Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Changes in food access by mestizo communities associated with deforestation and agrobiodiversity loss in Ucayali, Peruvian Amazon
    Blundo-Canto, Genowefa ; Cruz-Garcia, Gisella S. ; Talsma, Elise F. ; Francesconi, Wendy ; Labarta, Ricardo ; Sanchez-Choy, Jose ; Perez-Marulanda, Lisset ; Paz-Garcia, Paula ; Quintero, Marcela - \ 2020
    Food Security (2020). - ISSN 1876-4517
    Agrobiodiversity - Ecosystem services - Food security - Household dietary diversity score - Land use change

    Few longitudinal studies link agricultural biodiversity, land use and food access in rural landscapes. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that, in a context of economic change, cash crop expansion is associated with deforestation, reduced agrobiodiversity and changes in food access. For this purpose, we analysed data collected from the same 53 upland and floodplain mestizo households in Ucayali, Peru, in 2000 and 2015. We found an emerging transition towards less diversified food access coupled with loss of forest cover and reduced agricultural biodiversity. In 2015, diets appeared to rely on fewer food groups, fewer food items, and on products increasingly purchased in the market compared to 2000. Wild fruits and plants were mentioned, but rarely consumed. Agricultural production systems became more specialised with a shift towards commercial crops. Peak deforestation years in the 15-year period appeared linked with incentives for agricultural expansion. Our results suggest an overall trend from diversified productive and “extractive” systems and more diverse food access, towards specialized productive systems, with less diverse food access and stronger market orientation (both in production and consumption). The assumption in the food and agricultural sciences that increased income and market-orientation is linked to improved food security, is challenged by our integrated analyses of food access, agrobiodiversity, land use and forest cover. Our results highlight the importance of longitudinal, multidimensional, systemic analyses, with major implications for land use, food and health policies. The potential risks of parallel homogenisation of diets and agricultural production systems require interdisciplinary research and policies that promote integrated landscape approaches for sustainable and inclusive food systems.

    Visualizing the invisible : class excursions to ignite children’s enthusiasm for microbes
    McGenity, Terry J. ; Gessesse, Amare ; Hallsworth, John E. ; Garcia Cela, Esther ; Verheecke-Vaessen, Carol ; Wang, Fengping ; Chavarría, Max ; Haggblom, Max M. ; Molin, Søren ; Danchin, Antoine ; Smid, Eddy J. ; Lood, Cédric ; Cockell, Charles S. ; Whitby, Corinne ; Liu, Shuang Jiang ; Keller, Nancy P. ; Stein, Lisa Y. ; Bordenstein, Seth R. ; Lal, Rup ; Nunes, Olga C. ; Gram, Lone ; Singh, Brajesh K. ; Webster, Nicole S. ; Morris, Cindy ; Sivinski, Sharon ; Bindschedler, Saskia ; Junier, Pilar ; Antunes, André ; Baxter, Bonnie K. ; Scavone, Paola ; Timmis, Kenneth - \ 2020
    Microbial Biotechnology (2020). - ISSN 1751-7907

