Selecting methods for ecosystem service assessment : A decision tree approach
Harrison, Paula A. ; Dunford, Rob ; Barton, David N. ; Kelemen, Eszter ; Martín-López, Berta ; Norton, Lisa ; Termansen, Mette ; Saarikoski, Heli ; Hendriks, Kees ; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik ; Czúcz, Bálint ; García-Llorente, Marina ; Howard, David ; Jacobs, Sander ; Karlsen, Martin ; Kopperoinen, Leena ; Madsen, Andes ; Rusch, Graciela M. ; Eupen, Michiel van; Verweij, Peter ; Smith, Ron ; Tuomasjukka, Diana ; Zulian, Grazia - \ 2018
Ecosystem Services 29 (2018)pt. C. - ISSN 2212-0416 - p. 481 - 498.
Biophysical - Decision trees - Guidance - Method - Monetary - Socio-cultural - Tool
A range of methods are available for assessing ecosystem services. Methods differ in their aims; from mapping and modelling the supply and demand of ecosystem services to appraising their economic and non-economic importance through valuation techniques. Comprehensive guidance for the selection of appropriate ecosystem service assessment methods that address the requirements of different decision-making contexts is lacking. This paper tackles this gap using the experience from 27 case studies which applied different biophysical, socio-cultural and monetary valuation methods to operationalise the ecosystem service concept towards sustainable land, water and urban management. A survey of the reasons why the case study teams selected particular methods revealed that stakeholder-oriented reasons, such as stakeholder participation, inclusion of local knowledge and ease of communication, and decision-oriented reasons, such as the purpose of the case study and the ecosystem services at stake, were key considerations in selecting a method. Pragmatic reasons such as available data, resources and expertise were also important factors. This information was used to develop a set of linked decision trees, which aim to provide guidance to researchers and practitioners in choosing ecosystem service assessment methods that are suitable for their context.
The sponge microbiome project
Moitinho-Silva, Lucas ; Nielsen, Shaun ; Amir, Amnon ; Gonzalez, Antonio ; Ackermann, Gail L. ; Cerrano, Carlo ; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen ; Easson, Cole ; Sipkema, Detmer ; Liu, Fang ; Steinert, Georg ; Kotoulas, Giorgos ; McCormack, Grace P. ; Feng, Guofang ; Bell, James J. ; Vicente, Jan ; Björk, Johannes R. ; Montoya, Jose M. ; Olson, Julie B. ; Reveillaud, Julie ; Steindler, Laura ; Pineda, Mari Carmen ; Marra, Maria V. ; Ilan, Micha ; Taylor, Michael W. ; Polymenakou, Paraskevi ; Erwin, Patrick M. ; Schupp, Peter J. ; Simister, Rachel L. ; Knight, Rob ; Thacker, Robert W. ; Costa, Rodrigo ; Hill, Russell T. ; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna ; Dailianis, Thanos ; Ravasi, Timothy ; Hentschel, Ute ; Li, Zhiyong ; Webster, Nicole S. ; Thomas, Torsten - \ 2017
GigaScience 6 (2017)10. - ISSN 2047-217X
16S rRNA gene - Archaea - Bacteria - Marine sponges - Microbial diversity - Microbiome - Symbiosis
Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the microbial communities of a limited number of sponge species, severely limiting comparative analyses of sponge microbial diversity and structure. Here, we provide an extensive and standardised dataset that will facilitate sponge microbiome comparisons across large spatial, temporal, and environmental scales. Samples from marine sponges (n = 3569 specimens), seawater (n = 370), marine sediments (n = 65) and other environments (n = 29) were collected from different locations across the globe. This dataset incorporates at least 268 different sponge species, including several yet unidentified taxa. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from extracted DNA using standardised procedures. Raw sequences (total of 1.1 billion sequences) were processed and clustered with (i) a standard protocol using QIIME closed-reference picking resulting in 39 543 operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 97% sequence identity, (ii) a de novo clustering using Mothur resulting in 518 246 OTUs, and (iii) a new high-resolution Deblur protocol resulting in 83 908 unique bacterial sequences. Abundance tables, representative sequences, taxonomic classifications, and metadata are provided. This dataset represents a comprehensive resource of sponge-associated microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequences that can be used to address overarching hypotheses regarding host-associated prokaryotes, including host specificity, convergent evolution, environmental drivers of microbiome structure, and the sponge-associated rare biosphere.
