Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Effective physical refining for the mitigation of processing contaminants in palm oil at pilot scale
    Oey, Sergio B. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van - \ 2020
    Food Research International 138 (2020)A. - ISSN 0963-9969
    3-monochloropropanediol - Elimination methods - Glycidyl esters - Mitigation strategies - Pilot plant refining - Refined edible oils

    This study aimed to develop a mitigation strategy for the formation of 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol esters (2-MCPDE), 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE), and glycidol fatty acid esters (GE) during palm oil refining. Single physical refining was the starting point (the control) for this study. Experimental treatments including a double refining repeating the entire single refining process (T1), double refining with a high-low deodorization temperature (T2), and double deodorization (T3) with similar temperature settings as T2 were performed. Compared with the control experiment, T2 successfully reduced the formation of GE by 87%; in particular, the second degumming and bleaching were crucial for eliminating GE. Both 2- and 3-MCPDE were formed prior to the deodorization process in all treatments. MCPDE concentrations remained stable throughout the refining process and, hence, they require a different mitigation approach as compared to GE. These results provide useful insights which can directly be implemented by the oil industry.

    Using multiple linear regression and random forests to identify spatial poverty determinants in rural China
    Liu, Mengxiao ; Hu, Shan ; Ge, Yong ; Heuvelink, Gerard B.M. ; Ren, Zhoupeng ; Huang, Xiaoran - \ 2020
    Spatial Statistics (2020). - ISSN 2211-6753
    Determinants - LMG - Poverty - Random forest - Spatial - Variable importance

    Identifying poverty determinants in a region is crucial for taking effective poverty reduction measures. This paper utilizes two variable importance analysis methods to identify the relative importance of different geographic factors to explain the spatial distribution of poverty: the Lindeman, Merenda, and Gold (LMG) method used in multiple linear regression (MLR) and variable importance used in random forest (RF) machine learning. A case study was conducted in Yunyang, a poverty-stricken county in China, to evaluate the performances of the two methods for identifying village-level poverty determinants. The results indicated that: (1) MLR and RF had similar explanation accuracy; (2) LMG and RF were consistent in the three main determinants of poverty; (3) LMG better identified the importance of variables that were highly related to poverty but correlated with other variables, while RF better identified the non-linear relationships between poverty and explanatory variables; (4) accessibility metrics are the most important variables influencing poverty in Yunyang and have a linear relationship with poverty.

    Efficiëntie van beregening : Een deskstudy naar kennis en inzicht ten aanzien van waterverliezen bij midden op de dag beregenen vergeleken met beregen in de nachtelijke uren
    Eertwegh, Gé van den; Bakel, Jan van; Massop, H.T.L. ; Dam, J.C. van; Bosveld, Fred ; Veldhuizen, A.A. - \ 2020
    KnowH2O - 38 p.
    Prioritization of adaptation measures for improved agricultural water management in Northwest Bangladesh
    Acharjee, T.K. ; Hellegers, P.J.G.J. ; Ludwig, F. ; Halsema, G.E. van; Mojid, M.A. ; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M. - \ 2020
    Climatic Change (2020). - ISSN 0165-0009
    Adaptation strategies are essential to manage water demand and ensure optimal use of available water resources under climate change. Identification and prioritization of adaptation options would greatly support decision-making in drought-prone Northwest Bangladesh. This study identified climate adaptation options by literature review and stakeholder consultation, then used multi-criteria analysis to evaluate and prioritize the options. The complexity of the options was also evaluated, specifically social, institutional, and technical obstacles to their local uptake. Seventy-two adaptation options were identified, spanning six sector categories. The options were further classified as in-system dependent, i.e., options that could be implemented by local actors, or as out-system dependent, i.e., options reliant on actions by external actors. Finally, they were defined as on-farm or off-farm strategies. Transboundary cooperation to increase surface water flows was ranked as the overall top-priority option, though this option is very complex and out-system dependent. Integrated water resources management and integrated crop management were the top-ranked options in the water management and crop production management sectors, respectively. Clustering scattered households and offering training programs in on-farm water management were the most and least complex measures, respectively. Stakeholders exhibited a clear preference for higher scale out-system dependent strategies, rather than in-system dependent options focused on changing the agricultural system itself to cope with climate change. Nonetheless, it is recommended that short-term and medium-term planning focus on opportunities to implement achievable adaptation measures within the local agricultural system. Investment in complex, externally dependent strategies is important for long-term planning.
    Genomic prediction for broad and specific adaptation in sorghum accommodating differential variances of SNP effects
    Velazco, Julio G. ; Jordan, David R. ; Hunt, Colleen H. ; Mace, Emma S. ; Eeuwijk, Fred A. van - \ 2020
    Crop Science 60 (2020)5. - ISSN 0011-183X - p. 2328 - 2342.

