Between biodiversity conservation and sustainable forest management – A multidisciplinary assessment of the emblematic Białowieża Forest case
Blicharska, M. ; Angelstam, P. ; Giessen, L. ; Hilszczański, J. ; Hermanowicz, E. ; Holeksa, J. ; Jacobsen, J.B. ; Jaroszewicz, B. ; Konczal, A. ; Konieczny, A. ; Mikusiński, G. ; Mirek, Z. ; Mohren, F. ; Muys, B. ; Niedziałkowski, K. ; Sotirov, M. ; Stereńczak, K. ; Szwagrzyk, J. ; Winder, G.M. ; Witkowski, Z. ; Zaplata, R. ; Winkel, G. - \ 2020
Biological Conservation 248 (2020). - ISSN 0006-3207
Białowieża Forest - Biodiversity conservation - Conservation conflict - Forest management - Interdisciplinarity - Land use conflict - Sustainable land use
The tension between biodiversity conservation and multipurpose forest management may lead to conflicts. An internationally prominent example is the Białowieża Forest Massif (BFM), an extensive forest complex with high levels of naturalness. We apply a systematic, multidisciplinary assessment process to review empirical evidence on different dimensions of the BFM conflict. While there is broad consensus that this forest massif is an exceptional place worth conserving and that a way forward is a zonation system combining conservation with management, exactly how this should be done has yet to be agreed upon. Our assessment shows that the key reasons for the BFM controversy go beyond the availability of knowledge on the ecological status of the BFM and include: 1) evidence stemming from different sources, which is often contradictory and prone to different interpretations; 2) knowledge gaps, particularly with regard to socio-economic drivers and beneficiaries as well as uncertainties about future trends; 3) fundamentally different values and priorities among stakeholder groups, resulting in power struggles, and an overall lack of trust. We conclude that evidence-based knowledge alone is insufficient to cope with complex conservation conflicts. While more evidence may help assess the consequences of decisions, the actual management decisions depend on different actors' worldviews, which are rooted in their professional identities and power, and their political and legal realities. This calls for conflict management through a well-organized participatory process organized and supervised by a body deemed legitimate by the groups involved.
Methods to assess the effect of meat processing on viability of Toxoplasma gondii: towards replacement of mouse bioassay by in vitro testing
Opsteegh, M. ; Dam-Deisz, C. ; Boer, Paulo de; Decraeye, S. ; Faré, Andrea ; Hengeveld, P. ; Luiten, R. ; Schares, Gereon ; Smits, C.B. ; Verhaegen, Bavo ; Verkleij, T.J. ; Giessen, Joke van der; Wisselink, Henk J. - \ 2020
International Journal for Parasitology 50 (2020)5. - ISSN 0020-7519 - p. 357 - 369.
Consumption of meat containing viable tissue cysts is considered one of the main sources of human infection with Toxoplasma gondii. In contrast to fresh meat, raw meat products usually undergo processing, including salting and mixing with other additives such as sodium acetate and sodium lactate, which affects the viability of T. gondii. However, the experiments described in the literature are not always performed in line with the current processing methods applied in industry. It was our goal to study the effect of salting and additives according to the recipes used by industrial producers. Mouse or cat bioassay is the ‘gold standard’ to demonstrate the presence of viable T. gondii. However, it is costly, time consuming and for ethical reasons not preferred for large-scale studies. Therefore, we first aimed to develop an alternative for mouse bioassay that can be used to determine the effect of processing on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. The assays studied were (i) a cell culture method to determine the parasite’s ability to multiply, and (ii) a propidium monoazide (PMA) dye-based assay to selectively detect DNA from intact parasites. Processing experiments were performed with minced meat incubated for 20 h with low concentrations of NaCl, sodium lactate and sodium acetate. NaCl appeared to be the most effective ingredient with only one or two out of eight mice infected after inoculation with pepsin-digest of portions processed with 1.0, 1.2 and 1.6% NaCl. Results of preliminary experiments with the PMA-based method were inconsistent and did not sufficiently discriminate between live and dead parasites. In contrast, the cell culture method showed promising results, but further optimization is needed before it can replace or reduce the number of mouse bioassays needed. In future, standardised in vitro methods are necessary to allow more extensive testing of product-specific processing methods, thereby providing a better indication of the risk of T. gondii infection for consumers.
Effect of meat processing on viability of Toxoplasma gondii: Towards replacement of mouse bioassay by in vitro testing
Opsteegh, M. ; Dam-Deisz, C. ; Boer, P. de; Fare, A. ; Hengeveld, P. ; Luiten, R. ; Smits, C.B. ; Verkleij, T. ; Giessen, Judith van der; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2019
Felines are the definitive hosts of T. gondii and primary infection results in fecal shedding of infectious oocysts. Infected intermediate hosts will develop tissue cysts, which are infective to both cats and intermediate hosts. Meat containing viable tissue cysts is considered one of the main sources of human infection. In contrast to fresh meat, raw meat products usually undergo processing, including salting and mixing in additives such as acetate and lactate, which affects the viability of T. gondii. However, the experiments currently described in literature, are not always performed in line with the processing methods applied in industry. Therefore we aimed to study the effect of salting and additives according to the recipes used by commercial producers. Mouse or cat bioassay is the gold standard to demonstrate the presence of viable T. gondii. However, it is costly, time consuming and for ethical reasons not preferred for large-scale studies. Therefore, our second aim was to develop an alternative for mouse bioassay that can be used to determine the effect of processing on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. We focused on a tissue culture method to determine the parasite's ability to multiply, and a PMA-based assay to selectively detect DNA from live cells. Results with the PMA-based method were inconsistent and did not sufficiently discriminate between live and dead parasites. The tissue culture method showed promising results, but further optimization is needed before it can replace or reduce the number of mouse bioassays needed. Small scale experiments with minced meat incubated for 20h with low concentrations of salt, lactate and acetate showed a large but incomplete reduction of the number of infected mice. In future, in vitro methods are needed to allow more extensive testing of product-specific processing methods, thereby providing a better indication of the risk of T. gondii infection for consumers.
A risk based surveillance programme for Toxoplasma gondii in pigs using a combination of farm auditing and serological screening
Wisselink, H.J. ; Swanenburg, M. ; Gonzales Rojas, Jose ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Wagenberg, Coen van; Giessen, J. van der; Meerburg, B.G. ; Krijger, Inge ; Eppink, D.M. ; Bouwknegt, M. ; Oorburg, D. - \ 2019
Toxoplasma gondii is recognized as one of the major foodborne pathogens with a high human disease burden. In the Netherlands, pork contributes to about 11 % of the meatborne T. gondii infections. To control T. gondii infections in pigs, EFSA has advised to perform serological testing of pigs and audits of pig farms on risk factors for T. gondii infection. In the Netherlands, a program was started to translate the EFSA advice into a practical risk based surveillance system. In first instance, a large scale serological monitoring of fattening pigs was started and seroprevalence over time was determined. Next, the association between within-herd seroprevalence and risk factors for T. gondii on fattening pig farms in the Netherlands was determined. For this, a questionnaire for auditing farms for the presence of risk factors of T. gondii was developed and used on 25 case and 50 control farms. Results show that there is a significant association between seroprevalence and risk factors as cats present on farms, use of unheated feed products and feeding wet feed. Moreover, on-farm presence of rats and mice also increases Toxoplasma transmission risks. Subsequently, a study was started on farms to quantify the effectiveness of interventions on farms. A cross-over clinical trial was set up in which case farms were their own control and the cross-over moment is the implementation of interventions on risk factors to change farm management. Farms with a high within-herd seroprevalence were followed for at least during a year and monitored periodically for seroprevalence and implementation of interventions to eventually reduce the disease burden. The break-even point was calculated for which the intervention cost at fattening pig farms equal averted human disease burden and averted cost-of-illness minus cost of the surveillance program. The results shows favourable economic perspectives for interventions to control pig meat-born transmission of T. gondii.
Identification of potential risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in fattening pigs in the Netherlands using a Bayesian approach
Eppink, D.M. ; Bouwknegt, M. ; Oorburg, D. ; Urlings, H.A.P. ; Asseldonk, Marcel van; Wagenberg, Coen van; Krijger, Inge ; Giessen, J.W.P. van der; Swanenburg, M. ; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2019
Toxoplasma gondii is a relevant foodborne pathogen,it is estimated that up to one third of the worldpopulation has been exposed to the parasite (Tenteret al. 2000). In the Netherlands toxoplasmosis rankssecond on a list of prioritized emerging zoonosis(Havelaar et al. 2010) and also second in disease burden among 14 foodborne diseases (Mangen et al.2017). Data suggest that ingesting improperly cooked meat containing T. gondii is one of the major sources of infection in Europe and North America (Crotta et al. 2017; Guo et al. 2015). The contribution of pork to meatborne T. gondii infections is estimated to be11 % in the Netherlands (Opsteegh 2011) and is seen as an important possible source of human T. gondii infections (Foroutan et al. 2019). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) advised to perform serological testing of pigs and on farm audits on risk factors (EFSA 2011). To that end, a serological monitoring program was developed in a slaughterhouse in the Netherlands. In this study, the objective is to determine the association between within herd seroprevalence, corrected for misclassification of samples through Bayesian analyses, and risk factors for T. gondii on fattening pig farms in TheNetherlands.
Materials and MethodsFrom 2015 to 2018, HACCP based audits were performedon 75 fattening pig farms in The Netherlands to identify the presence of potential T. gondii risk factors. All farms were conventional pig farms, with 15 farms being farrow to finish. As overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in pigs in the Netherlands is low, estimated at 5 % (1-12 % 95 % CI) by Foroutanet al. 2019, approached farms were chosen with the knowledge of previous serology data. In this way there would be farms with positive serum samples and farms without them included in the study. The audits were based on an updated version of the questionnaire from Mul et al. (2015) and covered the following topics: outdoor access, farm biosecurity, rodent control, presence of cats, feed and watersupply. In addition, serum samples (n=6272) from fattening pigs were obtained at slaughter throughout the year before the audit on the farm was performed. These samples were used for antibody testing bya PrioCHECK™ Toxoplasma Antibody ELISA. Data were analysed using Bayesian statistics, with the within farm T. gondii prevalence as dependent variable and potential risk factors as independent variables. As always with serology, misclassification due to false-positive or false-negative results can occur. Statistical methods have been developed to account for such misclassification, based on frequentistic as well as Bayesian approaches (Hui & Walter 1980; Josephet al. 1995). First, all independent variables wereanalysed in a univariate logistic model, and variables with a probability ≤0.25 that zero is included in the 95 % interval were analysed in a multivariable model. The multivariate logistic model was fitted using backward elimination until all remaining variables showed a probability ≤0.05 that zero is included in the 95 % interval. Two-way interaction terms were evaluated similarly to the main variables regarding statistical significance.