System-wide Benefits of Intermeal Fasting by Autophagy
Martinez-Lopez, Nuria ; Tarabra, Elena ; Toledo, Miriam ; Garcia-Macia, Marina ; Sahu, Srabani ; Coletto, Luisa ; Batista-Gonzalez, Ana ; Barzilai, Nir ; Pessin, Jeffrey E. ; Schwartz, Gary J. ; Kersten, Sander ; Singh, Rajat - \ 2017
Cell Metabolism 26 (2017)6. - ISSN 1550-4131 - p. 856 - 871.e5.
Aging - Autophagy - Caloric restriction - Circadian - Fatty liver - Gluconeogenesis - Metabolic syndrome - Myogenic progenitors - POMC - Twice-a-day feeding
Autophagy failure is associated with metabolic insufficiency. Although caloric restriction (CR) extends healthspan, its adherence in humans is poor. We established an isocaloric twice-a-day (ITAD) feeding model wherein ITAD-fed mice consume the same food amount as ad libitum controls but at two short windows early and late in the diurnal cycle. We hypothesized that ITAD feeding will provide two intervals of intermeal fasting per circadian period and induce autophagy. We show that ITAD feeding modifies circadian autophagy and glucose/lipid metabolism that correlate with feeding-driven changes in circulating insulin. ITAD feeding decreases adiposity and, unlike CR, enhances muscle mass. ITAD feeding drives energy expenditure, lowers lipid levels, suppresses gluconeogenesis, and prevents age/obesity-associated metabolic defects. Using liver-, adipose-, myogenic-, and proopiomelanocortin neuron-specific autophagy-null mice, we mapped the contribution of tissue-specific autophagy to system-wide benefits of ITAD feeding. Our studies suggest that consuming two meals a day without CR could prevent the metabolic syndrome. Our studies suggest that consuming two meals a day with complete food restriction in between the meals is sufficient to lower blood glucose and lipid levels. This simple dietary approach activates a cell “cleansing system“ called autophagy in liver, fat, brain, and muscle that helps prevent obesity and diabetes.
Seasonal drought limits tree species across the Neotropics
Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Steege, Hans ter; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel ; Brienen, Roel ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Pitman, Nigel ; Alonso, Alfonso ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Ahuite, Manuel ; Alexiaides, Miguel ; Álvarez Dávila, Esteban ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Aulestia, Milton ; Balslev, Henrik ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Boot, Rene ; Cano, Angela ; Chama Moscoso, Victor ; Comiskey, James A. ; Cornejo, Fernando ; Dallmeier, Francisco ; Daly, Douglas C. ; Dávila, Nallarett ; Duivenvoorden, Joost F. ; Duque Montoya, Alvaro Javier ; Erwin, Terry ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Fredericksen, Todd ; Fuentes, Alfredo ; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt ; Gonzales, Therany ; Guevara Andino, Juan Ernesto ; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N. ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Mogollón, Hugo ; Jørgensen, Peter Møller ; Montero, Juan Carlos ; Mostacedo, Bonifacio ; Nauray, William ; Neill, David ; Vargas, Percy Núñez ; Palacios, Sonia ; Palacios Cuenca, Walter ; Pallqui Camacho, Nadir Carolina ; Peacock, Julie ; Phillips, Juan Fernando ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Quesada, Carlos Alberto ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Restrepo, Zorayda ; Reynel Rodriguez, Carlos ; Paredes, Marcos Ríos ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silveira, Marcos ; Stevenson, Pablo ; Stropp, Juliana ; Terborgh, John ; Tirado, Milton ; Toledo, Marisol ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umaña, María Natalia ; Urrego, Ligia Estela ; Vasquez Martinez, Rodolfo ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Vela, César I.A. ; Vilanova Torre, Emilio ; Vos, Vincent ; Hildebrand, Patricio von; Vriesendorp, Corine ; Wang, Ophelia ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zartman, Charles Eugene ; Phillips, Oliver L. - \ 2017
Ecography 40 (2017)5. - ISSN 0906-7590 - p. 618 - 629.
