of the external environment for the adoption of 4.0 technologies in agricultural SMEs. The results of this research support the conclusion that organizational capabilities related to the search for evidence-based knowledge by the SME's decision-maker are crucial for the technology's adoption. In addition, we show the statistical significance of the managerial perception of technological usefulness and of the availability of a supporting business environment either in the form of professional services or institutional support, on the technology's adoption. The article ends by discussing the results and highlighting relevant managerial implications.

State-of-the-art global models underestimate impacts from climate extremes
Schewe, Jacob ; Gosling, Simon N. ; Reyer, Christopher ; Zhao, Fang ; Ciais, Philippe ; Elliott, Joshua ; Francois, Louis ; Huber, Veronika ; Lotze, Heike K. ; Seneviratne, Sonia I. ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. Van; Vautard, Robert ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Breuer, Lutz ; Büchner, Matthias ; Carozza, David A. ; Chang, Jinfeng ; Coll, Marta ; Deryng, Delphine ; Wit, Allard De; Eddy, Tyler D. ; Folberth, Christian ; Frieler, Katja ; Friend, Andrew D. ; Gerten, Dieter ; Gudmundsson, Lukas ; Hanasaki, Naota ; Ito, Akihiko ; Khabarov, Nikolay ; Kim, Hyungjun ; Lawrence, Peter ; Morfopoulos, Catherine ; Müller, Christoph ; Müller Schmied, Hannes ; Orth, René ; Ostberg, Sebastian ; Pokhrel, Yadu ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Sakurai, Gen ; Satoh, Yusuke ; Schmid, Erwin ; Stacke, Tobias ; Steenbeek, Jeroen ; Steinkamp, Jörg ; Tang, Qiuhong ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tittensor, Derek P. ; Volkholz, Jan ; Wang, Xuhui ; Warszawski, Lila - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723
Global impact models represent process-level understanding of how natural and human systems may be affected by climate change. Their projections are used in integrated assessments of climate change. Here we test, for the first time, systematically across many important systems, how well such impact models capture the impacts of extreme climate conditions. Using the 2003 European heat wave and drought as a historical analogue for comparable events in the future, we find that a majority of models underestimate the extremeness of impacts in important sectors such as agriculture, terrestrial ecosystems, and heat-related human mortality, while impacts on water resources and hydropower are overestimated in some river basins; and the spread across models is often large. This has important implications for economic assessments of climate change impacts that rely on these models. It also means that societal risks from future extreme events may be greater than previously thought.
The emerging accountability regimes for the Sustainable Development Goals and policy integration: Friend or foe?
Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; Dahl, A.L. ; Persson, Åsa - \ 2018
Bodem en Klimaat
Lesschen, Jan Peter - \ 2018
Forced gifts : The burden of being a friend
Bulte, Erwin ; Wang, Ruixin ; Zhang, Xiaobo - \ 2018
Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 155 (2018). - ISSN 0167-2681 - p. 79 - 98.
Gift Competition - Inequality - Reciprocity - Subjective well-being

In many developing countries, gift expenses escalate with income growth and account for a substantial share of household expenditure. We develop a theoretical model to demonstrate how (unequal) income growth may trigger “gift competition” and drive up the financial burden associated with gift exchange. We use unique census-type panel data from rural China to test our model predictions and demonstrate that (1) the value of gifts responds to the average gift in the community, (2) the escalation of gift giving may have adverse welfare implications (especially for the poor), and (3) escalating gift expenses crowd out expenditures on other consumption items.