    We have recently argued that, because microbes have pervasive – often vital – influences on our lives, and that therefore their roles must be taken into account in many of the decisions we face, society must become microbiology-literate, through the introduction of relevant microbiology topics in school curricula (Timmis et al. 2019. Environ Microbiol 21: 1513-1528). The current coronavirus pandemic is a stark example of why microbiology literacy is such a crucial enabler of informed policy decisions, particularly those involving preparedness of public-health systems for disease outbreaks and pandemics. However, a significant barrier to attaining widespread appreciation of microbial contributions to our well-being and that of the planet is the fact that microbes are seldom visible: most people are only peripherally aware of them, except when they fall ill with an infection. And it is disease, rather than all of the positive activities mediated by microbes, that colours public perception of ‘germs’ and endows them with their poor image. It is imperative to render microbes visible, to give them life and form for children (and adults), and to counter prevalent misconceptions, through exposure to imagination-capturing images of microbes and examples of their beneficial outputs, accompanied by a balanced narrative. This will engender automatic mental associations between everyday information inputs, as well as visual, olfactory and tactile experiences, on the one hand, and the responsible microbes/microbial communities, on the other hand. Such associations, in turn, will promote awareness of microbes and of the many positive and vital consequences of their actions, and facilitate and encourage incorporation of such consequences into relevant decision-making processes. While teaching microbiology topics in primary and secondary school is key to this objective, a strategic programme to expose children directly and personally to natural and managed microbial processes, and the results of their actions, through carefully planned class excursions to local venues, can be instrumental in bringing microbes to life for children and, collaterally, their families. In order to encourage the embedding of microbiology-centric class excursions in current curricula, we suggest and illustrate here some possibilities relating to the topics of food (a favourite pre-occupation of most children), agriculture (together with horticulture and aquaculture), health and medicine, the environment and biotechnology. And, although not all of the microbially relevant infrastructure will be within reach of schools, there is usually access to a market, local food store, wastewater treatment plant, farm, surface water body, etc., all of which can provide opportunities to explore microbiology in action. If children sometimes consider the present to be mundane, even boring, they are usually excited with both the past and the future so, where possible, visits to local museums (the past) and research institutions advancing knowledge frontiers (the future) are strongly recommended, as is a tapping into the natural enthusiasm of local researchers to leverage the educational value of excursions and virtual excursions. Children are also fascinated by the unknown, so, paradoxically, the invisibility of microbes makes them especially fascinating objects for visualization and exploration. In outlining some of the options for microbiology excursions, providing suggestions for discussion topics and considering their educational value, we strive to extend the vistas of current class excursions and to: (i) inspire teachers and school managers to incorporate more microbiology excursions into curricula; (ii) encourage microbiologists to support school excursions and generally get involved in bringing microbes to life for children; (iii) urge leaders of organizations (biopharma, food industries, universities, etc.) to give school outreach activities a more prominent place in their mission portfolios, and (iv) convey to policymakers the benefits of providing schools with funds, materials and flexibility for educational endeavours beyond the classroom.

    First report of Fusarium Wilt Tropical race 4 in Cavendish Bananas Caused by Fusarium odoratissimum in Colombia
    García-Bastidas, F.A. ; Quintero-Vargas, J.C. ; Ayala-Vasquez, M. ; Schermer, T. ; Seidl, M.F. ; Santos-Paiva, M. ; Noguera, A.M. ; Aguilera-Galvez, C. ; Wittenberg, A. ; Hofstede, R. ; Sørensen, A. ; Kema, G.H.J. - \ 2020
    Plant Disease 104 (2020)3. - ISSN 0191-2917
    Genetic Safeguards for Safety-by-design: So Close Yet So Far
    Asín García, E. ; Kallergi, Amalia ; Landeweerd, Laurens ; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P. - \ 2020
    Trends in Biotechnology (2020). - ISSN 0167-7799
    Safety-by-design (SbD) is paramount for risk management in synthetic biology, with genetic safeguards being a key technology for its implementation. While attractive in theory, the integration of genetic safeguards into SbD strategies is rarely exercised in practice, despite technological advances. Here we question why and what might be done about it.
    European anthropogenic AFOLU greenhouse gas emissions : A review and benchmark data
    Maria Roxana Petrescu, Ana ; Peters, Glen G. ; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet ; Ciais, Philippe ; Tubiello, Francesco F. ; Grassi, Giacomo ; Nabuurs, Gert Jan ; Leip, Adrian ; Carmona-Garcia, Gema ; Winiwarter, Wilfried ; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena ; Günther, Dirk ; Solazzo, Efisio ; Kiesow, Anja ; Bastos, Ana ; Pongratz, Julia ; Nabel, Julia E.M.S. ; Conchedda, Giulia ; Pilli, Roberto ; Andrew, Robbie R. ; Schelhaas, Mart Jan ; Dolman, Albertus A. - \ 2020
    Earth System Science Data 12 (2020)2. - ISSN 1866-3508 - p. 961 - 1001.

    Emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and removals from land, including both anthropogenic and natural fluxes, require reliable quantification, including estimates of uncertainties, to support credible mitigation action under the Paris Agreement. This study provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of bottom-up anthropogenic emissions data from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) in the European Union (EU281). The data integrate recent AFOLU emission inventories with ecosystem data and land carbon models and summarize GHG emissions and removals over the period 1990-2016. This compilation of bottom-up estimates of the AFOLU GHG emissions of European national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs), with those of land carbon models and observation-based estimates of large-scale GHG fluxes, aims at improving the overall estimates of the GHG balance in Europe with respect to land GHG emissions and removals. Whenever available, we present uncertainties, its propagation and role in the comparison of different estimates. While NGHGI data for the EU28 provide consistent quantification of uncertainty following the established IPCC Guidelines, uncertainty in the estimates produced with other methods needs to account for both within model uncertainty and the spread from different model results. The largest inconsistencies between EU28 estimates are mainly due to different sources of data related to human activity, referred to here as activity data (AD) and methodologies (tiers) used for calculating emissions and removals from AFOLU sectors. The referenced datasets related to figures are visualized at (Petrescu et al., 2020).