Within the tropics, the species richness of tree communities is strongly and positively associated with precipitation. Previous research has suggested that this macroecological pattern is driven by the negative effect of water-stress on the physiological processes of most tree species. This implies that the range limits of inventory plots of closed canopy forest distributed across the western Neotropics taxa are defined by their ability to occur under dry conditions, and thus in terms of species distributions predicts a nested pattern of taxa distribution from wet to dry areas. However, this 'dry-tolerance' hypothesis has yet to be adequately tested at large spatial and taxonomic scales. Here, using a dataset of 531 we investigated how precipitation, evaluated both as mean annual precipitation and as the maximum climatological water deficit, influences the distribution of tropical tree species, genera and families. We find that the distributions of tree taxa are indeed nested along precipitation gradients in the western Neotropics. Taxa tolerant to seasonal drought are disproportionally widespread across the precipitation gradient, with most reaching even the wettest climates sampled; however, most taxa analysed are restricted to wet areas. Our results suggest that the 'dry tolerance' hypothesis has broad applicability in the world's most species-rich forests. In addition, the large number of species restricted to wetter conditions strongly indicates that an increased frequency of drought could severely threaten biodiversity in this region. Overall, this study establishes a baseline for exploring how tropical forest tree composition may change in response to current and future environmental changes in this region.
Tracking pan-continental trends in environmental contamination using sentinel raptors—what types of samples should we use?
Espín, S. ; García-Fernández, A.J. ; Herzke, D. ; Shore, R.F. ; Hattum, B. van; Martínez-López, E. ; Coeurdassier, M. ; Eulaers, I. ; Fritsch, C. ; Gómez-Ramírez, P. ; Jaspers, V.L.B. ; Krone, O. ; Duke, G. ; Helander, B. ; Mateo, R. ; Movalli, P. ; Sonne, C. ; Den Brink, N.W. van - \ 2016
Ecotoxicology (2016). - ISSN 0963-9292 - p. 777 - 801.
Bird of prey - Contaminant - Matrix - Monitoring - Sample type
Biomonitoring using birds of prey as sentinel species has been mooted as a way to evaluate the success of European Union directives that are designed to protect people and the environment across Europe from industrial contaminants and pesticides. No such pan-European evaluation currently exists. Coordination of such large scale monitoring would require harmonisation across multiple countries of the types of samples collected and analysed-matrices vary in the ease with which they can be collected and the information they provide. We report the first ever pan-European assessment of which raptor samples are collected across Europe and review their suitability for biomonitoring. Currently, some 182 monitoring programmes across 33 European countries collect a variety of raptor samples, and we discuss the relative merits of each for monitoring current priority and emerging compounds. Of the matrices collected, blood and liver are used most extensively for quantifying trends in recent and longer-term contaminant exposure, respectively. These matrices are potentially the most effective for pan-European biomonitoring but are not so widely and frequently collected as others. We found that failed eggs and feathers are the most widely collected samples. Because of this ubiquity, they may provide the best opportunities for widescale biomonitoring, although neither is suitable for all compounds. We advocate piloting pan-European monitoring of selected priority compounds using these matrices and developing read-across approaches to accommodate any effects that trophic pathway and species differences in accumulation may have on our ability to track environmental trends in contaminants.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis induces strigolactone biosynthesis under drought and improves drought tolerance in lettuce and tomato
Ruiz-Lozano, J.M. ; Aroca, R. ; Zamarreno, A.M. ; Molina, S. ; Andreo Jimenez, B. ; Porcel, R. ; Garcia-Mina, J.M. ; Ruyter-Spira, C.P. ; Lopez-Raez, J.A. - \ 2016
Plant, Cell & Environment 39 (2016)2. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 441 - 452.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis alleviates drought stress in plants. However, the intimate mechanisms involved, as well as its effect on the production of signalling molecules associated with the host plant–AM fungus interaction remains largely unknown. In the present work, the effects of drought on lettuce and tomato plant performance and hormone levels were investigated in non-AM and AM plants. Three different water regimes were applied, and their effects were analysed over time. AMplants showed an improved growth rate and efficiency of photosystem II than non-AM plants under drought from very early stages of plant colonization. The levels of the phytohormone abscisic acid, as well as the expression of the correspondingmarker genes, were influenced by drought stress in non-AMandAMplants. The levels of strigolactones and the expression of corresponding marker genes were affected by both AM symbiosis and drought. The results suggest that AM symbiosis alleviates drought stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. In addition, a correlation between AM root colonization, strigolactone levels and drought severity is shown, suggesting that under these unfavourable conditions, plants might increase strigolactone production in order to promote symbiosis establishment to cope with the stress.