ResultsDescriptive results showed that 50 out of the 75 farms had 1 or more positive serum samplein the year before the audit was performed. In total 438 samples were positive out of the 6272 samples. Final Bayesian analyses are currently being conducted. However, preliminary results from data analysis using frequentistic logistic multivariate regression identified two significant risk factors: the accessibility of pig feed for cats and theprovision of well water as drinking water for the pigs (Table 1).
Discussion and ConclusionsThe use of serological testing seems to be a valuable guide and monitoring tool for the control of T.gondii in pork production. In a preliminary analysis, a higher within-herd T. gondii seroprevalence on fattening pig farms in the Netherlands was associated with the accessibility of pig feed for cats and the provision of well water as drinking water for the pigs. Improvements in farm management on fattening pig farms will likely contribute to reduction of the human disease burden and is presently studied.
The relationship between the presence of antibodies and direct detection of Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered calves and cattle in four European countries
Opsteegh, M. ; Spano, F. ; Aubert, D. ; Balea, A. ; Burrells, A. ; Cherchi, S. ; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J. ; Dam-Deisz, C. ; Guitian, J. ; Györke, A. ; Innes, E.A. ; Katzer, F. ; Limon, G. ; Possenti, A. ; Pozio, E. ; Schares, G. ; Villena, I. ; Wisselink, H.J. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der - \ 2019
International Journal for Parasitology 49 (2019)7. - ISSN 0020-7519 - p. 515 - 522.
Cattle - Detection - Mouse bioassay - PCR - Serology - Toxoplasma gondii
In cattle, antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection are frequently detected, but evidence for the presence of T. gondii tissue cysts in cattle is limited. To study the concordance between the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and viable tissue cysts of T. gondii in cattle, serum, liver and diaphragm samples of 167 veal calves and 235 adult cattle were collected in Italy, the Netherlands, Romania and the United Kingdom. Serum samples were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG by the modified agglutination test and p30 immunoblot. Samples from liver were analyzed by mouse bioassay and PCR after trypsin digestion. In addition, all diaphragms of cattle that had tested T. gondii-positive (either in bioassay, by PCR on trypsin-digested liver or serologically by MAT) and a selection of diaphragms from cattle that had tested negative were analyzed by magnetic capture quantitative PCR (MC-PCR). Overall, 13 animals were considered positive by a direct detection method: seven out of 151 (4.6%) by MC-PCR and six out of 385 (1.6%) by bioassay, indicating the presence of viable parasites. As cattle that tested positive in the bioassay tested negative by MC-PCR and vice-versa, these results demonstrate a lack of concordance between the presence of viable parasites in liver and the detection of T. gondii DNA in diaphragm. In addition, the probability to detect T. gondii parasites or DNA in seropositive and seronegative cattle was comparable, demonstrating that serological testing by MAT or p30 immunoblot does not provide information about the presence of T. gondii parasites or DNA in cattle and therefore is not a reliable indicator of the risk for consumers.
Association between within-herd seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in fattening pigs in the Netherlands
Eppink, D.M. ; Bouwknegt, M. ; Oorburg, D. ; Urlings, H.A.P. ; Asseldonk, Marcel van; Wagenberg, Coen van; Krijger, I.M. ; Giessen, J.W.P. Van der; Swanenburg, M. ; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2018
In: Annual General Meeting of the European College of Veterinary Public Health, "Fading of the HACCP after four decades: new trends in VPH for food safety ", Perugia, 17th-19th October 2018. - European College of Veterinary Public Health (ECVPH) - p. 40 - 40.
Study on progress in implementing the EU Forest Strategy - Evaluation Study
Wolfslehner, B. ; Aggestam, F. ; Hurmekoski, E. ; Kulikova, E. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Pettenella, D. ; Pülzl, H. ; Giessen, L. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Hendriks, C.M.A. - \ 2018
European Forest Institute - ISBN 9789279864896 - 182 p.
Serological screening of Dutch slaughter pigs to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infections at farms
Swanenburg, M. ; Rojas, J.G. ; Bouwknegt, M. ; Oorburg, D. ; Giessen, Joke van der; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2018
In: The 15th international symposium of veterinary epidemiology and economics. - Chang Mai, Thailand : The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) - p. 252 - 252.
Prevalence of Leptospira spp. and Seoul hantavirus in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in four regions in the Netherlands, 2011-2015
Maas, Miriam ; Vries, Ankje De; Reusken, Chantal ; Buijs, Jan ; Goris, Marga ; Hartskeerl, Rudy ; Ahmed, Ahmed ; Tulden, Peter van; Swart, Arno ; Pijnacker, Roan ; Koene, Miriam ; Lundkvist, Åke ; Heyman, Paul ; Rockx, Barry ; Giessen, Joke Van Der - \ 2018
Infection Ecology and Epidemiology 8 (2018)1. - ISSN 2000-8686
epidemiology - hantavirus - Leptospirosis - prevalence - Rattus norvegicus - Seoul virus
Background: Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) may carry pathogens that can be a risk for public health. Brown rats in the Netherlands were tested for the zoonotic pathogens Leptospira spp. and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), in order to obtain insight in their prevalence. Methods and results: Cross-sectional studies were performed at four locations from 2011 to 2015. The rats were tested for Leptospira spp. using real-time PCR and/or culture resulting in a prevalence ranging between 33–57%. Testing for SEOV was done through an adapted human Seoul hantavirus ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. Although at several locations the ELISA indicated presence of SEOV antibodies, none could be confirmed by focus reduction neutralization testing. Conclusion: The results indicate a widespread presence of Leptospira spp. in brown rats in the Netherlands, including areas with a low leptospirosis incidence in humans. No evidence for circulation of SEOV was found in this study.
Brucella pinnipedialis in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands
Kroese, Michiel V. ; Beckers, Lisa ; Bisselink, Yvette J.W.M. ; Brasseur, Sophie ; Tulden, Peter W. van; Koene, Miriam G.J. ; Roest, Hendrik I.J. ; Ruuls, Robin C. ; Backer, Jantien A. ; Ijzer, Jooske ; Giessen, Joke W.B. van der; Willemsen, Peter T.J. - \ 2018
Journal of Wildlife Diseases 54 (2018)3. - ISSN 0090-3558 - p. 439 - 449.
Brucella pinnipedialis - Halichoerus grypus - MALDI-TOF MS - Marine mammals - MLST - MLVA-16 - Phoca vitulina - The Netherlands
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with terrestrial or marine wildlife animals as potential reservoirs for the disease in livestock and human populations. The primary aim of this study was to assess the presence of Brucella pinnipedialis in marine mammals living along the Dutch coast and to observe a possible correlation between the presence of B. pinnipedialis and accompanying pathology found in infected animals. The overall prevalence of Brucella spp. antibodies in sera from healthy wild grey seals (Halichoerus grypus; n=11) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina; n=40), collected between 2007 and 2013 ranged from 25% to 43%. Additionally, tissue samples of harbor seals collected along the Dutch shores between 2009 and 2012, were tested for the presence of Brucella spp. In total, 77% (30/ 39) seals were found to be positive for Brucella by IS711 real-time PCR in one or more tissue samples, including pulmonary nematodes. Viable Brucella was cultured from 40% (12/30) real-time PCR-positive seals, and was isolated from liver, lung, pulmonary lymph node, pulmonary nematode, or spleen, but not from any PCR-negative seals. Tissue samples from lung and pulmonary lymph nodes were the main source of viable Brucella bacteria. All isolates were typed as B. pinnipedialis by multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis-16 clustering and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, and of sequence type ST25 by multilocus sequence typing analysis. No correlation was observed between Brucella infection and pathology. This report displays the isolation and identification of B. pinnipedialis in marine mammals in the Dutch part of the Atlantic Ocean.
A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species
Heijne, Marloes ; Goot, Jeanet A. van der; Fijten, Helmi ; Giessen, Joke W. van der; Kuijt, Eric ; Maassen, Catharina B.M. ; Roon, Annika van; Wit, Ben ; Koets, Ad P. ; Roest, Hendrik I.J. - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its avian pathogenicity and zoonotic potential have to be further elucidated. Within the Netherlands no data were available on the presence of Chlamydia on poultry farms. As part of a surveillance programme for zoonotic pathogens in farm animals, we investigated pooled faecal samples from 151 randomly selected layer farms. On a voluntary base, 69 farmers, family members or farm workers from these 151 farms submitted a throat swab. All samples were tested with a generic 23S Chlamydiaceae PCR followed by a species specific PCR for C. avium, C. gallinacea and C. psittaci. C. avium and psittaci DNA was not detected at any of the farms. At 71 farms the positive result could be confirmed as C. gallinacea. Variables significantly associated with the presence of C. gallinacea in a final multivariable model were ‘age of hens,’ ‘use of bedding material’ and ‘the presence of horses.’ The presence of C. gallinacea was associated with neither clinical signs, varying from respiratory symptoms, nasal and ocular discharges to diarrhoea, nor with a higher mortality rate the day before the visit. All throat swabs from farmers, family members or farm workers tested negative for Chlamydia DNA, giving no further indication for possible bird-to-human (or human-to-bird) transmission.
Using serological monitoring, internet-based feedback and on-farm auditing to improve Toxoplasma gondii control at Dutch pig farms
Oorburg, D. ; Eppink, Dorien ; Heijltjes, Janneke ; Bouwknegt, Martijn ; Urlings, Bert ; Giessen, Joke van der; Krijger, Inge ; Mul, Monique ; Swanenburg, M. ; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2017
In: 12th International Symposium on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological,Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork - Proceedings Book, Foz doIguaçu, august 21-24, 2017. - Embrapa - p. 201 - 201.
Toxoplasma gondii is a relevant foodborne pathogen due to its human disease burden. In the Netherlands, pork is estimated to contribute to 11% of the meatborne T. gondii infections. The European Food Safety Authority advised to perform serological testing of pigs and on farm audits on risk factors for T. gondii infection.
One health-samenwerking in de aanpak van psittacose
Heijne, M. ; Hogerwerf, Lenny ; Dijkstra, Frederika ; Goot, J.A. van der; Heddema, Edou ; Kroneman, A. ; Notermans, D. ; Pannekoek, Yvonne ; Rosa, Mauro de; Wierik, M. te; Giessen, Joke van der; Roest, H.I.J. ; Hoek, Wim van der - \ 2017
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Medische Microbiologie 25 (2017)2. - ISSN 0929-0176 - p. 43 - 48.