    Metagenomic-and cultivation-based exploration of anaerobic chloroform biotransformation in hypersaline sediments as natural source of chloromethanes
    Peng, Peng ; Lu, Yue ; Bosma, Tom N.P. ; Nijenhuis, Ivonne ; Nijsse, Bart ; Shetty, Sudarshan A. ; Ruecker, Alexander ; Umanets, Alexander ; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier ; Kappler, Andreas ; Sipkema, Detmer ; Smidt, Hauke ; Atashgahi, Siavash - \ 2020
    Microorganisms 8 (2020)5. - ISSN 2076-2607
    Biotransformation - Chloroform - Hypersaline lakes - Metagenome

    Chloroform (CF) is an environmental contaminant that can be naturally formed in various environments ranging from forest soils to salt lakes. Here we investigated CF removal potential in sediments obtained from hypersaline lakes in Western Australia. Reductive dechlorination of CF to dichloromethane (DCM) was observed in enrichment cultures derived from sediments of Lake Strawbridge, which has been reported as a natural source of CF. No CF removal was observed in abiotic control cultures without artificial electron donors, indicating biotic CF dechlorination in the enrichment cultures. Increasing vitamin B12 concentration from 0.04 to 4 µM in enrichment cultures enhanced CF removal and reduced DCM formation. In cultures amended with 4 µM vitamin B12 and13C labelled CF, formation of13CO2 was detected. Known organohalide-respiring bacteria and reductive dehalogenase genes were neither detected using quantitative PCR nor metagenomic analysis of the enrichment cultures. Rather, members of the order Clostridiales, known to co-metabolically transform CF to DCM and CO2, were detected. Accordingly, metagenome-assembled genomes of Clostridiales encoded enzymatic repertoires for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and cobalamin biosynthesis, which are known to be involved in fortuitous and nonspecific CF transformation. This study indicates that hypersaline lake microbiomes may act as a filter to reduce CF emission to the atmosphere.

    Modulatory Effects of Pb2+ on Virally Challenged Chicken Macrophage (HD-11) and B-Lymphocyte (DT40) Cell Lines in vitro
    Han, Biyao ; García-Mendoza, Diego ; Berg, Hans van den; Brink, Nico W. van den - \ 2020
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 39 (2020)5. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1060 - 1070.
    Avian - B-lymphocytes - Immunotoxicity - Lead - Macrophages - Viral challenges

    Elevated levels of lead have been found in waterfowl, due to human activities. Lead may cause immunomodulatory effects, but the mechanisms are largely unknown, especially after viral challenges. To characterize avian immunomodulatory hazards of lead (Pb)2+, we used chicken macrophage (HD-11) and B-lymphocyte (DT40) cell lines, as in vitro models for the innate and adaptive immune systems, respectively. The cells were activated via toll-like receptor-3 by polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid sodium salt (poly I:C), mimicking viral infections. Our results indicate that Pb2+ is cytotoxic to both cell lines, macrophages being more sensitive. De novo synthesis of glutathione plays an important role in protecting macrophages from Pb2+ intoxication, which might also be closely involved in the induction of nitric oxide after Pb2+ exposure. Stimulatory effects on cell proliferation were noticed at noncytotoxic Pb2+ concentrations as well. Exposure to Pb2+ could also affect the inflammatory status by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory interferon (IFN)-γ while promoting the production of anti-inflammatory type I IFNs in both macrophages and B-cells, and increasing intracellular IgM levels in B-cells. These results suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of Pb2+ in birds are probably closely associated with disruption of immune cell proliferation and cytokine production, potentially causing disorders of the avian immune system. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;00:1–11.