Characterisation of cell-wall polysaccharides from mandarin segment membranes
Coll-Almela, L. ; Saura-Lopez, D. ; Laencina-Sanchez, J. ; Schols, H.A. ; Voragen, A.G.J. ; Ros-García, J.M. - \ 2015
Food Chemistry 175 (2015). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 36 - 42.
hairy ramified regions - cross-flow filtration - pectolytic enzyme - citrus-fruit - pectins - degradation - extraction - skin - rhamnogalacturonase - populations
In an attempt to develop a process of enzymatic peeling of mandarin segments suitable for use on an industrial scale, the cell wall fraction of the segment membrane of Satsuma mandarin fruits was extracted to obtain a chelating agent-soluble pectin fraction (ChSS), a dilute sodium hydroxide-soluble pectin fraction (DASS), a 1 M sodium hydroxide-soluble hemicellulose fraction (1MASS), a 4 M sodium hydroxide-soluble hemicellulose fraction (4MASS) and a cellulose-rich residue (3.1, 0.9, 0.4, 0.7 and 1.6% w/w of fresh membrane, respectively). The ChSS pectin consisted mainly of galacturonic acid followed by arabinose and galactose. The DASS fraction contained less galacturonic acid and more neutral sugars than ChSS. Eighty-nine percent of the galacturonic acid present in the segment membranes was recovered in the above two pectin fractions. The two hemicellulosic fractions consisted of two different molecular weight populations, which also differed in their sugar composition. Arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose were the main sugar constituents of these hemicellulose fractions. In addition to an (arabino)xylan and a xyloglucan, the presence of an arabinogalactan is suggested by the sugar composition of both hemicelluloses. The pectin fractions were also characterised by their degradability by the pectic enzymes polygalacturonase, pectinmethylesterase and rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase. However the degree of degradation of the pectin fractions by enzymes differed, and the amount of the polymeric materials resistant to further degradation and the oligomeric products also differed. Using pectic enzymes it is possible to obtain peeled mandarin segments ready to eat or for canning.
Identification in residue analysis based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: Experimental evidence to update performance criteria
Mol, J.G.J. ; Zomer, P. ; Garcia Lopez, M. ; Fussell, R.J. ; Scholten, J. ; dr. Kok, A. ; Wolheim, A. ; Anastassiades, M. ; Lozano, A. ; Fernandez Alba, A. - \ 2015
Analytica Chimica Acta 873 (2015). - ISSN 0003-2670 - p. 1 - 13.
mycotoxin analysis - veterinary drugs - food - confirmation - extraction - pesticides - matrices
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is one of the most widely used techniques for identification (and quantification) of residues and contaminants across a number of different chemical domains. Although the same analytical technique is used, the parameters and criteria for identification vary depending on where in the world the analysis is performed and for what purpose (e.g. determination of pesticides, veterinary drugs, forensic toxicology, sports doping). The rationale for these differences is not clear and in most cases the criteria are essentially based on expert opinions rather than underpinned by experimental data. In the current study, the variability of the two key identification parameters, retention time and ion ratio, was assessed and compared against requirements set out in different legal and guidance documents. The study involved the analysis of 120 pesticides, representing various chemical classes, polarities, molecular weights, and detector response factors, in 21 different fruit and vegetable matrices of varying degrees of complexity. The samples were analysed non-fortified, and fortified at 10, 50 and 200µgkg(-1), in five laboratories using different LC-MS/MS instruments and conditions. In total, over 135,000 extracted-ion chromatograms were manually verified to provide an extensive data set for the assessment. The experimental data do not support relative tolerances for retention time, or different tolerances for ion ratios depending on relative abundance of the two product ions measured. Retention times in today's chromatographic systems are sufficiently stable to justify an absolute tolerance of ±0.1min. Ion ratios are stable as long as sufficient response is obtained for both product ions. Ion ratio deviations are typically within ±20% (relative), and within ±45% (relative) in case the response of product ions are close to the limit of detection. Ion ratio tolerances up to 50% did not result in false positives and reduced the false negative rate for pesticides with product ions in the low S/N range to
Construction and validation of a mCherry protein vector for promoter analysis in Lactobacillus acidophilus
Mohedano, M.L. ; Garcia-Cayuela, T. ; Perez-Ramos, A. ; Gaiser, R.A. ; Requena, T. ; Lopez, P. - \ 2015
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 42 (2015)2. - ISSN 1367-5435 - p. 247 - 253.