Psittacose is een zoönose veroorzaakt door de bacterie Chlamydia psittaci. In Nederland is psittacose bij mensen een meldingsplichtige en bij vogels (uitgezonderd pluimvee) een aangifteplichtige ziekte. Van 2011 tot 2015 werden 41 tot 70 humane meldingen per jaar gedaan, maar dit is een onderschatting. Het aantal pneumonieën veroorzaakt door C. psittaci wordt op 1500 per jaar geschat. In 2014 is het One Health-project Plat4m-2bt-Psittacosis gestart. In dit project wordt een onlineplatform ontwikkeld om uitwisseling van data te faciliteren en de samenwerking tussen het humane en veterinaire veld te verbeteren. Onderdeel van het project is het beter in kaart brengen van de aviaire bronnen van psittacose. Recent wordt, naast papegaaiachtigen en duiven, ook pluimvee als mogelijke bron van humane C. psittaci-infecties gezien. Op basis van de jaarlijkse humane psittacosemeldingen is, ook in Nederland, een link gelegd tussen psittacose en de aanwezigheid van kippenslachterijen en eendenbedrijven. Bij een Nederlandse studie op ongeveer 150 leghennenbedrijven is echter geen C. psittaci-DNA aangetoond, maar bij ongeveer de helft van de bedrijven wel een relatief nieuwe Chlamydia-soort: C. gallinacea. Het zoönotisch potentieel van C. gallinacea is nog onduidelijk. Met de ontwikkeling en toepassing van het onlineplatform wil het Platform-2bt-Psittacosis een voorbeeld vormen voor een structurele aanpak van de bestrijding van zoönosen.
Environmental surveillance during an outbreak of tularaemia in hares, the Netherlands, 2015
Janse, Ingmar ; Maas, M. ; Rijks, J.M. ; Koene, M. ; Plaats, R.Q. van der; Engelsma, M. ; Tas, P.W.L. ; Braks, M. ; Stroo, A. ; Notermans, D.W. ; Vries, M.C. de; Reubsaet, F.A.G. ; Fanoy, E. ; Swaan, C.M. ; Kik, M.J. ; Ijzer, J. ; Jaarsma, R.I. ; Wieren, S. van; Roda Husman, A.M. de; Passel, M. van; Roest, H. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2017
Eurosurveillance 22 (2017)35. - ISSN 1025-496X
Tularaemia, a disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a re-emerging zoonosis in the Netherlands. After sporadic human and hare cases occurred in the period 2011 to 2014, a cluster of F. tularensis-infected hares was recognised in a region in the north of the Netherlands from February to May 2015. No human cases were identified, including after active case finding. Presence of F. tularensis was investigated in potential reservoirs and transmission routes, including common voles, arthropod vectors and surface waters. F. tularensis was not detected in common voles, mosquito larvae or adults, tabanids or ticks. However, the bacterium was detected in water and sediment samples collected in a limited geographical area where infected hares had also been found. These results demonstrate that water monitoring could provide valuable information regarding F. tularensis spread and persistence, and should be used in addition to disease surveillance in wildlife.
Knaagdieren & Zoönosen: Toxoplasma gondii
Opsteegh, M. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der; Meerburg, B.G. - \ 2016
In: Staat van Zoönosen 2016 Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 2017-0142) - p. 84 - 84.
Identification of pig farms with a high risk for Toxoplasma gondii using a combination of serological monitoring and auditing
Wisselink, H.J. ; Swanenburg, M. ; Gonzales Rojas, Jose ; Asseldonk, Marcel van; Wagenberg, Coen van; Giessen, J.W.B. van der; Mul, M.F. ; Klein Koerkamp, M. ; Oorburg, D. - \ 2016
In: 4th EAVLD Congress of the European Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians. - Prague : European Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians (4th EAVLD Congress of the European Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians ) - p. 42 - 42.
Implementing wildlife disease surveillance in the Netherlands, a One Health approach
Maas, M. ; Gröne, A. ; Kuiken, T. ; Schaik, G. Van; Roest, H.I.J. ; Giessen, J.W.B. Van Der - \ 2016
Revue scientifique et technique / Office International des Epizooties 35 (2016)3. - ISSN 0253-1933 - p. 863 - 874.
One health - Overview - Public health - Surveillance - The Netherlands - Veterinary health - Wildlife disease
The surveillance of (emerging) wildlife diseases can provide important, objective evidence of the circulation of pathogens of interest for veterinary and/or public health. The involvement of multiple research institutions in wildlife disease surveillance can ensure the best use of existing knowledge and expertise, but can also complicate or add challenges to the integration of wildlife disease surveillance components into a national programme. Documenting the existing efforts in a country's surveillance of wildlife diseases, including the institutes in which it takes place, provides a basis for policy-makers and authorities to identify gaps and priorities in their current surveillance programmes. This paper describes the wildlife disease surveillance activities taking place in the Netherlands. The authors recommend that, in addition to funding these current activities, surveillance resources should be allocated with the flexibility to allow for additional targeted surveillance, to detect and adequately respond to newly introduced or emerging pathogens. Similar structured overviews of wildlife disease surveillance in other countries would be very useful to facilitate international collaboration.
Tularemie in Nederland, terug van weggeweest?
Pijnacker, Roan ; Koene, M.G.J. ; Rijks, J.M. ; Swaan, C.M. ; Maas, M. ; Rosa, M. de; Broens, E.M. ; Fanoy, E. ; Vries, M.C. de; Notermans, D.W. ; Tas, P. v.d.; Gröne, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Pelt, W. van; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2016
Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Medische Microbiologie 24 (2016)2. - ISSN 0929-0176 - p. 65 - 68.
Tularemie is een bacteriële zoönose veroorzaakt door Francisella tularensis. De ziekte kent verschillende verschijningsvormen, dierlijke reservoirs en transmissieroutes. De bacterie kan zich maandenlang handhaven buiten
een dierlijke gastheer. Na decennialange afwezigheid in Nederland is tularemie vanaf 2011 incidenteel aangetoond bij zowel hazen als mensen. Begin 2015 was er een opvallend hoge sterfte onder hazen in de omgeving van Akkrum in Friesland. In dit gebied werd bij 11 hazen tularemie aangetoond. In dit artikel bespreken we de achtergrond en de huidige situatie van tularemie in Nederland
Coronary microvascular dysfunction after long-term diabetes and hypercholesterolemia
Sorop, Oana ; Heuvel, Mieke van den; Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S. van; Beer, Vincent J. de; Heinonen, Ilkka ; Duin, Richard W.B. van; Zhou, Zhichao ; Koopmans, Sietse J. ; Merkus, Daphne ; Giessen, Wim J. van der - \ 2016
American Journal of Physiology : Heart and Circulatory Physiology 311 (2016)6. - ISSN 0363-6135 - p. H1339 - H1351.
Coronary microvascular dysfunction - Diabetes - Endothelin-1 - Hypercholesterolemia - Swine
Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) has been proposed as an important component of diabetes mellitus (DM)-and hypercholesterolemia-associated coronary artery disease (CAD). Previously we observed that 2.5 mo of DM and high-fat diet (HFD) in swine blunted brady-kinin (BK)-induced vasodilation and attenuated endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstriction. Here we studied the progression of CMD after 15 mo in the same animal model of CAD. Ten male swine were fed a HFD in the absence (HFD, n = 5) or presence of streptozotocin-induced DM (DM + HFD. n = 5). Responses of small (~300-μm-diameter) coronary arteries to BK. ET-1. and the nitric oxide (NO) donor 5-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine were examined in vitro and compared with those of healthy (Normal) swine (n = 12). Blood glucose was elevated in DM + HFD (17.6 ± 4.5 mmol/1) compared with HFD (5.1 ± 0.4 mmol/1) and Normal (5.8 ± 0.6 mmol/1) swine, while cholesterol was markedly elevated in DM + HFD (16.8 ± 1.7 mmol/1) and HFD (18.1 ±2.6 mmol/1) compared with Normal (2.1 ± 0.2 mmol/1) swine (all P <0.05). Small coronary arteries showed early atherosclerotic plaques in HFD and DM + HFD swine. Surprisingly. DM + HFD and HFD swine maintained BK responsiveness compared with Normal swine due to an increase in NO availability relative to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors. However, ET-1 responsiveness was greater in HFD and DM + HFD than Normal swine (both P <0.05), resulting mainly from ΕΤ» receptor-mediated vasoconstriction. Moreover, the calculated vascular stiffness coefficient was higher in DM + HFD and HFD than Normal swine (both P <0.05). In conclusion. 15 mo of DM + HFD, as well as HFD alone, resulted in CMD. Although the overall vasodilation to BK was unperturbed, the relative contributions of NO and endothelium-de-rived hyperpolarizing factor pathways were altered. Moreover, the vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 was enhanced, involving the ΕΤB receptors. In conjunction with our previous study, these findings highlight the time dependence of the phenotype of CMD.
The Role of Farm Management Characteristics in Understanding the Spatial Distribution of Landscape Elements: A Case Study in the Netherlands
Hauser, Leon Tobias ; Sluis, T. van der; Giessen, M. - \ 2016
Rural Landscapes: Society Environment, History 3 (2016)1. - ISSN 2002-0104 - 15 p.
In Western Europe the fate of biodiversity is intimately linked to agricultural land use. A driving force behind biodiversity decline is the gradual conversion of Europe’s traditional integrated rural landscapes of nature and agriculture into monofunctional units of production. With these developments, semi-natural landscape elements have increasingly disappeared from agricultural landscapes. A growing body of research, however, underlines the importance of semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes for biodiversity conservation, habitat connectivity, and ecosystem services. On the local scale, considerable variation between the relative area of landscape elements on individual farms can be observed. Farm management decisions are presumed to be important determinants for the composition of agricultural landscapes and the services provided to society.
By bringing together data from farmer interviews and aerial photographic imagery, this paper analyzes the predictive validity of farm management characteristics to understand the distribution of landscape elements on farmland parcels. The farm management parameters included in the study are relevant to current dominant trends in the Dutch agricultural sector; intensification, scale enlargement, diversification, and gradual termination of farming activities. Scale enlargement and migratory processes are found to be important predictors. The results of the Dutch case study provide insights in the threats and opportunities for the conservation of semi-natural habitat in agricultural landscapes. The findings present an empirical contribution to the debate on sustainable management of agriculture’s green infrastructure and, in broader perspective, the objective to reconcile agricultural production with the urging need of biodiversity conservation in Europe’s spatially contested countryside.
Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014
Pijnacker, Roan ; Goris, M.G. ; Wierik, M.J. te; Broens, E.M. ; Giessen, J.W. van der; Rosa, M. de; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Hartskeerl, R.A. ; Notermans, D.W. ; Maassen, K. ; Schimmer, B. - \ 2016
Eurosurveillance 21 (2016)17. - ISSN 1025-496X - 7 p.