The emerging accountability regimes for the Sustainable Development Goals and policy integration : Friend or foe?
Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia ; Dahl, Arthur L. ; Persson, Åsa - \ 2018
Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space 36 (2018)8. - ISSN 2399-6544 - p. 1371 - 1390.
Accountability - global - governance - integration - policy - sustainable development

The 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the full Agenda 2030 in which they are embedded are aspirational and intended to be both transformational and integrative in a number of ways. The need for integration across policy domains is stressed throughout the agenda. The Sustainable Development Goals are also accompanied by an emerging system for follow-up and review centered on a long list of indicators that are intended to enable countries to be accountable towards their citizens. There is, however, in the accountability literature indication that some accountability mechanisms can be counterproductive for integrative policies. This paper is centered around the question whether an accountability regime, and if so how, is compatible with a high degree of policy integration both conceptually and in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals. We approach this question through looking both at the literature on integrative governance and some of the central concepts it covers such as (environmental) policy integration and mainstreaming, and the accountability literature. This enables us to provide an analytical framework for evaluating the potential of the emerging accountability regimes for the Sustainable Development Goals to enhance more integrated policy making and action. We conclude that there are little or no strong hierarchical elements of accountability relationships at the global level which can be good news for more integrative policies – but only if there is a strong sense of shared responsibility among actors at all levels, available information on the types of behavioural efforts that support integration, and accountholders that take an active interest in integration. At the national level, there may be hierarchical accountability mechanisms with sanction possibilities that may discourage integration. Here, those who hold actors to account can counteract this if they have deeper understanding of the underlying interlinkages among the goals and targets, and based on this, engage in accountability mechanisms.

GLB na 2020: voorbij de patstelling (?)
Candel, Jeroen - \ 2017
GLB na 2020: voorbij de patstelling (?
Candel, Jeroen - \ 2017
Love food, hate the brand that I waste: The effects of product waste on brand evaluations
Herpen, E. van; Hooge, I.E. de - \ 2016
In 2010, the total generation of waste in the European Union amounted to 2 506 million tons (Eurostat). This represents a huge loss of resources and of ‘unused utility’: throwing away of functioning appliances, unused products, and edible foods. Yet, wasting is not a carefree activity for consumers. Consumers follow complex procedures in managing the residual value of discarded food items to lessen anxieties about wastage (Evans, 2012; Graham-Rowe et al., 2014; Parizeau et al., 2015). Moreover, a distaste for waste affects consumers’ choices, such as favoring options with less unused utility (Bolton and Alba, 2012) or persevering in a failing project when stopping would involve waste (Arkes, 1996). The current research provides insights into this contradiction between wasting a lot and not wanting to waste, and reveals the consequences of waste for brand evaluations.

Waste and brand evaluations

Waste can be understood as the result of not using a product to its full capacity. Whereas both throwing away a food container that still holds leftovers and throwing away an emptied food container would lead to the generation of waste, there is an important difference in the unused utility that is wasted, in this example in the form of uneaten food. This salient unused utility is aversive for consumers (Bolton and Alba, 2012). According to cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957), the occurrence of “nonfitting” relations among cognitive elements (which could entail attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors) is unpleasant and leads to psychological discomfort (also termed dissonance). Thus, consumers would like to solve this dissonance in the current waste situation. Because attitudes can be altered more easily than previously displayed behaviors, attitude change is a common way in which people reduce dissonance (Galinsky et al., 2008; Simon et al., 1995; Starzyk et al., 2009). Therefore, we expect that wasting a product with left-over utility would generate cognitive dissonance, and that this dissonance would be solved by decreasing evaluations of the wasted brand.

Importantly, when a product with left-over utility is discarded, the left-over utility is not necessarily wasted. Different disposition behaviors are possible: throwing it away, giving it away, trading it, and selling it (Jacoby et al., 1977). If unused utility can be transferred to another person, the level of psychological discomfort should be lower than if unused utility is lost. Thus, we expect that wasting a product with left-over utility leads to more cognitive dissonance and more decreased brand evaluations than other ways of disposing a product.

Finally, the predicted effect should depend on brand salience. Dissonance reduction through brand evaluations should be less likely when the brand itself is not salient when wasting the product (i.e., when the brand is not visible, and there is thus no reminder of the brand name).