    Hybridizing the commons. Privatizing and outsourcing collective irrigation management after technological change in Spain
    García-Mollá, Marta ; Ortega-Reig, Mar ; Boelens, Rutgerd ; Sanchis-Ibor, Carles - \ 2020
    World Development 132 (2020). - ISSN 0305-750X
    Common-pool resources management - Coproduction - Irrigation - Outsourcing - Privatization - Technological change

    During the last decades, several regions of the world have experienced an increasingly forceful penetration by commercial service companies into irrigation water management, altering the institutional structures and procedures of common-pool resources management. In many cases, private-sector penetration takes place when water user organizations require a company to implement high-tech water control such as pressurized irrigation systems, as part of ‘modernization policies’. This study focuses on four representative cases of these processes with differing degrees of private-enterprise penetration in the Valencia Region (Spain). The research analyzes the strategies of collective-private confrontation and collaboration that are emerging in irrigator communities, and characterize how they affect the management of these irrigation systems. Results show how private enterprise intrusion has unequally affected the interactions between the different components of these irrigation systems. This has created different hybrids between private and common pool-resources management institutions, as well as different autonomies, dependencies and socio-political subjects. Users’ capacity to guide this coproduction process and maintain local control over their irrigation systems is essential to ensure the stability and preserve the robustness of each irrigation system. The quality of human capital and the recognition of collective water management values makes irrigation entities more robust vis-à-vis external pressures and disturbances, which in some of the cases analyzed have generated major social conflicts.

    Survey of clenbuterol in bovine muscle and liver in Ecuador
    Espinoza, Wania ; Vargas Jentzsch, Paul ; Gualpa, Fernando ; Andrade, Paulette ; Moreno, Carla ; Vaca, Israel ; Betancourt, Rommel ; Medina, Lorena ; Enríquez, Dominique ; Guijarro, Michelle ; Garrido, Patricia ; Bravo, Juan ; Ulic, Sonia ; Montalvo García, Gemma ; Ortega, Fernando ; Stolker, Linda ; Ramos, Luis - \ 2020
    Food Additives & Contaminants Part B-Surveillance 13 (2020)2. - ISSN 1939-3210 - p. 107 - 114.
    Clenbuterol - food contamination - food safety - β-adrenergic receptors - β-agonist

    Clenbuterol is a steroid-type drug used in respiratory treatments in both humans and animals. However, it has a secondary effect related to the hypertrophy process in muscle and fat reduction. The illegal or bad use of clenbuterol has been reported in several countries, but there is scarce information in South America, where the production and consumption of meat are considerable. In this sense, the present study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of clenbuterol in bovine muscle and liver samples from a high cattle production area of Ecuador in 2015 and 2018. For this purpose, 57–58 samples were evaluated in 2015 and 20 samples in 2018 using the Enzyme-Linked Inmuno Sorbent Assay and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed complained results for clenbuterol in meat samples from both years and 23% (2015) and 85% (2018) of the samples of meat complied the maximum residue level defined by CODEX.

    Anthoceros genomes illuminate the origin of land plants and the unique biology of hornworts
    Li, Fay Wei ; Nishiyama, Tomoaki ; Waller, Manuel ; Frangedakis, Eftychios ; Keller, Jean ; Li, Zheng ; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe ; Barker, Michael S. ; Bennett, Tom ; Blázquez, Miguel A. ; Cheng, Shifeng ; Cuming, Andrew C. ; Vries, Jan de; Vries, Sophie de; Delaux, Pierre Marc ; Diop, Issa S. ; Harrison, Jill C. ; Hauser, Duncan ; Hernández-García, Jorge ; Kirbis, Alexander ; Meeks, John C. ; Monte, Isabel ; Mutte, Sumanth K. ; Neubauer, Anna ; Quandt, Dietmar ; Robison, Tanner ; Shimamura, Masaki ; Rensing, Stefan A. ; Villarreal, Juan Carlos ; Weijers, Dolf ; Wicke, Susann ; Wong, Gane K.S. ; Sakakibara, Keiko ; Szövényi, Péter - \ 2020
    Nature Plants 6 (2020)3. - ISSN 2055-026X - p. 259 - 272.

    Hornworts comprise a bryophyte lineage that diverged from other extant land plants >400 million years ago and bears unique biological features, including a distinct sporophyte architecture, cyanobacterial symbiosis and a pyrenoid-based carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM). Here, we provide three high-quality genomes of Anthoceros hornworts. Phylogenomic analyses place hornworts as a sister clade to liverworts plus mosses with high support. The Anthoceros genomes lack repeat-dense centromeres as well as whole-genome duplication, and contain a limited transcription factor repertoire. Several genes involved in angiosperm meristem and stomatal function are conserved in Anthoceros and upregulated during sporophyte development, suggesting possible homologies at the genetic level. We identified candidate genes involved in cyanobacterial symbiosis and found that LCIB, a Chlamydomonas CCM gene, is present in hornworts but absent in other plant lineages, implying a possible conserved role in CCM function. We anticipate that these hornwort genomes will serve as essential references for future hornwort research and comparative studies across land plants.