In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with an increase of leptospirosis in dogs. In 2014, 13 dogs with leptospirosis were reported, compared with two to six dogs annually from 2010 to 2013. The majority of the autochthonous cases (n = 20) were linked to recreational exposure, e.g. swimming or fishing, followed by occupational exposure (n = 15). About sixty per cent (n = 37) of the autochthonous cases were most likely attributable to surface water contact, and 13 cases to direct contact with animals, mainly rats. A possible explanation for this increase is the preceding mild winter of 2013–2014 followed by the warmest year in three centuries, possibly enabling rodents and Leptospira spp. to survive better. A slight increase in imported leptospirosis was also observed in Dutch tourists (n = 33) most of whom acquired their infection in Thailand (n = 18). More awareness and early recognition of this mainly rodent-borne zoonosis by medical and veterinary specialists is warranted.
Identifying pig herds at risk for Toxoplasma gondii: prevalence and test characteristics
Boender, G.J. ; Swanenburg, M. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Heres, L. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings: Apicomplexa in farm animals. - Edinburgh : Moredun Research Institute - p. 55 - 55.
Toxoplasma gondii in European slaughtered calves and cattle - serology, mouse bioassay and magnetic capture qPCR
Opsteegh, M. ; Aubert, Dominique ; Balea, Anamaria ; Burrells, Alison ; Cherchi, S. ; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J. ; Dam, C. ; Györke, Adriana ; Kalmar, Zsuzsa ; Katzer, Frank ; Limon, Georgina ; Possenti, A. ; Pozio, Edoardo ; Spano, Furio ; Villena, Isabelle ; Wisselink, H.J. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2015
In: ApiCOWplaxa 2015 Proceedings: Apicomplexa in Farm Animals. - Edinburgh : Moredun Research Institute - p. 43 - 43.
|Public and animal health risk of import and transit of live exotic animals into the Netherlands in the period 2013 and 2014
Roon, A. van; Maas, M. ; Toale, D. ; Giessen, J. van der; Vos-de Jong, C.J. de; Swanenburg, M. ; Tafro, N. - \ 2015
Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR (Report / CVI 15/CVI0318) - 147 p.
Letter to the editor: Inoculation of mice with avian blaCTX-M-1- or blaCMY-2-carrying Escherichia coli strains does not lead to long-term colonization
Duijkeren, Engeline van; Overbeek, Wendy M. van; Huijbers, Patricia M.C. ; Giessen, Arjen W. van de; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van - \ 2015
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 70 (2015)11. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 3164 - 3165.
|Onderzoek naar Brucella bij wilde zwijnen op de Veluwe
Tulden, P.W. van; Dekkers, L.J.M. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2015
Jacht & Beheer (2015). - ISSN 1569-3414 - p. 14 - 14.
Tularemie in Nederland, terug van weggeweest?
Koene, M.G.J. ; Rijks, J. ; Maas, M. ; Rosa, M. de; Broens, E.M. ; Vellema, P. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Pijnacker, R. ; Fanoy, E. ; Notermans, D.W. ; Tas, P. van de; Giessen, J. van der; Gröne, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. - \ 2015
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 140 (2015)8. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 23 - 27.
dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - wilde dieren - animal welfare - animal health - wild animals
Tularemie is een zoönose veroorzaakt door de
bacterie Francisella tularensis. Veel diersoorten
kunnen besmet raken, al bestaan er grote verschillen
in gevoeligheid. Haasachtigen en knaagdieren
zijn erg bevattelijk voor de infectie. Tussen
1953 en 2011 zijn geen Nederlandse gevallen
gediagnosticeerd, maar nadien zijn bij zowel
hazen als mensen meerdere incidentele besmettingen
aangetoond. Begin 2015 is tularemie vastgesteld
bij meerdere dood aangetroffen hazen in
de omgeving van Akkrum in Friesland. Bovendien
werd in deze omgeving melding gemaakt
van een hogere sterfte onder hazen dan gebruikelijk.
Voor Nederland is dit een uitzonderlijke
situatie. Dit artikel gaat dieper in op de ziekte
en mogelijke risico’s voor dieren
Kwaliteit van modellen voor wettelijke onderzoekstaken
Houweling, H. ; Voorn, G.A.K. van; Giessen, A. van der; Wiertz, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu - Wageningen UR (WOt-paper 38) - 4
kwaliteitsnormen - modellen - recht - natuur - milieu - landbouwwetenschappen - landschap - evaluatie - quality standards - models - law - nature - environment - agricultural sciences - landscape - evaluation
De unit Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu van Wageningen UR (WOT N&M) zet modellen, (ruimtelijke) gegevensbestanden en graadmeters in bij het beleidsgericht onderzoek voor het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving en het Ministerie van Economische Zaken. Het gaat daarbij bijvoorbeeld om onderzoek voor de Natuurverkenningen, de Herijking van de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur of de Evaluatie van het Mest- en Gewasbeschermingsmiddelenbeleid. Om de kwaliteit van deze modellen en (ruimtelijke) gegevensbestanden te verbeteren en te borgen maakt de WOT N&M gebruik van een kwaliteitssysteem. In deze WOtpaper wordt dit kwaliteitssysteem toegelicht.
Quality of models for policy support
Houweling, H. ; Voorn, G.A.K. van; Giessen, A. van der; Wiertz, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu) (WOt-paper 38) - 4
quality management - policy - quality standards - models - kwaliteitszorg - beleid - kwaliteitsnormen - modellen
The Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT N&M) at Wageningen UR uses models, geodatabases and indicators in its policyoriented research for PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (see Bouwma et al., 2014) and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. This research is undertaken for a variety of purposes, for example for the Nature Outlook reports, the review of the National Ecological Network and the evaluation of the policy on fertilisers and crop protection products. WOT N&M operates a quality system to improve and maintain the quality of these models and databases. This WOt-Paper describes this quality system.
Increasing representation of states by utilitarian as compared to environmental bureaucracies in international forest and forest-environmental policy negotiations
Giessen, L. ; Krott, M. ; Mollmann, T. - \ 2014
Forest Policy and Economics 38 (2014). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 97 - 104.
nature conservation policy - institutional change - governance - regime - politics - sectors - back
This article analyses the representation of selected countries (EU-27 and the five influential "forest states") to international forest-related negotiations by national utilitarian vis-a-vis conservation-oriented ministerial bureaucracies. It is hypothesised that due to the bureaucracies' informal goal of gaining and maintaining responsibility over political issues, mainly ministries of agriculture including forestry and ministries of environment are competing for the task of representing states in international forest and forest-environmental negotiations. A survey design based on a semi-structured questionnaire was used to study the bureaucratic representation of the selected states to the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) and to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) negotiations between 2000 and 2011. The results show that in the processes under study the representation of states by utilitarian types of bureaucracies is rather increasing, while the role of conservationist bureaucracies is declining. Likewise, the roles of ministries of foreign affairs and economic affairs are declining, while hybrid organisations on agriculture/environment were observed being on a strong increase. Under CBD negotiations the vast majority of responding countries was represented by environmental bureaucracies, while agricultural ones played a marginal role. In contrast, under UNFF negotiations countries were represented by agricultural, economic and hybrid agricultural/environmental bureaucracies in approx. equal shares. Agricultural bureaucracies especially gained influence under UNFF negotiations during the study period. The article concludes on these trends also highlighting options for future research. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.
Maio, E. ; Begeman, L. ; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M. ; Tulden, P.W. van; Wiersma, L. ; Hiemstra, S. ; Ruuls, R. ; Gröne, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2014
Veterinary Microbiology 173 (2014)1-2. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 118 - 124.
marine mammal brucella - north-sea - adjacent waters - infection - pinnipedialis - ceti - cetaceans - lungworms - emphasis - exposure
The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265) Brucella positive tissue samples were Brucella positive by culture and these were all confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) based on the insertion element 711 (IS711). In addition, two more Brucella-positive tissue samples from two animals collected in 2011 were identified using real-time PCR resulting in an overall Brucella prevalence of 6.3% (7/112 animals). Brucella spp. were obtained from lungs (n=3), pulmonary lymph node (n=3) and lungworms (n=2). Multi Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) typing based on the MLVA-16 showed that the Brucella isolates were B. ceti. Additional in silico Multi Locus Sequence typing (MLST) after whole genome sequencing of the 6 Brucella isolates confirmed B. ceti ST 23. According to the Brucella 2010 MLVA database, the isolated Brucella strains encountered were of five genotypes, in two distinct subclusters divided in two different time periods of harbour porpoises collection. This study is the first population based analyses for Brucella spp. infections in cetaceans stranded along the Dutch coast.
Actor-centred power: The driving force in decentralised community based forest governance
Krott, M. ; Bader, A. ; Schusser, C. ; Devkota, R. ; Maryudi, A. ; Giessen, L. ; Aurenhammer, H. - \ 2014
Forest Policy and Economics 49 (2014). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 34 - 42.
policy - science
Community forestry has been described as a decentralised mode of forest governance that only partly lives up to its expectations. The power of important actors to misuse the community forestry approach for their self-interests has been reported as a major obstacle to comprehensive success. Hence, this article aims at developing an analytical, theory-based and empirically applicable framework for assessing an actor's power using community forestry as an illustrative case. The actor-centred power approach (ACP) analysis aims to provide a scientific answer to the question of who are the politically most powerful actors in community forestry practices. In making use of suitable components of power theories it builds strongly upon the social relations of actors, organisational aspects and power sources, as described by Weber, Dahl, Etzioni and their adherents. Actor-centred power approach (ACP) is defined as a social relationship in which actor A alters the behaviour of actor B without recognising B's will. In our framework we distinguish between three core elements: coercion, (dis-)incentives and dominant information. These make up the basis for observable facts that involve not only physical actions but also threats by power elements and the very sources of said power elements. Theoretical considerations show that, despite the focus being on actors, by looking to their power sources a considerable part of structural power can be more tangible at least in part, like rules, discourse or ideologies. Furthermore, the paper shows how the actor-centred power approach distinguishes power from other influences on forest management and contributes to the identification of the group of powerful actors on an empirical basis. Due to the focus on actors and well-defined and observable elements of power, the actor-centred power approach (ACP) could serve not only as a basis for research but also as a tool for quick assessment of power networks, delivering valuable preliminary information for designing forest policy in practice.
Learning from practices — implications of the “practice based approach” for forest and environmental policy research.
Giessen, L. ; Krott, M. - \ 2014
Forest Policy and Economics 49 (2014). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 12 - 16.