    This paper reports a first study exploring genomic prediction for adaptation of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] to drought-stress (D-ET) and nonstress (W-ET) environment types. The objective was to evaluate the impact of both modeling genotype × environment interaction (G×E) and accounting for heterogeneous variances of marker effects on genomic prediction of parental breeding values for grain yield within and across environment types (ETs). For this aim, different genetic covariance structures and different weights for individual markers were investigated in best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP)-based prediction models. The BLUP models used a kinship matrix combining pedigree and genomic information, termed K-BLUP. The dataset comprised testcross yield performances under D-ET and W-ET as well as pedigree and genomic data. In general, modeling G×E increased predictive ability and reduced empirical bias of genomic predictions for broad adaptation across both ETs vs. models that ignored G×E by fitting a main genetic effect only. Genomic predictions for specific adaptation to D-ET or W-ET were also improved by K-BLUP models that explicitly accommodated G×E and used data from both ETs relative to prediction models that used data from the targeted ET exclusively or models that used all the data but assumed no G×E. Allowing for heterogeneous marker variances through weighted K-BLUP produced clear increments (43–72%) in predictive ability of genomic prediction for grain yield in all adaptation scenarios. We conclude that G×E as well as locus-specific genetic variances should be accommodated in genomic prediction models to improve adaptability of sorghum to variable environmental conditions.

    Morphological and reproductive responses of coastal pioneer sedge vegetation to inundation intensity
    Li, Shi Hua ; Ge, Zhen Ming ; Tan, Li Shan ; Hu, Meng Yao ; Li, Ya Lei ; Li, Xiu Zhen ; Ysebaert, Tom - \ 2020
    Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 244 (2020). - ISSN 0272-7714
    Intraspecific traits - Inundation stresses - Phenotypic plasticity - Pioneer plant - Reproductive strategy - Salt marsh

    Coastal plants have unique adaptability to cope with strong hydrological stresses in tidal wetlands. A fundamental understanding of the establishment and maintenance of coastal plants is needed for conservation and restoration. In the Yangtze Estuary, the plasticity of the morphological and reproductive traits of a pioneer Scirpus species (sedge), in terms of phenotypic growth, biomass allocation, and sexual and asexual reproductive traits, was investigated with increasing flooding intensity (elevation gradient) in a tidal flat. The varying response extents (thresholds) of plant zonation and morphological and reproductive traits to multiscale environmental heterogeneity were also assessed. Our results showed that plant colonization and performance at coastal frontiers are sensitive to the microtopography of elevation and reflect the ecological adaptability at both the landscape and individual scales. Sedge species typically exhibit morphological and reproductive flexibility across the inundation intensity. The plants allocated more biomass to belowground tissues in response to decreasing elevation. The elevation thresholds for the yield of reproductive organs were higher (2.38–2.50 m based on the local Wusong datum) than those for morphology (2.05–2.14 m). The thresholds for the yield of asexual reproductive organs shifted to a lower elevation by approximately 0.15 m relative to that of the sexual reproductive organs. The increasing corm: spike ratios of plants with longer inundation durations also indicated this reproductive plasticity. This study revealed that the combination of morphological and reproductive responses of pioneer sedges contributed to survival and colonization at the foremost coastal flat. Our results are useful for developing restoration strategies for the native Scirpus species on China's coast.

    I, Robot: How Human Appearance and Mind Attribution Relate to the Perceived Danger of Robots
    Müller, Barbara C.N. ; Gao, Xin ; Nijssen, Sari R.R. ; Damen, Tom G.E. - \ 2020
    International Journal of Social Robotics (2020). - ISSN 1875-4791
    Human/robot interaction - Mind perception - Need for distinctiveness - Uncanny valley

    Social robots become increasingly human-like in appearance and behaviour. However, a large body of research shows that these robots tend to elicit negative feelings of eeriness, danger, and threat. In the present study, we explored whether and how human-like appearance and mind-attribution contribute to these negative feelings and clarified possible underlying mechanisms. Participants were presented with pictures of mechanical, humanoid, and android robots, and physical anthropomorphism (Studies 1–3), attribution of mind perception of agency and experience (Studies 2 and 3), threat to human–machine distinctiveness, and damage to humans and their identity were assessed for all three robot types. Replicating earlier research, human–machine distinctiveness mediated the influence of anthropomorphic appearance on the perceived damage for humans and their identity, and this mediation was due to anthropomorphic appearance of the robot. Perceived agency and experience did not show similar mediating effects on human–machine distinctiveness, but a positive relation with perceived damage for humans and their identity. Possible explanations are discussed.