    Imaging Flow Cytometry Protocols for Examining Phagocytosis of Microplastics and Bioparticles by Immune Cells of Aquatic Animals
    Park, Youngjin ; Abihssira-García, Isabel S. ; Thalmann, Sebastian ; Wiegertjes, Geert F. ; Barreda, Daniel R. ; Olsvik, Pål A. ; Kiron, Viswanath - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Immunology 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-3224
    Atlantic salmon - blue mussel - IFC - ImageStream®X - Nile tilapia - phagocytosis

    Imaging flow cytometry (IFC) is a powerful tool which combines flow cytometry with digital microscopy to generate quantitative high-throughput imaging data. Despite various advantages of IFC over standard flow cytometry, widespread adoption of this technology for studies in aquatic sciences is limited, probably due to the relatively high equipment cost, complexity of image analysis-based data interpretation and lack of core facilities with trained personnel. Here, we describe the application of IFC to examine phagocytosis of particles including microplastics by cells from aquatic animals. For this purpose, we studied (1) live/dead cell assays and identification of cell types, (2) phagocytosis of degradable and non-degradable particles by Atlantic salmon head kidney cells and (3) the effect of incubation temperature on phagocytosis of degradable particles in three aquatic animals-Atlantic salmon, Nile tilapia, and blue mussel. The usefulness of the developed method was assessed by evaluating the effect of incubation temperature on phagocytosis. Our studies demonstrate that IFC provides significant benefits over standard flow cytometry in phagocytosis measurement by allowing integration of morphometric parameters, especially while identifying cell populations and distinguishing between different types of fluorescent particles and detecting their localization.

    MEMOTE for standardized genome-scale metabolic model testing
    Lieven, Christian ; Beber, Moritz E. ; Olivier, Brett G. ; Bergmann, Frank T. ; Ataman, Meric ; Babaei, Parizad ; Bartell, Jennifer A. ; Blank, Lars M. ; Chauhan, Siddharth ; Correia, Kevin ; Diener, Christian ; Dräger, Andreas ; Ebert, Birgitta E. ; Edirisinghe, Janaka N. ; Faria, José P. ; Feist, Adam M. ; Fengos, Georgios ; Fleming, Ronan M.T. ; García-Jiménez, Beatriz ; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily ; Helvoirt, Wout van; Henry, Christopher S. ; Hermjakob, Henning ; Herrgård, Markus J. ; Kaafarani, Ali ; Kim, Hyun Uk ; King, Zachary ; Klamt, Steffen ; Klipp, Edda ; Koehorst, Jasper J. ; König, Matthias ; Lakshmanan, Meiyappan ; Lee, Dong Yup ; Lee, Sang Yup ; Lee, Sunjae ; Lewis, Nathan E. ; Liu, Filipe ; Ma, Hongwu ; Machado, Daniel ; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan ; Maia, Paulo ; Mardinoglu, Adil ; Medlock, Gregory L. ; Monk, Jonathan M. ; Nielsen, Jens ; Nielsen, Lars Keld ; Nogales, Juan ; Nookaew, Intawat ; Palsson, Bernhard O. ; Papin, Jason A. ; Patil, Kiran R. ; Poolman, Mark ; Price, Nathan D. ; Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo ; Richelle, Anne ; Rocha, Isabel ; Sánchez, Benjamín J. ; Schaap, Peter J. ; Malik Sheriff, Rahuman S. ; Shoaie, Saeed ; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus ; Teusink, Bas ; Vilaça, Paulo ; Vik, Jon Olav ; Wodke, Judith A.H. ; Xavier, Joana C. ; Yuan, Qianqian ; Zakhartsev, Maksim ; Zhang, Cheng - \ 2020
    Nature Biotechnology 38 (2020)3. - ISSN 1087-0156 - p. 272 - 276.
    Ovulatory response of weaned sows to an altered ratio of exogenous gonadotrophins
    Manjarín, Rodrigo ; García, Jose Carlos ; Hoving, Lia ; Soede, Nicoline M. ; Maj, Magdalena ; Tejerina, Juan Carlos Dominguez de; Kirkwood, Roy N. - \ 2020
    Animals 10 (2020)3. - ISSN 2076-2615
    Follicle - Gonadotrophins - Ovulation - Sows

    At weaning, 33 mixed parity Hypor sows received either an injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin and 200 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) (PG600; n = 13), PG600 with an additional 200 IU hCG 24 h later (Gn800; n = 11), or served as non‐injected controls (n = 9). All gonadotrophin treated sows received an injection of 750 IU hCG at 80 h after weaning to induce ovulation (designated as time 0 h). At 0, 24, 36, 40, 44, 48, and 60 h, all sows were subject to transrectal ultrasonography to determine numbers and sizes of large (>6 mm) follicles and time of ovulation. The interval from injection of 750 IU hCG to ovulation was shorter in Gn800 compared to PG600 sows (p = 0.02), and more Gn800 sows had ≥9 preovulatory follicles compared to PG600 and controls (p = 0.02 and 0.003, respectively). Follicular cysts were evident in both PG600 and Gn800 sows.