We tested our hypotheses in four studies. The first three studies were scenario studies. Study 1 examined the effect of different ways of disposing products on dissonance feelings. Results showed that wasting a product (irrespective of whether it was thrown away or recycled) lead to more dissonance than transferring utility to another person (irrespective of whether the product was used in its original intended purpose). Study 2 tested the effects of wasting on brand evaluations. Respondents imagined that they had purchased a drink they could not consume entirely, and that they either threw the remaining product in the bin (waste condition) or gave it to a friend (no-waste condition). Brand evaluations were lower in the waste condition than in the no-waste condition. Study 3 ruled out alternative explanations (transfer of disgust, cf. Morales and Fitzsimons, 2007, and attribution of waste to the brand).

Study 4 investigated waste in a situation with real product consumption, to generalize our results beyond imagined situations. It also tested the moderating effect of brand salience. Respondents prepared and ate a salad in the lab. In the brand-salient condition, product containers with the same brand name were placed next to bowls with ingredients, whereas in the brand-not-salient condition only unlabeled bowls were provided. In both conditions, respondents were aware of the brand through the instructions. The amount of ingredients provided ensured that there were leftover ingredients. As dissonance is more likely when people believe that they freely choose their behavior (Harmon-Jones, 2000), in the waste condition respondents could ask for sandwich bags to take leftover ingredients home or put leftover ingredients in a bin (only six respondents asked for bags). In the no-waste condition, respondents could take leftover ingredients home or leave these on the table for future respondents (none took ingredients home). All participants then evaluated the brand.

Our results showed the expected waste x salience interaction effect (F(1, 120) = 5.32, p = .023). When the brand was not salient, wasting did not affect brand evaluations (p = .156). In contrast, when brand was salient, brand evaluations were marginally higher when ingredients were left on the table (M = 5.19) than when these were wasted (M = 4.75, p = .069). Mediation analyses showed that dissonance was a mediator when salience was high (b = 0.27, CI [0.05, 0.58]) but not when salience was low (b = 0.13, CI [-0.15, 0.48]).

General discussion

Our research shows that consumers can reduce dissonance from wasting a product with unused utility by decreasing their brand evaluations. This was found both in scenario studies and in a food consumption context. Results furthermore reveal that brand devaluation does not occur when the brand is not salient at the moment of wasting. This provides new insights to literature on consumer disposition behavior that help clarify the paradox in which consumers both waste products and do not want to waste. It also has important managerial implications. The realization that brand evaluations suffer when consumers waste products with unused utility could inspire companies to spend additional efforts on preventing this. It also provides brand managers with compelling arguments to tackle the waste issue.
Chemical dispersants : Oil biodegradation friend or foe?
Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat ; Smit, Martijn P.J. ; Murk, Albertinka J. ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. ; Langenhoff, Alette A.M. - \ 2016
Marine Pollution Bulletin 108 (2016)1-2. - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 113 - 119.
Biodegradation - Dispersant - Enhanced dissolution - Oil spill

Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodegradation by alkane and/or aromatic degrading bacterial culture in artificial seawater at different dispersant to oil ratios (DORs). Our results show that dispersant addition did not enhance oil biodegradation. At DOR 1:20, biodegradation was inhibited, especially when only the alkane degrading culture was present. With a combination of cultures, this inhibition was overcome after 10. days. This indicates that initial inhibition of oil biodegradation can be overcome when different bacteria are present in the environment. We conclude that the observed inhibition is related to the enhanced dissolution of aromatic compounds into the water, inhibiting the alkane degrading bacteria.