With the book publication “Forest and Nature Governance — A practice based approach” (Arts et al., 2013, Eds.) the Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group of Wageningen University, The Netherlands demonstrates its high aspirations of developing a new research approach. This article aims at discussing the methodological and conceptual contributions of the book to the field of forest and environmental policy research and proposes perspectives for further developing this methodological approach. It finds the “practice based approach” being an innovative, theoretically sound concept, which is able to produce valuable and “thick” empirical results. The approach is also found offering a plethora of possibilities to link up to analytical policy research. Yet, the approach will require further elaboration, especially on questions regarding the role of definitions, its contribution towards explaining social phenomena, and concerning the use of normative orientations in some of the empirical cases. The future challenges of the approach lie in either moulding a niche for further developing it independent from other schools, or in influencing mainstream approaches through theoretical innovations or surprising empirical results.
Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans
Maas, M. ; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C. ; Roon, A.M. van; Takumi, K. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der - \ 2014
Veterinary Parasitology 206 (2014)3-4. - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 167 - 172.
human alveolar echinococcosis - red foxes - netherlands - transmission - switzerland - city - dogs
The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of Limburg, The Netherlands. This study was designed todetermine trends in the prevalence and worm burden of E. multilocularis in foxes in a popu-lar recreational area in the southern part of Limburg to assess the risk of infection for humansand to study the prevalence of E. multilocularis in dogs in the adjacent city of Maastricht.Thirty-seven hunted red foxes were tested by the intestinal scraping technique and nestedPCR on colon content. Additionally, 142 fecal samples of domestic dogs from Maastrichtwere analyzed by qPCR for the presence of E. multilocularis.In foxes, a significantly increased prevalence of 59% (95% confidence interval 43–74%)was found, compared to the prevalence of 11% (95% CI 7–18%) in 2005–2006. Average wormburden increased to 37 worms per fox, the highest since the first detection, but consistentwith the prediction about the parasite population for this region. Updated prediction onthe number of AE cases did not lead to an increase in previous estimates of human AE casesup to 2018. No dogs in the city of Maastricht tested positive, but results of questionnairesshowed that deworming schemes were inadequate, especially in dogs that were consideredat risk for infection.
An experimental Toxoplasma gondii dose response challenge model to study therapeutic or vaccine efficacy in cats
Cornelissen, J.B.W.J. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der; Takumi, K. ; Teunis, P.F.M. ; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)9. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
crude rhoptry proteins - united-states - tissue cysts - oocysts - bradyzoites - infectivity - tachyzoites - outbreak - animals - humans
High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment. Previous studies have indicated that bradyzoites are highly infectious for cats. To infect cats, tissue cysts were isolated from the brains of mice infected with oocysts of T. gondii M4 strain, and bradyzoites were released by pepsin digestion. Free bradyzoites were counted and graded doses (1000, 100, 50, 10), and 250 intact tissue cysts were inoculated orally into three cats each. Oocysts shed by these five groups of cats were collected from faeces by flotation techniques, counted microscopically and estimated by real time PCR. Additionally, the number of T. gondii in heart, tongue and brains were estimated, and serology for anti T. gondii antibodies was performed. A Beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the infectivity of single bradyzoites and linear regression was used to determine the relation between inoculated dose and numbers of oocyst shed. We found that real time PCR was more sensitive than microscopic detection of oocysts, and oocysts were detected by PCR in faeces of cats fed 10 bradyzoites but by microscopic examination. Real time PCR may only detect fragments of T. gondii DNA without the presence of oocysts in low doses. Prevalence of tissue cysts of T. gondii in tongue, heart and brains, and anti T. gondii antibody concentrations were all found to depend on the inoculated bradyzoite dose. The combination of the experimental challenge model and the dose response analysis provides a suitable reference for quantifying the potential reduction in human health risk due to a treatment of domestic cats by vaccination or by therapeutic drug application.
Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe
Jahfari, S. ; Coipan, E.C. ; Fonville, M. ; Leeuwen, A.D. van; Hengeveld, P. ; Heylen, D. ; Heyman, P. ; Maanen, C. van; Butler, C.M. ; Foldvari, G. ; Szekeres, S. ; Duijvendijk, L.A.G. van; Tack, W. ; Rijks, J.M. ; Giessen, J. van der; Takken, W. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Takumi, K. ; Sprong, H. - \ 2014
Parasites & Vectors 7 (2014)1. - ISSN 1756-3305
candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis - human granulocytic anaplasmosis - ixodes-ricinus ticks - borrelia-burgdorferi - borne diseases - phylogenetic analyses - sequence-analysis - ehrlichiosis - strains - gene
Background: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonotic potential and transmission dynamics has only incompletely been resolved. Methods. The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in more than 6000 ixodid ticks collected from the vegetation and wildlife, in 289 tissue samples from wild and domestic animals, and 69 keds collected from deer, originating from various geographic locations in The Netherlands and Belgium. From the qPCR-positive lysates, a fragment of the groEL-gene was amplified and sequenced. Additional groEL sequences from ticks and animals from Europe were obtained from GenBank, and sequences from human cases were obtained through literature searches. Statistical analyses were performed to identify A. phagocytophilum ecotypes, to assess their host range and their zoonotic potential. The population dynamics of A. phagocytophilum ecotypes was investigated using population genetic analyses. Results: DNA of A. phagocytophilum was present in all stages of questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus, feeding I. hexagonus, I. frontalis, I. trianguliceps, and deer keds, but was absent in questing I. arboricola and Dermacentor reticulatus. DNA of A. phagocytophilum was present in feeding ticks and tissues from many vertebrates, including roe deer, mouflon, red foxes, wild boar, sheep and hedgehogs but was rarely found in rodents and birds and was absent in badgers and lizards. Four geographically dispersed A. phagocytophilum ecotypes were identified, that had significantly different host ranges. All sequences from human cases belonged to only one of these ecotypes. Based on population genetic parameters, the potentially zoonotic ecotype showed significant expansion. Conclusion: Four ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum with differential enzootic cycles were identified. So far, all human cases clustered in only one of these ecotypes. The zoonotic ecotype has the broadest range of wildlife hosts. The expansion of the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum ecotype indicates a recent increase of the acarological risk of exposure of humans and animals.
The Dutch Q fever situation - Lessons learned?
Roest, H.I.J. ; Maassen, C.B.M. ; Giessen, A. van de; Zijderveld, F.G. van - \ 2014
Planet@Risk 2 (2014)3. - ISSN 2296-8172 - p. 166 - 168.
About 60 to 75% of the emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic. A special group of zoonotic diseases are these that are endemic but in a dormant state. A good example of such a disease is Q fever in the Netherlands. Before 2005, Q fever was known to be present in the human and animal populations but did not cause significant disease. This changed in 2005, when the first abortions in dairy goats were registered and in 2007 when the first human Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands was recorded. Between 2005 and 2009 abortions on 28 dairy goat farms and 2 dairy sheep farms were detected and between 2007 and 2010 about 4000 human cases were notified. This is recognised as the largest laboratory confirmed Q fever outbreak ever reported. To identify the cause of the human disease, genotyping of the causative Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii confirmed the epidemiological link between humans and dairy goats and sheep. Furthermore, an intergraded human-veterinary approach was needed to combat the outbreak. The need for such a One Health approach was also the conclusion of the official evaluation of the Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands. This resulted in a currently implemented national zoonosis structure with a signalling forum that meets monthly. This structure has already been helpful in assessing the human risk of the Schmallenberg virus outbreak.
Discussing legal scholarship from political science perspectives : Review
Edwards, P. ; Giessen, L. - \ 2014
Forest Policy and Economics 38 (2014). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 30 - 31.
Scholarship in international law aims at addressing global forest governance comprehensively. This article reviews the recent contribution Global Forest Governance — Legal Concepts and Policy Trends by Rowena Maguire and puts it into the perspective of recent political and policy science research on global forests. While finding Maguire's volume being a very timely and valuable contribution to the interdisciplinary discussions on international forest governance, we identify some weaknesses which are mostly rooted in methodological critique and a lack of a systematic framework for analysis.
Reviewing the main characteristics of the international forest regime complex and partial explanations for its fragmentation
Giessen, L. - \ 2013
International Forestry Review 15 (2013)1. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 60 - 70.
global governance - climate-change - united-nations - policy - partnerships - lessons - back
The objectives of this review article are, firstly, to provide an overview of the literature on the main characteristics of what is referred to as the international forest regime and secondly, based on this, to review explanations for fragmentation as its core characteristic. A third aim of the article is to propose fields for future policy-oriented research on global forest governance, the international forest regime and its fragmentation. The article discusses different strands of literature and academic views on the existence and main characteristics of an international forest regime. It regards the recent notion of an international forest regime complex to be a fruitful topic for future research proposals and finds that fragmentation is its analytical core characteristic. In addition, the article reviews partial explanations for the great relevance of fragmentation in the case of the forest regime complex. It discriminates between domestic factors and causes as opposed to those resulting from the international system. Based on the review, the article suggests, lastly, fields for future research on global forest governance, the international forest regime complex and its fragmentation.
Tularaemia in a brown hare (lepus europaeus) in 2013: first case in the netherlands in 60 years
Rijks, J.M. ; Kik, M. ; Koene, M.G.J. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Tulden, P.W. van; Montizaan, M.G. ; Oomen, T. ; Spierenburg, M.A.H. ; Ijzer, J. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der; Gröne, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. - \ 2013
Eurosurveillance 18 (2013)49. - ISSN 1025-496X
Tularaemia has not been reported in Dutch wildlife since 1953. To enhance detection, as of July 2011, brown hares (Lepus europaeus) submitted for post-mortem examination in the context of non-targeted wildlife disease surveillance, were routinely tested for tularaemia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica infection was confirmed in a hare submitted in May 2013. The case occurred in Limburg, near the site of the 1953 case. Further surveillance should clarify the significance of this finding.
Geodemographic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato using the 5S-23S rDNA spacer region
Coipan, E.C. ; Fonville, M. ; Tijsse-Klasen, E. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der; Takken, W. ; Sprong, H. ; Takumi, K. - \ 2013
Infection, Genetics and Evolution 17 (2013). - ISSN 1567-1348 - p. 216 - 222.
ixodes-ricinus ticks - lyme borreliosis - clinical-manifestations - genetic-variability - population-genetics - housekeeping genes - sequence-analysis - bloodmeal source - borne diseases - netherlands
Background: Lyme borreliosis is the predominant tick-borne disease in the Northern hemisphere, with considerable heterogeneity in clinical manifestations. Here, we evaluated one genetic marker for its use in population genetic based analysis. For that we collected molecular and epidemiological records of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from ticks, animals and humans at various sites in The Netherlands and worldwide. Methods: The 5S-23S rDNA (rrfA-rrlB) intergenic spacer region (IGS) from 291 Dutch Borrelia positive ticks was sequenced and compared to Borrelia sequences from GenBank. We estimated several population genetic measures to test the neutrality of the marker. We also assessed the ability of this marker to discriminate between Eurasian Borrelieae at a finer geographical resolution, and to detect population expansion per genospecies. Results: The most prevalent genospecies in The Netherlands was Borrelia afzelii, whereas Borrelia garinii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia spielmanii and Borrelia valaisiana were found less frequently. The result of the Ewens-Watterson-Slatkin test was consistent with neutral selection of IGS region. Estimated pairwise fixation indices (Fst) were significantly different from zero between The Netherlands, the rest of Europe, Russia and Asia for B. afzelii and Borrelia garinii. Estimated Fu's Fs were significantly negative for B. afzelii and B. garinii. Conclusions: At least seven B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies circulate in Ixodes ricinus population in The Netherlands. The population genetic analyses of IGS region can resolve subpopulations within a genospecies and detect a large excess of rare genetic variants at the genospecies level. A genetic trace of population expansion for B. afzelii and B. garinii is consistent with the reported increase in Lyme borreliosis incidence in European countries.