    Protein A-mesoporous silica composites for chromatographic purification of immunoglobulin G
    Huang, Si ; Cheng, Si Yuan ; Zhang, Shu Yuan ; Yan, Yi Lun ; Cai, Song Liang ; Li, Xin Le ; Zheng, Sheng Run ; Fan, Jun ; Zhang, Wei Guang - \ 2020
    New Journal of Chemistry 44 (2020)19. - ISSN 1144-0546 - p. 7884 - 7890.

    The development of a robust and efficient stationary phase for chromatographic biopharmaceutical purification is of prime importance but remains challenging. Herein, we have developed a series of protein A-mesoporous silica composites for the first time by covalently coupling protein A with the tagged carbonyl imidazole moieties in the column, which constitutes a facile and efficient route for the preparation of protein A immunoaffinity materials. The resultant composites are employed as the stationary phase for chromatographic purification of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The effect of silica's pore size and coupled protein A on the antibody purification is systematically investigated. When the pore size of silica increased from 100 to 1000 Å, the amount of coupled protein A decreased, and the surface coverage on the silica significantly improved, accompanied by an increase in the amount of purified rabbit IgG. With an increasing coupled protein A, the surface coverage increased at first and decreased subsequently, which shows a similar trend to the amount of purified IgG and specific activity. When practically implemented for purifying several immunoglobulins that are central for commercial ELISA Kits, the protein A-mesoporous silica composite exhibited superior performance compared to the GE-Mabselcetxtra rProtein A column, particularly in the purification of immunoglobulin M (IgM), which cannot be realized by the GE-Mabselcetxtra rProtein A column. This study sheds new light on the rational development of protein-affinity chromatography for biopharmaceutical purification.

    Chain conformation and physicochemical properties of polysaccharide (glucuronoxylomannan) from Fruit Bodies of Tremella fuciformis
    Xu, Xiaoqi ; Chen, Aijun ; Ge, Xinyan ; Li, Sha ; Zhang, Tao ; Xu, Hong - \ 2020
    Carbohydrate Polymers 245 (2020). - ISSN 0144-8617
    Chain conformation - Glucuronoxylomannan - Moisture absorption and retention capacity - Rheological properties - Tremella fuciformis - Wormlike cylinder model

    Based on its potential bioactivities and sustainable source, polysaccharide (glucuronoxylomannan) from fruit bodies of Tremella fuciformis (TFP) aroused attention in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. The present study aimed at revealing its chain conformational and physicochemical properties. By using HPSEC-MALLS-Visc-RI measurement, worm-like cylinder model calculation and AFM observation, we manifested that TFP existed as flexible chains in 0.15 M NaCl (pH 7.4) solution, with the persistence length of 9.20 nm and chain diameter of 0.97 nm. Meanwhile, TFP solution exhibited shear-thinning behavior with C* at 5.3 mg mL−1, owning the feature of entangled polysaccharide. TFP solution changed from liquid-like to solid-like behavior as frequency increases, and the crossover points shifted to lower frequencies with concentration increasing. Besides, the strong moisture retention ability of TFP was evaluated. These characteristics indicated that TFP could be utilized to design microstructure system and applied as stabilizer or moisture holding ingredient in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic system.