    Maternal exposure to mixtures of dienestrol, linuron and flutamide. Part I: Feminization effects on male rat offspring
    Schreiber, Elga ; Garcia, Tània ; González, Neus ; Esplugas, Roser ; Sharma, Raju Prasad ; Torrente, Margarita ; Kumar, Vikas ; Bovee, Toine ; Katsanou, Efrosini S. ; Machera, Kyriaki ; Domingo, José Luis ; Gómez, Mercedes - \ 2020
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 139 (2020). - ISSN 0278-6915
    Dienestrol - Feminization effects - Flutamide - Linuron - Male rats - Mixtures

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) during pregnancy can result in negative health effects in later generations, including sex changes and feminization. The present study assessed the feminization effects on male offspring rats of three EDCs: Dienestrol (DIES), Linuron (LIN), and Flutamide (FLU). Sexually mature female rats were exposed from gestation day (GD) 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21 to: 0.37, 0.75, 1.5, 3.12 or 6.25 μg/kg/day of DIES, 1.5, 3, 6, 12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg/day of LIN, 3.5, 6.7, 12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg/day of FLU, and the following mixtures: FLU + DIES (mg/kg/day+μg/kg/day), 3.5 + 0.37, or 3.5 + 3, 25 + 0.37, or 25 + 3; FLU + LIN (mg/kg/day + mg/kg/day), 3.5 + 12.5, or 25 + 12.5; and DIES + LIN (μg/kg/day + mg/kg/day), 0.37 + 12.5, or 3 + 12.5. Anogenital distance (AGD), nipple retention (NR) and cryptorchidism were evaluated. FLU produced a decrease of AGD, an increase of NR, and an increase of cryptorchidism at the highest dose. None of these three endpoints were significantly affected by LIN or DIES treatments alone. Combinations of FLU + LIN and FLU + DIES increased NR, and decreased AGD, while DIES + LIN did not produce any effects in male pups. Results show that FLU is able to induce feminization in male pups, while binary combinations of LIN and DIES did not modify the effects produced by FLU.

    Global plant trait relationships extend to the climatic extremes of the tundra biome
    Thomas, H.J.D. ; Bjorkman, A.D. ; Myers-Smith, I.H. ; Elmendorf, S.C. ; Kattge, J. ; Diaz, S. ; Vellend, M. ; Blok, D. ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. ; Forbes, B.C. ; Henry, G.H.R. ; Hollister, R.D. ; Normand, S. ; Prevéy, J.S. ; Rixen, C. ; Schaepman-Strub, G. ; Wilmking, M. ; Wipf, S. ; Cornwell, W.K. ; Beck, P.S.A. ; Georges, D. ; Goetz, S.J. ; Guay, K.C. ; Rüger, N. ; Soudzilovskaia, N.A. ; Spasojevic, M.J. ; Alatalo, J.M. ; Alexander, H.D. ; Anadon-Rosell, A. ; Angers-Blondin, S. ; Beest, M. te; Berner, L.T. ; Björk, R.G. ; Buchwal, A. ; Buras, A. ; Carbognani, M. ; Christie, K.S. ; Collier, L.S. ; Cooper, E.J. ; Elberling, B. ; Eskelinen, A. ; Frei, E.R. ; Grau, O. ; Grogan, P. ; Hallinger, M. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Hermanutz, L. ; Hudson, J.M.G. ; Johnstone, J.F. ; Hülber, K. ; Iturrate-Garcia, M. ; Iversen, C.M. ; Jaroszynska, F. ; Kaarlejarvi, E. ; Kulonen, A. ; Lamarque, L.J. ; Lantz, T.C. ; Lévesque, E. ; Little, C.J. ; Michelsen, A. ; Milbau, A. ; Nabe-Nielsen, J. ; Nielsen, S.S. ; Ninot, J.M. ; Oberbauer, S.F. ; Olofsson, J. ; Onipchenko, V.G. ; Petraglia, A. ; Rumpf, S.B. ; Shetti, R. ; Speed, J.D.M. ; Suding, K.N. ; Tape, K.D. ; Tomaselli, M. ; Trant, A.J. ; Treier, U.A. ; Tremblay, M. ; Venn, S.E. ; Vowles, T. ; Weijers, S. ; Wookey, P.A. ; Zamin, T.J. ; Bahn, M. ; Blonder, B. ; Bodegom, P.M. van; Bond-Lamberty, B. ; Campetella, G. ; Cerabolini, B.E.L. ; Chapin, F.S. ; Craine, J.M. ; Dainese, M. ; Green, W.A. ; Jansen, S. ; Kleyer, M. ; Manning, P. ; Niinemets, ; Onoda, Y. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Peñuelas, J. ; Poschlod, P. ; Reich, P.B. ; Sandel, B. ; Schamp, B.S. ; Sheremetiev, S.N. ; Vries, F.T. de - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    The majority of variation in six traits critical to the growth, survival and reproduction of plant species is thought to be organised along just two dimensions, corresponding to strategies of plant size and resource acquisition. However, it is unknown whether global plant trait relationships extend to climatic extremes, and if these interspecific relationships are confounded by trait variation within species. We test whether trait relationships extend to the cold extremes of life on Earth using the largest database of tundra plant traits yet compiled. We show that tundra plants demonstrate remarkably similar resource economic traits, but not size traits, compared to global distributions, and exhibit the same two dimensions of trait variation. Three quarters of trait variation occurs among species, mirroring global estimates of interspecific trait variation. Plant trait relationships are thus generalizable to the edge of global trait-space, informing prediction of plant community change in a warming world.