lactic-acid bacteria - controlled gene-expression - streptococcus-pneumoniae - lactococcus-lactis - plasmid - cloning
Lactobacilli are widespread in natural environments and are increasingly being investigated as potential health modulators. In this study, we have adapted the broad-host-range vector pNZ8048 to express the mCherry protein (pRCR) to expand the usage of the mCherry protein for analysis of gene expression in Lactobacillus. This vector is also able to replicate in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The usage of pRCR as a promoter probe was validated in Lactobacillus acidophilus by characterizing the regulation of lactacin B expression. The results show that the regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level, with lbaB gene expression being specifically induced by co-culture of the L. acidophilus bacteriocin producer and the S. thermophilus STY-31 inducer bacterium.
An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe
Gomez-Ramirez, P. ; Shore, R.F. ; Brink, N.W. van den; Hattum, B. van; Bustnes, J.O. ; Duke, G. ; Fritsch, C. ; Garcia-Fernandez, A.J. ; Helander, B.O. ; Jaspers, V. ; Krone, O. ; Martinez-Lopez, E. ; Mateo, R. ; Movalli, P. ; Sonne, C. - \ 2014
Environment International 67 (2014). - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 12 - 21.
brominated flame retardants - eagles haliaeetus-albicilla - kestrel falco-tinnunculus - white-tailed eagles - long-term trends - environmental contaminants - organochlorine pesticides - southeastern spain - accipiter-gentilis - biomonitoring tool
Biomonitoring using raptors as sentinels can provide early warning of the potential impacts of contaminants on humans and the environment and also a means of tracking the success of associated mitigation measures. Examples include detection of heavy metal-induced immune system impairment, PCB-induced altered reproductive impacts, and toxicity associated with lead in shot game. Authorisation of such releases and implementation of mitigation is now increasingly delivered through EU-wide directives but there is little established pan-European monitoring to quantify outcomes. We investigated the potential for EU-wide coordinated contaminant monitoring using raptors as sentinels. We did this using a questionnaire to ascertain the current scale of national activity across 44 European countries. According to this survey, there have been 52 different contaminant monitoring schemes with raptors over the last 50 years. There were active schemes in 15 (predominantly western European) countries and 23 schemes have been running for > 20 years; most monitoring was conducted for > 5 years. Legacy persistent organic compounds (specifically organochlorine insecticides and PCBs), and metals/metalloids were monitored in most of the 15 countries. Fungicides, flame retardants and anticoagulant rodenticides were also relatively frequently monitored (each in at least 6 countries). Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba) were most commonly monitored (each in 6–10 countries). Feathers and eggs were most widely analysed although many schemes also analysed body tissues. Our study reveals an existing capability across multiple European countries for contaminant monitoring using raptors. However, coordination between existing schemes and expansion of monitoring into Eastern Europe is needed. This would enable assessment of the appropriateness of the EU-regulation of substances that are hazardous to humans and the environment, the effectiveness of EU level mitigation policies, and identify pan-European spatial and temporal trends in current and emerging contaminants of concern.