Spatiotemporal dynamics of emerging pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus
Coipan, E.C. ; Jahfari, S. ; Fonville, M. ; Maassen, C.B. ; Giessen, J. van der; Takken, W. ; Takumi, K. ; Sprong, H. - \ 2013
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 3 (2013). - ISSN 2235-2988 - 11 p.
burgdorferi sensu-lato - geographic information-systems - human granulocytic ehrlichiosis - tick-borne diseases - borrelia-burgdorferi - anaplasma-phagocytophilum - lyme borreliosis - human babesiosis - europe - switzerland
Ixodes ricinus transmits Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Previous studies have also detected Rickettsia helvetica, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Neoehrlichia mikurensis, and several Babesia species in questing ticks in The Netherlands. In this study, we assessed the acarological risk of exposure to several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), in The Netherlands. Questing ticks were collected monthly between 2006 and 2010 at 21 sites and between 2000 and 2009 at one other site. Nymphs and adults were analysed individually for the presence of TBPs using an array-approach. Collated data of this and previous studies were used to generate, for each pathogen, a presence/absence map and to further analyse their spatiotemporal variation. R. helvetica (31.1%) and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (11.8%) had the highest overall prevalence and were detected in all areas. N. mikurensis (5.6%), A. phagocytophilum (0.8%), and Babesia spp. (1.7%) were detected in most, but not all areas. The prevalences of pathogens varied among the study areas from 0 to 64%, while the density of questing ticks varied from 1 to 179/100 m². Overall, 37% of the ticks were infected with at least one pathogen and 6.3% with more than one pathogen. One-third of the Borrelia-positive ticks were infected with at least one other pathogen. Coinfection of B. afzelii with N. mikurensis and with Babesia spp. occurred significantly more often than single infections, indicating the existence of mutual reservoir hosts. Alternatively, coinfection of R. helvetica with either B. afzelii or N. mikurensis occurred significantly less frequent. The diversity of TBPs detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of their coinfections with B. burgdorferi s.l., underline the need to consider them when evaluating the risks of infection and subsequently the risk of disease following a tick bite.
|Brucella ceti in Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Netherlands
Begeman, L. ; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M. ; Giessen, J. van der; Hiemstra, S.J. ; Maio, E. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Tulden, P.W. van; Wiersma, L. ; Gröne, A. - \ 2013
Increasing prevalence and diversity of ESBL/AmpC-type ß-lactamase genes in Escherichia coli isolated from veal calves from 1997 to 2010
Hordijk, J. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Giessen, A. van de; Dierikx, C.M. ; Essen-Zandbergen, A. van; Veldman, K. ; Kant, A. ; Mevius, D.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 68 (2013)9. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 1970 - 1973.
food-producing animals - extended-spectrum - companion animals - ampc - resistant - livestock - meat
OBJECTIVES: Several studies on faecal carriage of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli have been performed in cattle, but little is known about faecal carriage in veal calves. This study describes the prevalence and molecular characteristics of ESBL/AmpC genes in E. coli isolated from faecal samples of veal calves from 1997 to 2010. METHODS: Pooled faecal samples were inoculated using selective enrichment broth and subsequently selective MacConkey agar. All isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime were screened by PCR and sequencing analysis for the presence of ESBL/AmpC genes. RESULTS: The prevalence of E. coli with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime showed a discontinuous increasing trend, ranging from 4% in 1998 and 1999 to 39% in 2010. Promoter mutations of the chromosomal ampC gene were present in all years. In 2000, ESBL genes blaCTX-M-1, blaTEM-52 and blaTEM-20 were first observed. Before 2005 the majority of E. coli with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime harboured ampC promoter mutations. From 2005 onwards the majority harboured blaCTX-M genes, of which blaCTX-M-1 was the most abundant, followed by blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15. The diversity of blaCTX-M genes gradually increased from one variant in 2000 to six variants in 2010. The prevalence of blaTEM-52 was relatively low, but it was detected from 2000 onwards. blaCMY and blaSHV were found sporadically. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and molecular diversity of genes encoding cefotaxime resistance in E. coli isolated from veal calves over a 14 year period showed an increasing trend. From 2005 onwards, blaCTX-M genes were most abundant, especially blaCTX-M-1.
|Development of a challenge model for Toxoplansma gondii in cats: assessment of a dose-response for infection
Wisselink, H.J. ; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J. ; Teunis, P.F.M. ; Takumi, K. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der - \ 2013
In: Abstract Book of Med-Vet-Net Association International Scientific Conference DTU, Lyngby, Denmark, 24-25 June 2013. - - p. 34 - 34.
Framing the tiger — A biodiversity concern in national and international media reporting
Sadath, N. ; Kleinschmit, D. ; Giessen, L. - \ 2013
Forest Policy and Economics 36 (2013). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 37 - 41.
International forest and environmental governance processes assume that ideas and concepts surrounding biodiversity at the international level will be made accessible at a national level so that they can be easily adopted by national forest and environmental policy arenas. One prerequisite for a seamless implementation of these ideas and concepts is a common definition of specific problems at different political levels. Different perceptions mirrored by media reporting on problems at different political levels may affect the implementation of policies thatmust be carried out at a national level, even if decisions concerning this implementation are made at an international level. Using the illustrative case of human–tiger interaction, this article shows how national and international media reporting differ in their framing of a particular problem. Based on a theoretical framework consisting framing and media selection theory, and on initial empirical observations, the article recommends blueprints for future in-depth research on the relationship between media framing and policy at different political levels. This case study is based on quantitative content analysis of reports on tiger–human interaction published between 2005 and 2010 in an international newspaper and a national one from Bangladesh. Our example shows that the selected national newspaper frames the tiger as a threat to the livelihood and well-being of local people, whereas the international newspaper stresses biodiversity and climate-change related aspects of human–tiger conflicts. These results indicate that the framing of an issue in the media can differ considerably at different levels and that this is a fruitful field for future in-depth research.
Prevalence of livestock-associated MRSA on Dutch broiler farms and in people living and/or working on these farms
Geenen, P.L. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Haenen, A. ; Hengeveld, P.D. ; Hoek, A.H.A.M. van; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Kappert, C.C. ; Lammers, G.A.C. ; Duijkeren, E. van; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2013
Epidemiology and Infection 141 (2013)5. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 1099 - 1108.
resistant staphylococcus-aureus - pig farms - netherlands - poultry - admission - software - humans - origin - flocks - herds
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on 50 Dutch broiler farms. Of 145 persons living and/or working on these farms, eight tested positive for MRSA (5.5%). Investigation of 250 pooled throat samples of broilers and 755 dust samples resulted in four farms where MRSA-positive samples were present (8.0%). All isolates belonged to the CC398 complex. Living and/or working on a MRSA-positive farm was a risk for MRSA carriage; 66.7% of people on positive farms were MRSA positive vs. 1.5% on negative farms (P
Circumstantial evidence for an increase in the total number and activity of borrelia-infected ixodes ricinus in the Netherlands.
Sprong, H. ; Hofhuis, A. ; Gassner, F. ; Takken, W. ; Jacobs, F. ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Ballegooijen, M. van; Giessen, J. van der; Takumi, K. - \ 2012
Parasites & Vectors 5 (2012)5. - ISSN 1756-3305 - 11 p.
tick-borne diseases - burgdorferi sensu-lato - owls strix-aluco - lyme borreliosis - population-dynamics - ixodidae nymphs - endemic area - acari - ecology - risk
BACKGROUND: Between 1994 and 2009, a threefold increase has been observed in consultations of general practitioners for tick bites and Lyme disease in The Netherlands. The objective of this study was to determine whether an increase in the number of questing ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato is a potential cause of the rise in Lyme disease incidence. METHODS: Historic data on land usage, temperature and wildlife populations were collected and analyzed together with data from two longitudinal field studies on density of questing ticks. Effective population sizes of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were calculated. RESULTS: Long-term trend analyses indicated that the length of the annual tick questing season increased as well as the surface area of tick-suitable habitats in The Netherlands. The overall abundances of feeding and reproductive hosts also increased. Mathematical analysis of the data from the field studies demonstrated an increase in mean densities/activities of questing ticks, particularly of larvae between 2006 and 2009. No increase in infection rate of ticks with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was found. Population genetic analysis of the collected Borrelia species points to an increase in B. afzelii and B. garinii populations. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings indicate an increase in the total number of Borrelia-infected ticks, providing circumstantial evidence for an increase in the risk of acquiring a bite of a tick infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Due to the high spatiotemporal variation of tick densities/activities, long-term longitudinal studies on population dynamics of I. ricinus are necessary to observe significant trends.
|Temporary governance and persistent government – Rural policy integration in pilot and mainstream funding programmes.
Giessen, L. - \ 2012
In: Environmental Governance: The Challenge of Legitimacy and Effectiveness / Hogl,, K., Kvarda,, E., Nordbeck,, R., Pregernig,, M., Chaltenham : Edward Elgar - ISBN 9781849806077 - p. 155 - 177.
Description ‘This excellent collection of articles by leading scholars in a variety of natural resource policy fields examines cases in participation, horizontal and vertical co-ordination, and the role of science and expertise in environmental policy formation. The legitimacy and effectiveness of each of these key components of governance and meta-governance regimes is assessed in important areas such as climate change and parks and wilderness preservation. The volume brings an admirable consistency of focus to the analysis of new governance modes in environmental policy and sheds new light upon important recent trends and developments in the area.’ – Michael Howlett, Simon Fraser University, Canada.