The new green revolution : Bridging the gap between science and society
Fresco, Louise O. - \ 2015
Current Science 109 (2015)3. - ISSN 0011-3891 - p. 430 - 438.
Agricultural yield revolution - Burgeoning population - Evergreen revolution - Social contract of science - Swaminathan in wageningen

By combining scientific excellence with social involvement, M. S. Swaminathan has put himself in the tradition of the great agricultural researchers such as Von Liebich, Vavilov, De Vries, Haber and his friend and colleague Norman Borlaug that have defeated the Spectre of Malthus. His ability to use his knowledge and insights to find solutions for complex social problems made him one of the founding fathers of the Green Revolution. And one of the first that saw the drawbacks of the extensive use of water, fertilizer and pesticides that came along with it. He became a staunch advocate for the Evergreen Revolution towards an eco-friendly, resource-poor, sustainable agriculture that is based on science and technology and aims for nutrition security for all. Challenged with the perspective of feeding 9 or 10 billion people with sufficient and nutritious food and producing enough raw materials for the developing bio-based economy we have to keep on learning by doing research and combining its results with the experience of farmers and others. Yet there seems to be a lack of belief - at least in Europe - in human learning; a general distrust in science, which might lead to paralysis in agricultural development. Hence the biggest challenge is to bridge the gap between the sciences and society and to engage society in the development of science to meet the challenges of tomorrow.