A Triple P review of the feasibility of sustainable offshore seaweed production in the North Sea
Burg, S.W.K. van den; Stuiver, M. ; Veenstra, F.A. ; Bikker, P. ; Lopez Contreras, A.M. ; Palstra, A.P. ; Broeze, J. ; Jansen, H.M. ; Jak, R.G. ; Gerritsen, A.L. ; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Kals, J. ; Blanco Garcia, A. ; Brandenburg, W.A. ; Krimpen, M.M. van; Duijn, A.P. van; Mulder, W.J. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (LEI report 13-077) - ISBN 9789086156528 - 108
zeewieren - laminaria - zeewierenteelt - zeeproducten - voer - voedingsstoffen - noordzee - biobased economy - seaweeds - laminaria - seaweed culture - marine products - feeds - nutrients - north sea - biobased economy
This study focused on the potential of seaweed, cultivated in the North Sea, as a sustainable and profitable resource for feed and non-food applications. Seawood production can take place as part of multi-use platforms at sea (MUPS). A review of the state-of-the-art in seaweed production and its applications. Various economic, ecological and social challenges are identified, which need to be addressed to utilise this potential.
Fluorescent protein vectors for promoter analysis in lactic acid bacteria and Escherichia coli
García-Cayuela, T. ; Cadiñanos, L.P. de; Mohedano, M.L. ; Palencia, P.F. de; Boden, D. ; Wells, J. ; Peláez, C. ; López, P. ; Requena, T. - \ 2012
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 96 (2012)1. - ISSN 0175-7598 - p. 171 - 181.
lactococcus-lactis - streptococcus-pneumoniae - genetic tools - in-vitro - green - cremoris - red - transformation - expression - faecalis
Fluorescent reporter genes are valuable tools for real-time monitoring of gene expression in living cells. In this study we describe the construction of novel promoter-probe vectors containing a synthetic mCherry fluorescent protein gene, codon-optimized for lactic acid bacteria, divergently linked, or not, to a gene encoding the S65T and F64L variant of the green fluorescent protein. The utility of the transcriptional fusion vectors was demonstrated by the cloning of a single or two divergent promoter regions and by the quantitative evaluation of fluorescence during growth of Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli.
Organohalogen exposure in a Eurasian owl (Bubo bubo) population from Southeastern Spain: Temporal-spatial trends and risk assessment
Gomez-Ramirez, P. ; Martinez-Lopez, E. ; Garcia-Fernandez, A. ; Zweers, A.J. ; Brink, N.W. van den - \ 2012
Chemosphere 88 (2012)8. - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 903 - 911.
brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers - polychlorinated-biphenyls - organochlorine contaminants - haliaeetus-albicilla - hieraaetus-pennatus - breeding success - residue levels - great-lakes - eggs
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides (OCs) were analysed in 58 Eurasian Eagle owl (Bubo bubo) unhatched eggs collected between 2004 and 2009 in Southeastern Spain. Levels of p,p'-DDE were found to be higher than in eggs laid by other European owls in the same decade, probably due to the greater agricultural activity in our study area. Compared to other European raptors, exposure to PCBs can be considered intermediate, but low to PBDEs. Land use differences and prey availability were the rationale to divide the study area in two subareas in further assessments. Temporal trends of HCB, p,p'-DDE, ß-HCH, PCBs and PBDEs were significantly different in each subarea, generally increasing over time in the Southern but decreasing or remaining stable in the Northern. On the contrary, levels of cyclodienes tended to decrease in both subareas. Dietary shifts with a greater amount of birds are suggested as a cause for increasing organochlorine loads in raptors. This may explain the increasing trend in the Southern territories. However, due to the proximity of most of these nests to Cartagena, an important industrial city, increasing environmental pollution cannot be ruled out. Although average levels of the compounds analysed are below threshold levels, 17% of the samples exceeded 400 pg g-1 ww (wet weight), the LOAEC for Total TEQs. Moreover, a negative correlation between TEQ concentrations and the metabolizable fraction of PCBs (Fprob = 0.0018) was found when TEQs values were above 10 pg g-1 ww. This could be indicative of hepatic enzymes induction in the birds exposed at higher concentrations, which are mainly breeding in the Southern subarea. These females could be suffering from Ah-receptor-related toxic effects, some of which have been related to altered bird reproduction. Finally, a significant negative correlation between p,p'-DDE levels and eggshell thickness (r = -0.469, p <0.001) was observed, with about 17% of eggshell thinning for eggs with p,p'-DDE levels above 100 µg g -1 lw. The persistence of this degree of thinning over a period of time has been related to population declines in other raptor species
Evaluation trials of potential input reducing developments in 3 test locations.