    Modelling food security : Bridging the gap between the micro and the macro scale
    Müller, Birgit ; Hoffmann, Falk ; Heckelei, Thomas ; Müller, Christoph ; Hertel, Thomas W. ; Polhill, J.G. ; Wijk, Mark van; Achterbosch, Thom ; Alexander, Peter ; Brown, Calum ; Kreuer, David ; Ewert, Frank ; Ge, Jiaqi ; Millington, James D.A. ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Webber, Heidi - \ 2020
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 63 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Agent-based models - Crop models - Economic equilibrium models - Food security - Land use - Model integration - Multi-scale interactions - Social-ecological feedbacks

    Achieving food and nutrition security for all in a changing and globalized world remains a critical challenge of utmost importance. The development of solutions benefits from insights derived from modelling and simulating the complex interactions of the agri-food system, which range from global to household scales and transcend disciplinary boundaries. A wide range of models based on various methodologies (from food trade equilibrium to agent-based) seek to integrate direct and indirect drivers of change in land use, environment and socio-economic conditions at different scales. However, modelling such interaction poses fundamental challenges, especially for representing non-linear dynamics and adaptive behaviours. We identify key pieces of the fragmented landscape of food security modelling, and organize achievements and gaps into different contextual domains of food security (production, trade, and consumption) at different spatial scales. Building on in-depth reflection on three core issues of food security – volatility, technology, and transformation – we identify methodological challenges and promising strategies for advancement. We emphasize particular requirements related to the multifaceted and multiscale nature of food security. They include the explicit representation of transient dynamics to allow for path dependency and irreversible consequences, and of household heterogeneity to incorporate inequality issues. To illustrate ways forward we provide good practice examples using meta-modelling techniques, non-equilibrium approaches and behavioural-based modelling endeavours. We argue that further integration of different model types is required to better account for both multi-level agency and cross-scale feedbacks within the food system.

    Low sanitary conditions increase energy expenditure for maintenance and decrease incremental protein efficiency in growing pigs
    Meer, Y. Van Der; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2020
    Animal 14 (2020)9. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1811 - 1820.
    amino acids - energy metabolism - fasting heat - health status - protein metabolism

    Requirements for energy and particular amino acids (AAs) are known to be influenced by the extent of immune system stimulation. Most studies on this topic use models for immune system stimulation mimicking clinical conditions. Extrapolation to conditions of chronic, low-grade immune system stimulation is difficult. We aimed to quantify differences in maintenance energy requirements and efficiency of energy and protein used for growth (incremental energy and protein efficiency) of pigs kept under low (LSC) or high sanitary conditions (HSC) that were fed either a basal diet or a diet with supplemented AA. Twenty-four groups of six 10-week-old female pigs were kept under either LSC or HSC conditions for 2 weeks and fed a diet supplemented or not with 20% extra methionine, threonine and tryptophan. In week 1, feed was available ad libitum. In week 2, feed supply was restricted to 70% of the realized feed intake (kJ/(kg BW)0.6 per day) in week 1. After week 2, fasting heat production (FHP) was measured. Energy balances and incremental energy and protein efficiencies were measured and analyzed using a GLM. Low sanitary condition increased FHP of pigs by 55 kJ/(kg BW)0.6 per day, regardless of diet. Low sanitary condition did not alter the response of faecal energy output to incremental gross energy (GE) intake, but it reduced the incremental response of metabolizable energy intake (12% units), heat production (6% units) and energy retained as protein (6% units) to GE intake, leaving energy retained as fat unaltered. Incremental protein efficiency was reduced in LSC pigs by 20% units. Incremental efficiencies for energy and protein were not affected by dietary AA supplementation. Chronic, low-grade immune stimulation by LSC treatment increases FHP in pigs. Under such conditions, the incremental efficiency of nitrogen utilization for body protein deposition is reduced, but the incremental efficiency of absorbed energy for energy or fat deposition is unaffected.

    RIdeogram : Drawing SVG graphics to visualize and map genome-wide data on the idiograms
    Hao, Zhaodong ; Lv, Dekang ; Ge, Ying ; Shi, Jisen ; Weijers, Dolf ; Yu, Guangchuang ; Chen, Jinhui - \ 2020
    PeerJ Computer Science 6 (2020). - ISSN 2376-5992 - p. 1 - 11.
    Chromosome - Data visualization - Genome - Idiogram - R package

    Background. Owing to the rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies, whole genome from more and more species are becoming available at increasing pace. For whole-genome analysis, idiograms provide a very popular, intuitive and effective way to map and visualize the genome-wide information, such asGCcontent, gene and repeat density, DNA methylation distribution, genomic synteny, etc. However, most available software programs and web servers are available only for a few model species, such as human, mouse and fly, or have limited application scenarios. As more and more non-model species are sequenced with chromosome-level assembly being available, tools that can generate idiograms for a broad range of species and be capable of visualizing more data types are needed to help better understanding fundamental genome characteristics. Results. The R package RIdeogram allows users to build high-quality idiograms of any species of interest. It can map continuous and discrete genome-wide data on the idiograms and visualize them in a heat map and track labels, respectively. Conclusion. The visualization of genome-wide data mapping and comparison allow users to quickly establish a clear impression of the chromosomal distribution pattern, thus making RIdeogram a useful tool for any researchers working with omics.