Genetic modification: friend or foe?
Lotz, Bert - \ 2014
Do large-scale models capture reported drought events?
Huijgevoort, M.H.J. van; Lanen, H.A.J. van; Teuling, A.J. ; Uijlenhoet, R. - \ 2014
In: Proceedings of FRIEND-Water 2014: Hydrology in Changing World: Environment and Human Dimensions. - IAHS (IAHS publication 363) - p. 66 - 71.
Large-scale hydrological models are used to determine drought on a global scale. However, it is important to know how well these large-scale models can reproduce major drought events in the past before projections can be made. This study presents a comparison between a multi-model ensemble and reported drought events in the literature to assess the performance of large-scale models. Major drought events in the selected period (1963–2000) were reproduced by the model ensemble median, although the duration and spatial extent differed substantially from reported events. The major drought events are caused by precipitation deficits linked to oscillations in climatic patterns, such as ENSO. This implies that major drought events were simulated if these were included in the forcing data. Spatial extent and duration of simulated drought events differed from extent and duration of reported ones due to a fast runoff response in some models.
Performance of Orius insidiosus after storage, exposure to dispersal material, handling and shipment processes
Bueno, V.H.P. ; Carvalho, L.M. ; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2014
Bulletin of Insectology 67 (2014)2. - ISSN 1721-8861 - p. 175 - 183.
augmentative biological-control - sauteri poppius heteroptera - hemiptera anthocoridae - natural enemies - say hemiptera - cold-storage - reproduction - predator - temperature - arthropods
Storage, handling and shipment procedures are important factors influencing the quality of biological control agents. This study aimed to evaluate biological parameters and performance of Orius insidiosus (Say) after different storage periods at low temperatures, after exposure to different dispersal materials in containers, and after handling the predator during the shipment and delivery processes. Storage periods were 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 days at temperatures of 5, 8, 10 and 12 ± 1 °C, RH 70 ± 10% and under continuous scotophase. A mix of 75% adults and 25% 5th instar nymphs of O. insidiosus was kept in plastic containers (200 mL) for a 72 h period, supplied with eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) as food, farmer’s friend inflorescence (Bidens pilosa L.) as oviposition substrate and source of moisture, and one of the following dispersal materials: vermiculite + rice hulls (1:1), vermiculite, folded paper towels, sawdust, and coffee husk. Also, similar mixes of nymphs and adults were exposed to a 72 h shipment and delivery process. We found that O. insidiosus can be stored up to 10 days at 8 °C without loss of quality. Interestingly, storage of mated female predators results in a much higher fecundity post-storage than storage of virgin females. Vermiculite + rice hulls was by far the best dispersal material, and shipment of the predators by post during 72 h in Styrofoam boxes with plastic containers with vermiculite + rice hulls and A. kuehniella eggs did not negatively affect their survival and predation capacity. Our results can be used in planning mass-rearing and shipment, and to improve the quality of the predator O. insidiosus by using the right storage temperature, storage period and dispersal material.
Evidence for new hydrological drought types: do regime changes lead to fewer or more droughts in monsoon and snow climates?
Loon, A. van; Huijgevoort, M.H.J. van; Lanen, H.A.J. van; Tikue, Y. - \ 2014
We normally see hydrological drought as a period of low streamflow and/or groundwater levels caused by a long lack of rainfall in the summer period, combined with high temperatures and high evaporation. But there are more mechanisms underlying hydrological drought development, which encouraged Van Loon and Van Lanen (2012) to define six hydrological drought types. In some of these types low temperatures play an important role in the development of hydrological drought through the lack of recharge to the groundwater system due to the accumulation of snow. From studying time series of hydrometeorological variables of catchments in cold climates and monsoon climates, we now found evidence for hydrological drought types that were not studied before. Analysis of drought events in selected catchments in Ethiopia showed that variability in the start of the monsoon leads to hydrological droughts that can last throughout the wet season. Analysis of drought events in rivers in high Northern latitudes showed that a lack of snowfall in the winter season leads to a drought during the snow melt period. This is crucial for water resources management, because the snow melt period is needed to fill up reservoirs. From recent climate research there is some confidence that global warming will lead to a regime change in both hydroclimatic regions. Snowmelt peaks are expected to be earlier and lower and the variability of the start of the monsoon will increase in the future. The consequence is that the hydrological drought types mentioned above will occur more often. This might cause serious problems as societies have adjusted to the occurrence of peak flow of a certain magnitude in a certain period
Presentation on FRIEND-Water: Overview of a global hydrological research program. 11th Steering Committee meeting Global Runoff Data Centre,10-12 June 2013
Lanen, Henny van - \ 2013
Friend or foe: genetic and functional characterization of plant endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Kumar, A. ; Munder, A. ; Aravind, R. ; Eapen, S.J. ; Tümmler, B. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. - \ 2013
Environmental Microbiology 15 (2013)3. - ISSN 1462-2912 - p. 764 - 779.
iii secretion system - fluorescent pseudomonas - population-structure - opportunistic pathogen - biological-control - swarming motility - botrytis-cinerea - salicylic-acid - lung infection - diversity
Endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BP35 was originally isolated from black pepper grown in the rain forest in Kerala, India. Strain PaBP35 was shown to provide significant protection to black pepper against infections by Phytophthora capsici and Radopholus similis. For registration and implementation in disease management programmes, several traits of PaBP35 were investigated including its endophytic behaviour, biocontrol activity, phylogeny and toxicity to mammals. The results showed that PaBP35 efficiently colonized black pepper shoots and displayed a typical spatiotemporal pattern in its endophytic movement with concomitant suppression of Phytophthora rot. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed high populations of PaBP35::gfp2 inside tomato plantlets, supporting its endophytic behaviour in other plant species. Polyphasic approaches to genotype PaBP35, including BOX-PCR, recN sequence analysis, multilocus sequence typing and comparative genome hybridization analysis, revealed its uniqueness among P.¿aeruginosa strains representing clinical habitats. However, like other P.¿aeruginosa strains, PaBP35 exhibited resistance to antibiotics, grew at 25–41°C and produced rhamnolipids and phenazines. PaBP35 displayed strong type II secretion effectors-mediated cytotoxicity on mammalian A549 cells. Coupled with pathogenicity in a murine airway infection model, we conclude that this plant endophytic strain is as virulent as clinical P.¿aeruginosa strains. Safety issues related to the selection of plant endophytic bacteria for crop protection are discussed.
Global multi-model hydrological drought analysis using a generic identification method
Huijgevoort, Marjolein van - \ 2012
Foreword in proceedings of the MED-FRIEND conference
Lanen, H.A.J. van; Demuth, S. - \ 2012
Ideas on using knowledge of climate and catchment control on drought propagation around the world to predict hydrological drought development in ungauged basins
Loon, Anne van - \ 2012
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