Garcia Victoria, N. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Löpez Hernández, J.C. ; Baezo Romero, E.J. ; Incrocci, L. ; Pardossi, A. - \ 2012
Almeria/Bleiswijk/Pisa : European Commission (Euphoros reports Deliverable 19 Final report) - 92
The EUPHOROS project is co-funded by the European Commission, Directorate General for Research, within the 7th Framework Programme of RTD, Theme 2 – Biotechnology, Agriculture & Food, contract 211457. The views and opinions expressed in this Deliverable are purely those of the writers and may not in any circumstances be regarded as stating an official position of the European Commission. This Deliverable 5 Annex is the latest updated version in September 2011.
Three European protected crops: LCA and alternatives to reduce environmental impact
Torrellas, M. ; Antón, A. ; Baeza, E. ; López, J.C. ; Pérez Parra, J. ; Ruijs, M.N.A. ; Garcia Victoria, N. ; Montero, J.I. - \ 2011
Organochlorine pesticides levels in eagle owl (Bubo bubo) eggs: Temporal trends and sublethal effects
Gómez-Ramírez, P. ; Martínez-López, E. ; Maria-Mojica, P. ; Espin, S. ; Zweers, H. ; García-Fernández, A.J. ; Brink, N.W. van den - \ 2010
Toxicology Letters 196 (2010)suppl.. - ISSN 0378-4274 - p. s129 - s129.
According to the NRC requirements, the eagle owl could be considered a suitable sentinel species for biomonitoring organochlorine pesticides, reflecting both their use and food web transfer. In order to obtain this information from an agricultural area in Southeastern Spain, 58 unhatched eggs from the period 2004–2009 were analysed for 23 organochlorine compounds. Homogenized egg contents were processed with n-hexane, and cleaned up by GPC. Detection and quantification was performed using GC–MS. A homogeneous temporal trend was found for the total of compounds analyzed, with a significant decrease in 2008 (Chi-square = 13.31, p <0.01). On the contrary, lindane (Chi-square = 15.03, p <0.01) and DDT (Chi-square = 9.76, p <0.05) significantly increased along the whole period, reaching higher levels in 2009. Although DDT was banned in Spain in 1971, this compound has been used until 2008 for the synthesis of dicofol, an insecticide recommended for citrus farming in the study area. Previous studies in other raptor species from the same region show a positive correlation between DDT blood levels and citrus, vineyard and olive tree crops, for which dicofol was also recommended. Lindane was banned in Spain in 2000 for agricultural use, and allowed for animal use until December 2007. The increasing levels could reflect a current illegal use of this compound. Eggshell thickness is a good biomarker, inversely correlated with DDE levels in birds. A significant negative correlation was found between eggshell thickness and DDE concentration in our population (P = -0.445, p <0.01) and a 17% of thinning when DDE levels were higher than 100 µg/g (lipid weight). Although other contaminants may cause some eggshell thinning, DDE has been established as the main role.
|Trends in levels of PCBs in an Eagle Owl Bubo bubo population from Southeastern Spain
Gómez-Ramírez, P. ; Martínez-López, E. ; María-Mojica, P. ; León-Ortega, M. ; Enrique Martínez, J. ; Francisco Calvo, J. ; Botella, F. ; Sánchez-Zapata, J.A. ; Zweers, A. ; García-Fernández, A.J. ; Brink, N.W. van den - \ 2010
In: Proceedings of the 20th SETAC Europe congress, Seville, Spain, 23-27 May 2010. - - p. 71 - 71.
The plasmid pGS5 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus profundus is negatively supercoiled
Lopez-Garcia, P. ; Forterre, P. ; Oost, J. van der; Erauso, G. - \ 2000
Journal of Bacteriology 182 (2000). - ISSN 0021-9193 - p. 4998 - 5000.
We present evidence that, in contrast to plasmids from other hyperthermophilic archaea, which are in the relaxed to positively supercoiled state, plasmid pGS5 (2.8 kb) from Archaeoglobus profundus is negatively supercoiled. This might be due to the presence of a gyrase introducing negative supercoils, since gyrase genes are present in the genome of its close relative A. fulgidus, and suggests that gyrase activity predominates over reverse gyrase whenever the two topoisomerases coexist in cells.