    The roles of vegetation, tide and sediment in the variability of carbon in the salt marsh dominated tidal creeks
    Tan, Li Shan ; Ge, Zhen Ming ; Fei, Bei Li ; Xie, Li Na ; Li, Ya Lei ; Li, Shi Hua ; Li, Xiu Zhen ; Ysebaert, Tom - \ 2020
    Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 239 (2020). - ISSN 0272-7714
    Carbon loading - Hydrological regime - Marsh creek - Seasonal variation - Vegetation type

    Combined effects of vegetation, tide and sediment on the carbon dynamics in the intertidal creek-marsh systems remain unclear. We investigated the variability of dissolved organic (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC), and particulate organic (POC) and inorganic carbon (PIC) in the tidal creeks within the Poaceae and Cyperaceae communities on flood-ebb cycle in a salt marsh of eastern China. In the Poaceae creek with high plant biomass and soil carbon stock, the DOC concentrations were higher by on average 1.00–1.48 times than that in the Cyperaceae creek across all seasons and spring and neap tide stages, while the difference of DIC was not notable. The POC and PIC concentrations were lower in the Poaceae creek compared to the Cyperaceae creek. Spring tides increased the carbon concentrations (except for PIC) in both creeks by on average 7–40%, relative to neap tides. Seasonal variations of sedimentary rate within the communities probably result in the discrepancy of particulate carbon loading between the creeks. The Poaceae creek functioned as a source of DOC and DIC throughout a year but as a sink of POC and PIC in summer and autumn, while it turned to a weak source of PIC in winter and spring. The Cyperaceae creek exhibited as a source of all carbon components throughout a year. We suggest that vegetation type (with soil carbon stocks), tidal regimes and sedimentary dynamics would synergistically determine the fate of carbon in the creeks. Our results are helpful in reliable estimates of carbon transport between the coastal marsh and the adjacent ocean.

    Impacts of agricultural industrial agglomeration on China's agricultural energy efficiency : A spatial econometrics analysis
    Wu, Jianzhai ; Ge, Zhangming ; Han, Shuqing ; Xing, Liwei ; Zhu, Mengshuai ; Zhang, Jing ; Liu, Jifang - \ 2020
    Journal of Cleaner Production 260 (2020). - ISSN 0959-6526
    Agriculture in China - Energy efficiency - Industrial agglomeration - Spatial econometrics

    The rapid development of traditional agriculture in China was achieved at the expense of high energy consumption and investments. However, the global green development trend made it necessary for the country to transform its agricultural energy utilization. Energy efficiency changes are affected by many factors, particularly industrial agglomeration. In recent years, the Chinese government has introduced a series of policies, including setting major producing regions for grains and advantageous regions for characteristic agricultural product. These have caused significant changes to the spatial layout of the agriculture industry. However, there is still a lack of research on the impact of these changes on agricultural energy efficiency (AEE). In this study, panel data of 30 Chinese provinces from 2000 to 2016 were entered into stochastic frontier models to measure the country's AEE at the provincial level. A series of spatial econometric models were also used to analyze the impact of agricultural industrial agglomeration on China's AEE. The results indicated that the country's AEE exhibited obvious spatial gradients and correlations. After controlling the impacts of spatial correlation and other factors in the models, agricultural industrial agglomeration was found to have an overall positive impact on China's AEE. In the future, policies should be formulated to increase AEE by establishing agricultural functional areas, strengthening the innovation and sharing of green development technologies at the farm level, and promoting the optimization of energy structures in agricultural and rural areas.