Het Dutch Wildlife Health Centre – kennis over wildziekten in Nederland
Rijks, J.M. ; Giessen, J. van der; Roest, H.I.J. ; Kuiken, T. ; Grone, A. - \ 2012
Infectieziekten bulletin 23 (2012)10. - ISSN 0925-711X - p. 339 - 342.
dierziekten - wilde dieren - zoönosen - volksgezondheid - diergezondheid - animal diseases - wild animals - zoonoses - public health - animal health
Veel dierziekten inclusief zoönosen hebben wilde dieren als reservoir. Kennis over ziekten onder wilde dieren is van belang voor zowel de dier- en volksgezondheid, en vormt een essentieel onderdeel van het One health-concept. Een expertisecentrum wildziekten, waar dergelijke kennis vermeerderd en gebundeld wordt, ontbrak in Nederland. Mede daarom is het Dutch Wildlife Health Centre (DWHC) opgericht.
Adaptation and mitigation options for forests and forest management in a changing climate
Johnston, M. ; Lindner, M. ; Parotta, J. ; Giessen, L. - \ 2012
Forest Policy and Economics 24 (2012). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 1 - 2.
Climate change is now accepted as an important issue for forests and forest management around the world. Climate change will affect forests' ability to provide ecosystem goods and services on which human communities depend: biodiversity, carbon sequestration, regulation of water quality and quantity, timber and non-timber products, as well as spiritual and cultural values. Global responses are in the process of being implemented to (i) reduce the causes of climate change (mitigation) and (ii) to increase the ability of natural systems and human societies to cope with the impacts of climate change (adaptation). An international conference on “Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Changing Climate with Emphasis On Forest Health: A Review of Science, Policies and Practices”, held in Umeå, Sweden in August 2008, brought together over 300 researchers, managers and policy makers from around the globe. Selected papers from this conference addressing both adaptation and mitigation are compiled in the present volume and two companion publications: Forest Ecology and Management Special Issue, Volume 259, Issue 4, pp. 657–856 (5 February 2010): Adaptation of Forests and Forest Management to Changing Climate; and Unasylva Special Issue, No. 231/232, Volume 60, 2009/1-2: Adapting to Climate Change.
Experimental inoculation with Coxiella burnetii in male rats: successful infection, but no transmission to cage-mates
Opsteegh, M. ; Hogerwerf, L. ; Nooijen, S. ; Dam-Deisz, C. ; Heer, L. de; Reusken, C. ; Bouma, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Nielen, M. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2012
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78 (2012)16. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 5661 - 5665.
q-fever outbreak - rattus-norvegicus - netherlands - farms - animals - model
Beginning in 2007, the largest human Q fever outbreak ever described occurred in the Netherlands. Dairy goats from intensive farms were identified as the source, amplifying Coxiella burnetii during gestation and shedding large quantities during abortions. It has been postulated that wild rodents are reservoir hosts from which C. burnetii can be transmitted to domestic animals and humans. However, little is known about the infection dynamics of C. burnetii in wild rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) can be experimentally infected with C. burnetii and whether transmission to a cage mates occurs. Fourteen male brown rats (wild type) were intratracheally or intranasally inoculated with a Dutch C. burnetii isolate obtained from a goat. At 3 days postinoculation, a contact rat was placed with each inoculated rat. The pairs were monitored using blood samples and rectal and throat swabs for 8 weeks, and after euthanasia the spleens were collected. Rats became infected by both inoculation routes, and detection of C. burnetii DNA in swabs suggests that excretion occurred. However, based on the negative spleens in PCR and the lack of seroconversion, none of the contact animals was considered infected; thus, no transmission was observed. The reproduction ratio R(0) was estimated to be 0 (95% confidence interval = 0 to 0.6), indicating that it is unlikely that rats act as reservoir host of C. burnetii through sustained transmission between male rats. Future research should focus on other transmission routes, such as vertical transmission or bacterial shedding during parturition.
|Chlamydia psittaci in wild birds in the Netherlands
Roest, H.I.J. ; Tulden, P.W. van; Buijs, R.M. ; Szot, D.A. ; Giessen, J. van der; Zijderveld, F.G. van - \ 2012
|Prevalence of livestock-associated MRSA on Dutch broiler farms and in people living and/or working on these farms
Geenen, P.L. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Haenen, A. ; Hengeveld, P.D. ; Hoek, A.H.A.M. van; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Kappert, C.C. ; Lammers, G.A.C. ; Duijkeren, E. van; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2012
In: Proceedings of the 3rd American Society for Microbiology conference on Antimicrobial Resistance in Zoonotic Bacteria and Foodborne Pathogens in Animals, Humans, and the Environment, Aix-en-Provence, France, 26-29 June 2012. - Aix-en-Provence, France : - ISBN 9781555818630 - p. 81 - 81.
Quantification of transmission of livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Giessen, A.W. van de; Broekhuizen-Stins, M. ; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2012
Veterinary Microbiology 155 (2012)2-4. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 381 - 388.
netherlands - mrsa - competition - prevalence - carriage - piglets - workers - design
Antimicrobial resistance in pigs becomes a public health issue when resistant organisms transfer from pigs to humans. Pigs are a large reservoir for livestock-associated (LA-)MRSA and people in contact with pigs are at risk for infection with LA-MRSA. Transmission and persistence of LA-MRSA within a pig population contributes to the maintenance of this zoonotic reservoir. Current knowledge on colonization and transmission of LA-MRSA in pigs is limited and mainly based on observational field surveys. Two experiments were performed to colonize pigs and quantify transmission of LA-MRSA between pigs. In the first experiment, colonization of six-week old piglets failed after intranasal inoculation, confirming the complexity of MRSA-colonization. In the second experiment, naive pigs got colonized after exposure to orally inoculated pigs. Subsequently, these contact-infected pigs transmitted MRSA to a new group of naive pigs. The reproduction ratio, R0, was estimated with a SIS-model to quantify transmission between the first and second contact pigs as this resembles more the natural transmission. Two scenarios were evaluated, with different assumptions regarding infection status of individual pigs. R0 varied between 3.7 and 4.3 and was significantly above 1, indicating a high probability of persistence of LAMRSA, even without antimicrobial use.
Longitudinal study on transmission of MRSA CC398 within pig herds
Broens, E.M. ; Espinosa-Gongora, C. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Vendrig, N.J. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Guardabassi, L. ; Butaye, P. ; Nielsen, J.P. ; Jong, M. de; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2012
BMC Veterinary Research 8 (2012). - ISSN 1746-6148
resistant staphylococcus-aureus - livestock-associated mrsa - netherlands - prevalence - swine - quantification - carriage - workers - design - virus
Background Since the detection of MRSA CC398 in pigs in 2004, it has emerged in livestock worldwide. MRSA CC398 has been found in people in contact with livestock and thus has become a public health issue. Data from a large-scale longitudinal study in two Danish and four Dutch pig herds were used to quantify MRSA CC398 transmission rates within pig herds and to identify factors affecting transmission between pigs. Results Sows and their offspring were sampled at varying intervals during a production cycle. Overall MRSA prevalence of sows increased from 33% before farrowing to 77% before weaning. Overall MRSA prevalence of piglets was > 60% during the entire study period. The recurrent finding of MRSA in the majority of individuals indicates true colonization or might be the result of contamination. Transmission rates were estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS-)model, which resulted in values of the reproduction ratio (R0) varying from 0.24 to 8.08. Transmission rates were higher in pigs treated with tetracyclins and ß-lactams compared to untreated pigs implying a selective advantage of MRSA CC398 when these antimicrobials are used. Furthermore, transmission rates were higher in pre-weaning pigs compared to post-weaning pigs which might be explained by an age-related susceptibility or the presence of the sow as a primary source of MRSA CC398. Finally, transmission rates increased with the relative increase of the infection pressure within the pen compared to the total infection pressure, implying that within-pen transmission is a more important route compared to between-pen transmission and transmission through environmental exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate that MRSA CC398 is able to spread and persist in pig herds, resulting in an endemic situation. Transmission rates are affected by the use of selective antimicrobials and by the age of pigs.
Specific serum antibody responses following a Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis co-infection in swine
Bokken, G. ; Eerden, E. van; Opsteegh, M. ; Augustijn, M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Franssen, F. ; Görlich, K. ; Buschtöns, S. ; Tenter, A.M. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der; Bergwerff, A.A. ; Knapen, F. van - \ 2012
Veterinary Parasitology 184 (2012)2-4. - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 126 - 132.
tissue cysts - pigs - infections - mice - netherlands - diagnosis - britovi - pork
The aim of this study was to examine the dynamics of parasite specific antibody development in Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii co-infections in pigs and to compare these with antibody dynamics in T. spiralis and T. gondii single infections. In this experiment, fiftyfour pigs were divided into five inoculated groups of ten animals, and one control group of four animals. Two groups were inoculated with a single dose of either T. gondii tissue cysts or T. spiralis muscle larvae, one group was inoculated simultaneously with both parasites and two groups were successively inoculated at an interval of four weeks. Specific IgG responses to the parasites were measured by ELISA. T. gondii burden was determined by MC-PCR carried out on heart muscle and T. spiralis burden by artificial digestion of diaphragm samples. Specific IgG responses to T. gondii and T. spiralis in single and simultaneously inoculated animals showed a respective T. gondii and T. spiralis inoculation effect but no significant interaction of these parasites to the development of specific antibodies with the serum dilutions used. Moreover, our data showed that the specific IgG response levels in groups of animals successively or simultaneously co-infected were independent of a respective previous or simultaneous infection with the other parasite. Additionally, no differences in parasite burden were found within groups inoculated with T. gondii and within groups inoculated with T. spiralis. Conclusively, for the infection doses tested in this experiment, the dynamics of specific antibody development does not differ between single and simultaneous or successive infection with T. gondii and T. spiralis. However, lower parasitic doses and other ratios of doses, like low-low, low-high and high-low of T. gondii and T. spiralis in co-infection, in combination with other time intervals between successive infections may have different outcomes and should therefore be studied in further detail.
Infectierisico’s van de veehouderij voor omwonenden
Maassen, C.B.M. ; Duijkeren, E. van; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van; Dusseldorp, A. ; Geenen, P. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Koopmans, M.P.G. ; Loos, F. ; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. ; Jonge, M. de; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2012
Bilthoven : RIVM - 65
veehouderij - zoönosen - q-koorts - volksgezondheid - infectieziekten - livestock farming - zoonoses - q fever - public health - infectious diseases
Momenteel kunnen er geen wetenschappelijk onderbouwde uitspraken worden gedaan over het infectierisico van omwonenden van veehouderijen, met uitzondering van Q-koorts. Het is aangetoond dat omwonenden van melkgeitenbedrijven met Q-koorts, een verhoogd risico hebben om deze infectieziekte te krijgen. Voor de overige zoönosen (infectieziekten die van dier op mens worden overgedragen) zijn onvoldoende gegevens beschikbaar over het risico in relatie tot de afstand tot veehouderijen, het bedrijfstype en de bedrijfsgrootte. Wel is bekend dat veehouders, medewerkers op veehouderijen en dierenartsen een verhoogd risico hebben om bepaalde zoönosen op te lopen. Direct contact met dieren is daarbij vaak een risicofactor.