    Towards a new approach for dendroprovenancing pines in the Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula
    Akhmetzyanov, Linar ; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl ; García-González, Ignacio ; Buras, Allan ; Dominguez-Delmás, Marta ; Mohren, Frits ; Ouden, Jan den; Sass-Klaassen, Ute - \ 2020
    Dendrochronologia 60 (2020). - ISSN 1125-7865
    Blue intensity - Drought - Elevational gradient - Pinus nigra - Pinus sylvestris - SPEI

    Dendroprovenancing studies frequently use site chronologies to identify the origin of archaeological and historical timber. However, radial growth (tree-ring width, TRW) of tree species is influenced by both local and regional climate scales. Here we investigate how the use of annually-resolved Blue Intensity (BI) measurements can enhance dendroprovenancing precision of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) and Scots pine (P. sylvestris L.) on the Iberian Peninsula. Principal Component Gradient Analyses (PCGA) was used to assess geographical patterns of annual variation in different TRW and BI proxies of pine trees from two mountain ranges in the Central System and Andalusia in Spain. Local climate-growth relationships were quantified to identify underlying causes of identified groups with diverse growth patterns. Two distinct elevational groups were observed when performing PCGA on latewood BI time series with the response to summer drought as the main factor causing the differences. Both P. nigra and P. sylvestris BI time series were found to be more related to summer drought at low-elevation sites showing an increase in sensitivity at lower latitudes. PCGA of TRW time series allowed to discriminate between trees from Andalusia and Central System within the elevation groups. February and October temperatures were found to be the main climatic factors causing the differences in TRW time series among the high- elevation sites, whereas for low-elevation trees it was the average winter temperature influencing TRW. A subsequent leave-one-out analyses confirmed that including latewood BI time series improves the precision of dendroprovenancing of pine wood in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Effect of mineral and vitamin C mix on growth performance and blood corticosterone concentrations in heat-stressed broilers
    Saiz del Barrio, A. ; Mansilla, W.D. ; Navarro-Villa, A. ; Mica, J.H. ; Smeets, J.H. ; Hartog, L.A. den; García-Ruiz, A.I. - \ 2020
    Journal of Applied Poultry Research 29 (2020)1. - ISSN 1056-6171 - p. 23 - 33.
    broilers - heat stress - mineral - nutrition - vitamin-C