    Genetic Variability of Morphological, Flowering, and Biomass Quality Traits in Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
    Petit, Jordi ; Salentijn, Elma M.J. ; Paulo, Maria João ; Thouminot, Claire ; Dinter, Bert Jan van; Magagnini, Gianmaria ; Gusovius, Hans Jörg ; Tang, Kailei ; Amaducci, Stefano ; Wang, Shaoliang ; Uhrlaub, Birgit ; Müssig, Jörg ; Trindade, Luisa M. - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Plant Science 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-462X
    Cannabis sativa - cell wall composition - fiber quality - flowering time - genetic variability - genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions - hemp - sex determination

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a bast-fiber crop well-known for the great potential to produce sustainable fibers. Nevertheless, hemp fiber quality is a complex trait, and little is known about the phenotypic variability and heritability of fiber quality traits in hemp. The aim of this study is to gain insights into the variability in fiber quality within the hemp germplasm and to estimate the genetic components, environmental components, and genotype-by-environment (G×E) interactions on fiber quality traits in hemp. To investigate these parameters, a panel of 123 hemp accessions was phenotyped for 28 traits relevant to fiber quality at three locations in Europe, corresponding to climates of northern, central, and southern Europe. In general, hemp cultivated in northern latitudes showed a larger plant vigor while earlier flowering was characteristic of plants cultivated in southern latitudes. Extensive variability between accessions was observed for all traits. Most cell wall components (contents of monosaccharides derived from cellulose and hemicellulose; and lignin content), bast fiber content, and flowering traits revealed large genetic components with low G×E interactions and high broad-sense heritability values, making these traits suitable to maximize the genetic gains of fiber quality. In contrast, contents of pectin-related monosaccharides, most agronomic traits, and several fiber traits (fineness and decortication efficiency) showed low genetic components with large G×E interactions affecting the rankings across locations. These results suggest that pectin, agronomic traits, and fiber traits are unsuitable targets in breeding programs of hemp, as their large G×E interactions might lead to unexpected phenotypes in untested locations. Furthermore, all environmental effects on the 28 traits were statistically significant, suggesting a strong adaptive behavior of fiber quality in hemp to specific environments. The high variability in fiber quality observed in the hemp panel, the broad range in heritability, and adaptability among all traits prescribe positive prospects for the development of new hemp cultivars of excellent fiber quality.

    myWURspace: 'plan it properly'
    Kok, Herman - \ 2020
    Cereal dietary fibres influence retention time of digesta solid and liquid phases along the gastrointestinal tract
    Low, Dorrain Y. ; Pluschke, Anton M. ; Gerrits, Walter J.J. ; Zhang, Dagong ; Shelat, Kinnari J. ; Gidley, Michael J. ; Williams, Barbara A. - \ 2020
    Food Hydrocolloids 104 (2020). - ISSN 0268-005X
    Arabinoxylan - Digesta - Liquid phase - Retention time - Solid phase - β-glucan

    Nutrient digestion kinetics are determined by gastric emptying (GE) in the stomach and apparent mean retention time (aMRT) along the small and large intestine. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of cereal dietary fibres (DF), either as intrinsic components of plant foods or added ingredients, on the retention of solid and liquid phases of digesta along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Thirty pigs were fed one of five diets containing whole wheat (WW), wheat starch (WS) or wheat starch partially replaced by wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat β-glucan (βG), or in combination (WSAXβG). Indigestible solid and liquid phase markers were added to each diet and fed at i) constant and ii) pulse dose intervals. Constant markers (acid insoluble ash and chromium) provided aMRT along 11 sections of the GI tract, while pulse dose markers (cerium, ytterbium and cobalt), fed 2–6 h before anaesthesia, provided a GE time. aMRT was slowest in the caecum and large intestine (LI, 15.4h), followed by the small intestine (SI, 3.4h) and stomach (2.6h) with liquid phases moving faster compared to solid phases. Between DF, AX but not βG, delayed GE of solid and liquid contents and showed longer retention time in SI and LI. In the absence of isolated soluble fibres, WS and WW diets showed similar flow characteristics of solid and liquid phases. The aMRT was shown to be dependent on the structure and swellability of added DF.

    Multi-environment analysis of sorghum breeding trials using additive and dominance genomic relationships
    Hunt, Colleen H. ; Hayes, Ben J. ; Eeuwijk, Fred A. van; Mace, Emma S. ; Jordan, David R. - \ 2020
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 133 (2020). - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 1009 - 1018.

    Key message: Multi-environment models using marker-based kinship information for both additive and dominance effects can accurately predict hybrid performance in different environments. Abstract: Sorghum is an important hybrid crop that is grown extensively in many subtropical and tropical regions including Northern NSW and Queensland in Australia. The highly varying weather patterns in the Australian summer months mean that sorghum hybrids exhibit a great deal of variation in yield between locations. To ultimately enable prediction of the outcome of crossing parental lines, both additive effects on yield performance and dominance interaction effects need to be characterised. This paper demonstrates that fitting a linear mixed model that includes both types of effects calculated using genetic markers in relationship matrices improves predictions. Genotype by environment interactions was investigated by comparing FA1 (single-factor analytic) and FA2 (two-factor analytic) structures. The G×E causes a change in hybrid rankings between trials with a difference of up to 25% of the hybrids in the top 10% of each trial. The prediction accuracies increased with the addition of the dominance term (over and above that achieved with an additive effect alone) by an average of 15% and a maximum of 60%. The percentage of dominance of the total genetic variance varied between trials with the trials with higher broad-sense heritability having the greater percentage of dominance. The inclusion of dominance in the factor analytic models improves the accuracy of the additive effects.Breeders selecting high yielding parents for crossing need to be aware of effects due to environment and dominance.

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food and phytomedicine : Occurrence, exposure, toxicity, mechanisms, and risk assessment - A review
    Schrenk, Dieter ; Gao, Lan ; Lin, Ge ; Mahony, Catherine ; Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Peijnenburg, Ad ; Pfuhler, Stefan ; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. ; Rutz, Lukas ; Steinhoff, Barbara ; These, Anja - \ 2020
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 136 (2020). - ISSN 0278-6915
    Food safety - Hepatocarcinogenicity - Liver toxicity - Natural toxins - Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

    Among naturally occurring plant constituents, the 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (in the following termed ‘PAs’) play a distinct role because of the large number of congeners occurring in nature and the pronounced toxicity of some congeners. Several PAs are hepatotoxic in humans, experimental and farm animals and were shown to be potent hepatocarcinogens in laboratory rodents. Although the general mode of action leading to toxicity has been elucidated, i.e., being mediated by metabolic conversion of the parent molecule into a highly reactive electrophile capable of attacking cellular target molecules, major questions related to the risk assessment of PAs remain unresolved. It was the aim of a workshop held in September 2018 to shed more light on the occurrence, exposure, mode of action, toxicokinetics and –dynamics of PAs to improve the scientific basis for an advanced toxicological risk assessment. The contributions in nine chapters describe the scientific progress using advanced analytical methods, studies in subcellular fractions, cell culture, experimental animals and humans and the use of PBPK modeling and structure-activity relationship considerations aiming at a better understanding of PA toxicity and genotoxicity. Since PAs differ considerably in their toxic potencies and substantial species differences in sensitivity towards PA exposure exist, a special emphasis was placed on these issues.

    Negative effects of urbanization on agricultural soil easily oxidizable organic carbon down the profile of the Chengdu Plain, China
    Luo, Youlin ; Li, Qiquan ; Wang, Changquan ; Li, Bing ; Stomph, Tjeerd Jan ; Yang, Juan ; Tao, Qi ; Yuan, Shu ; Tang, Xiaoyan ; Ge, Jinru ; Yu, Xuelian ; Peng, Yueyue ; Xu, Qiang ; Zheng, Gangxun - \ 2020
    Land Degradation and Development 31 (2020)3. - ISSN 1085-3278 - p. 404 - 416.
    easily oxidized organic carbon - impact factors - negative effects - rapid urbanization - soil profile

    Soil easily oxidizable organic carbon (EOC) is directly related to CO2 density; dynamics in subsurface EOC have been observed globally in relation to rapid urbanization. However, in the context of rapid urbanization, the factors related to EOC and the response of the EOC pool to urbanization down the profile remain elusive. The aim of the current paper is to investigate possible changes in the distribution of EOC over the soil profile and the impact of land use, socioeconomic, and natural factors on these. The study used samples from 182 soil profiles (0–100 cm) taken in the peri-urban areas of the megacity Chengdu (a typical megacity with rapid urbanization). Main drivers of changes in soil EOC were analyzed by using spatial and regression analyses. Closer to the centre of the city, soil EOC levels were lower and land-use factors and socioeconomic factors contributed more to explaining variation in EOC levels in the 0–40-cm layer, whereas natural factors were most important at larger distance from the city. The effect of land-use factors and socioeconomic factors on EOC reached down to 60-cm depths. Moreover, an estimated 20% loss of EOC stock was observed close to the city in comparison with the surroundings, suggesting that the rapid process of urbanization was accompanied by a loss of EOC stock down the profile to depths of 60 cm, and the negative effects on EOC stock became more intensive as the distance to the city decreased.

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