    Heat stress is a major problem in the poultry industry, especially during summer months and when birds are raised under high-density conditions. Previous studies have reported that vitamin C or electrolyte supplementation could palliate the effects of heat stress in broiler chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of a mineral and vitamin mix (AHS) added to drinking water on the performance of broiler chickens. In total, 1,824 one-day-old birds were randomly allocated to 48 pens. Maximum animal density was 26.5 kg/m2. The control group received no additive; AHS-1 and -2 groups received the AHS mix at a concentration of 1 and 2 kg/1,000 L in drinking water, respectively; and the Vit-C group received vitamin C in drinking water at 200 g/1,000 L. All birds were fed the same diets based on a 3-phase feeding program; feed and water were given on ad libitum basis. To mimic heat stress conditions, temperature in the barn was raised to 35 C from 08:00 to 14:00 h each day. For the overall growing period (0 to 35 D), adding AHS to drinking water increased final BW, ADG, and ADFI linearly (PLinear < 0.05); FCR was decreased linearly with AHS supplementation (PLinear < 0.05). Final BW, ADG, and FCR for the Vit-C group were intermediate between AHS-2 and the control groups (P > 0.10). No significant effect on mortality were found (8.77%; P > 0.10). Relative to control, all the treatments tested reduced (P < 0.05) corticosterone concentration in blood serum. In conclusion, the combined use of supplementary levels of minerals and vitamins could alleviate the effects of heat stress on broilers chickens.

    (Homo)polymer-mediated colloidal stability of micellar solutions
    González García, Álvaro ; Ianiro, Alessandro ; Beljon, Roos ; Leermakers, Frans A.M. ; Tuinier, Remco - \ 2020
    Soft Matter 16 (2020)6. - ISSN 1744-683X - p. 1560 - 1571.

    Despite their wide range of applications, there is a remarkable lack of fundamental understanding about how micelles respond to other components in solution. The colloidal stability of micellar solutions in presence of (homo)polymers is investigated here following a theoretical bottom-up approach. A polymer-mediated micelle-micelle interaction is extracted from changes in the micelle-unimer equilibrium as a function of the inter-micelle distance. The homopolymer-mediated diblock copolymer micelle-micelle interaction is studied both for depletion and adsorption of the homopolymer. The fluffy nature of the solvophilic domain (corona) of the micelle weakens the depletion-induced destabilization. Accumulation of polymers into the corona induces bridging attraction between micelles. In fact, both depletion and adsorption phenomena are regulated by the coronal thickness relative to the size of the added polymer. Penetration of guest compounds into the coronal domain of crew-cut micelles, with a narrower yet denser corona, is less pronounced as for starlike micelles (with a more diffuse corona). Therefore, crew-cut micelles are less sensitive to the effect of added compounds, and hence more suitable for applications in multicomponent systems, such as industrial formulations or biological fluids. The trends observed for the colloidal stability of crew-cut micelles qualitatively match with our experimental observations on aqueous dispersions of polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEO) micellar suspensions with added PEO chains.

    Upscaling for meat substitute start-up
    Suarez Garcia, Edgar ; Berg, Corjan van den - \ 2020
    Impact of genotype, body weight and sex on the prenatal muscle transcriptome of Iberian pigs
    García-Contreras, Consolación ; Madsen, Ole ; Groenen, Martien A.M. ; López-García, Adrián ; Vázquez-Gómez, Marta ; Astiz, Susana ; Núñez, Yolanda ; Benítez, Rita ; Fernández, Almudena ; Isabel, Beatriz ; Rey, Ana Isabel ; González-Bulnes, Antonio ; Óvilo, Cristina - \ 2020
    PLoS ONE 15 (2020)1. - ISSN 1932-6203

    Growth is dependent on genotype and diet, even at early developmental stages. In this study, we investigated the effects of genotype, sex, and body weight on the fetal muscle transcriptome of purebred Iberian and crossbred Iberian x Large White pigs sharing the same uterine environment. RNA sequencing was performed on 16 purebred and crossbred fetuses with high body weight (340±14g and 415±14g, respectively) and 16 with low body weight (246±14g and 311±14g, respectively), on gestational day 77. Genotype had the greatest effect on gene expression, with 645 genes identified as differentially expressed (DE) between purebred and crossbred animals. Functional analysis showed differential regulation of pathways involved in energy and lipid metabolism, muscle development, and tissue disorders. In purebred animals, fetal body weight was associated with 35 DE genes involved in development, lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. In crossbred animals, fetal body weight was associated with 60 DE genes involved in muscle development, viability, and immunity. Interestingly, the results suggested an interaction genotype∗weight for some DE genes. Fetal sex had only a modest effect on gene expression. This study allowed the identification of genes, metabolic pathways, biological functions and regulators related to fetal genotype, weight and sex, in animals sharing the same uterine environment. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events that influence prenatal muscle development and highlight the complex interactions affecting transcriptional regulation during development.

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