Coronary microvascular dysfunction in a porcine model of early atherosclerosis and diabetes
Heuvel, M. van den; Sorop, O. ; Koopmans, S.J. ; Dekker, R.A. ; Vries, R. de; Beusekom, H.M.M. ; Eringa, E.C. ; Duncker, D.J. ; Danser, A.H.J. ; Giessen, W.J. - \ 2012
American Journal of Physiology : Heart and Circulatory Physiology 302 (2012)1. - ISSN 0363-6135 - p. H85 - H95.
prediabetic metabolic syndrome - arterial resistance vessels - endothelial dysfunction - insulin-resistance - contractile responses - glucose-tolerance - s-nitrosothiols - risk-factors - blood-flow - mellitus
Detailed evaluation of coronary function early in diabetes mellitus (DM)-associated coronary artery disease (CAD) development is difficult in patients. Therefore, we investigated coronary conduit and small artery function in a preatherosclerotic DM porcine model with type 2 characteristics. Streptozotocin-induced DM pigs on a saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC) diet (SFC + DM) were compared with control pigs on SFC and standard (control) diets. SFC + DM pigs showed DM-associated metabolic alterations and early atherosclerosis development in the aorta. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation to bradykinin (BK), with or without blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, endothelium-independent vasodilation to an exogenous NO-donor (S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine), and vasoconstriction to endothelin (ET)-1 with blockade of receptor subtypes, were assessed in vitro. Small coronary arteries, but not conduit vessels, showed functional alterations including impaired BK-induced vasodilatation due to loss of NO (P <0.01 vs. SFC and control) and reduced vasoconstriction to ET-1 (P <0.01 vs. SFC and control), due to a decreased ETA receptor dominance. Other vasomotor responses were unaltered. In conclusion, this model demonstrates specific coronary microvascular alterations with regard to NO and ET-1 systems in the process of early atherosclerosis in DM. In particular, the altered ET-1 system correlated with hyperglycemia in atherogenic conditions, emphasizing the importance of this system in DM-associated CAD development.
Reviewing empirical explanations of policy change: Options for its analysis and future fields of research
Giessen, L. - \ 2011
Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung 182 (2011)11-12. - ISSN 0002-5852 - p. 248 - 259.
ideas - reform - politics - belgium - england - media - institutions - management - advocacy - opinion
|Prevalence of ESBL producing Gram-negative bacteria in broilers, broiler farmers and their family members in The Netherlands
Hoek, A. van; Overbeek, W. van; Haenen, A. ; Benthem, B.H. van; Huijsdens, X. ; Giessen, A.W. van de; Aarts, H. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Geenen, P.L. - \ 2011
In: Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Antimicrobial Resistance in Animals and the Environment, Tours, France, 27 - 29 June, 2011. - - p. 67 - 67.
Variation von fermentationsparametern in der Schweineernährung
Sappok, M.A. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Sundrum, A. - \ 2011
In: Beiträge zur 11. Wissenschatstagung Ökologischer landbau, Giessen, Germany, 15-18 March, 2011. - Berlijn : Verlag Dr. Köster - ISBN 9783895747779 - p. 128 - 129.
|MRSA en ESBL op vleeskuikenhouderijen
Geenen, P.L. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Haenen, A. ; Hoek, A. van; Duijkeren, E. van; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2011
Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM Briefrapport 330091001/2011) - 33 p.
|Transmission of livestock associated MRSA in pigs
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Giessen, A.W. van de; Vendrig, N.J. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2011
In: Proceedings of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, 23-25 March 2011, Leipzig, Germany. - - p. 63 - 68.
Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs
Koopmans, S.J. ; Dekker, R.A. ; Ackermans, M.T. ; Sauerwein, H.P. ; Serlie, M.J. ; Beusekom, H.M.M. ; Heuvel, M. van den; Giessen, W.J. - \ 2011
Cardiovascular Diabetology 10 (2011). - ISSN 1475-2840 - 11 p.
cardiovascular-disease - insulin-resistance - coronary-arteries - carbohydrate - inflammation - interleukin-6 - nutrigenomics - hyperglycemia - proliferator - nutrition
Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg) were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy) saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC), unsaturated fat (UF) or starch (S) in an eucaloric dietary intervention study. Results Fasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher (p <0.01) in SFC compared to UF and S pigs. Fasting plasma NEFA concentrations (mmol/L) were highest (p <0.05) in SFC (1.09 ± 0.17), intermediate in UF (0.80 ± 0.14) and lowest in S pigs (0.58 ± 0.14) whereas plasma glucose (~13 mmol/L), triglyceride (~0.5 mmol/L) and insulin (~24 pmol/L) concentrations were comparable among SFC, UF and S pigs. The postprandial response area under the curves (AUC, 0-4 h) for glucose but not for insulin and triglyceride responses were intermediate in SFC (617 ± 144) and lowest (p <0.05) in UF (378 ± 157) compared to S pigs (925 ± 139). Fasting hepatic glucose production, hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity and blood pressure were not different among pigs. C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (mg/L) were highest (p <0.05) in SFC (25 ± 4), intermediate in S (21 ± 3) and lowest in UF pigs (14 ± 2). Liver weights, liver and muscle triglyceride concentrations, and the surface area of aorta fatty streaks were highest (p <0.01) in SFC pigs. A positive correlation between postprandial plasma CRP and aorta fatty streaks was observed in SFC pigs (R2 = 0.95). Retroperitoneal fat depot weight (g) was intermediate in SFC (260 ± 72), lowest in S (135 ± 51) and highest (p <0.05) in UF (571 ± 95) pigs. Conclusion Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs. Keywords: Diabetes; Insulin; Diet; Unsaturated fat; Saturated fat; Cholesterol; Inflammation; C-reactive protein; Atherosclerosis; Pigs
Livestock-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs - prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics
Broens, E.M. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Mart de Jong, co-promotor(en): Lisette Graat; A.W. van de Giessen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461730138 - 204
varkens - staphylococcus aureus - antibiotica - weerstand - meticilline resistente staphylococcus aureus - methicilline - transmissie - pigs - staphylococcus aureus - antibiotics - resistance - methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus - methicillin - transmission
In 2004, an association between human carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and contact with pigs was found. To assess the implications of this finding for veterinary and public health more insight into the prevalence, risk factors and transmission dynamics of this so-called livestock-associated (LA-)MRSA was needed. Therefore, field and experimental studies were conducted in pig and human populations of which the results are presented in this thesis. First, observational studies on pig farms were performed to estimate the prevalence of MRSA positive herds, and to identify factors associated with LA-MRSA in pig herds. It was shown that LA-MRSA was present in the majority, i.e. ~70%, of Dutch pig herds and that the prevalence increased over time. Larger herds were more often found LA-MRSA positive than smaller herds, and transmission was shown to occur by animal trade. From all this, it was concluded that LA-MRSA has become endemic in the Dutch pig population. Secondly, studies on LA-MRSA in pigs, the environment and personnel in pig slaughterhouses were performed. In pigs, a clear increase in LA-MRSA positive pigs from 0 to 60% was shown in the time period between loading at the farm and stunning at the slaughterhouse. This indicated a very rapid transmission of LA-MRSA between pigs through direct contact or through contact with a contaminated environment. An increase in LA-MRSA positive environmental samples taken in the slaughterhouse was found during the working day. In personnel, LA-MRSA prevalence was 6% and working with live pigs was the single most important factor for being positive; personnel not working with pigs or working only with dead pigs were all LA-MRSA negative. Thirdly, transmission of LA-MRSA within herds was studied longitudinally both in an experimental setting and also in 6 pig herds. Transmission rates and the factors affecting these rates were determined. The results of both studies indicated that LA-MRSA is able to spread easily and persist in pig populations, resulting in an endemic situation. Use of selective antimicrobials has a positive effect on the transmission rate of LA-MRSA, but transmission occurs even without use of antimicrobials. The key to limiting LA-MRSA transmission from pigs to humans is to eliminate the source, i.e. eradicate LA-MRSA from pig herds, and a combination of different intervention strategies controlling both within- and between-herd transmission will be needed to achieve this.
Prevalence and risk factor analysis of livestock associated MRSA-positive pig herds in The Netherlands
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Giessen, A.W. van de; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2011
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 102 (2011)1. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 41 - 49.
resistant staphylococcus-aureus - methicillin-resistant - swine - st398 - transmission - farms - model
In 2005, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was found in pig herds and in humans in contact with pigs. To determine the prevalence of, this now-called livestock-associated (LA) MRSA among pig herds in the Netherlands and to identify and quantify risk factors, an observational study of 202 pig herds was performed between 2007 and 2008. Five environmental wipes and 60 nasal swabs from each herd were collected, and microbiological analysis was performed on single environmental samples and pooled nasal samples. A herd was considered MRSA-positive if =1 sample tested positive. The prevalence of MRSA-positive herds was 67% in breeding herds and 71% in finishing herds. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was then performed on data from 171 breeding herds. The number of MRSA-positive herds increased from ~30% at the start to ~75% at the end of the study, most likely due to transmission between herds. The prevalence of MRSA increased with herd size, as ~40% of smaller herds (80% of larger herds (>500 sows). Other risk factors (e.g. antimicrobial use, purchase of gilts and hygiene measures) were not significantly associated with MRSA, though associated with herd size. Herd size appeared to be a compilation of several factors, which made larger herds more often MRSA positive.
MRSA CC398 in the pig production chain
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Giessen, A.W. van de; Duijkeren, E. van; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Nes, A. van; Mevius, D.J. ; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2011
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 98 (2011)2-3. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 182 - 189.
resistant staphylococcus-aureus - prevalence - farms - netherlands
In 2005, a distinct clone of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398) was found in pigs and people in contact with pigs. The structure of the pig production chain in high technology pig husbandry enables pathogens to spread during animal trading, with an increasing prevalence in herds further down the chain. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the MRSA status of the supplying herd on the MRSA status of the receiving herd in order to gain more insight into the role of animal trading as a transmission route for MRSA CC398. Nasal samples (60–80 pigs per herd) were collected from 38 herds; in 20 herds, environmental samples were collected as well. Ten MRSA-positive herds (based on the results of nasal swabs of 10 individual pigs per herd) from a prior study were included in the data analysis. Herds were classified as MRSA positive if at least one sample tested positive. The 48 herds were part of 14 complete (40 herds) and 4 incomplete (8 herds) pig production chains. Fifty-six percent of the herds were classified as MRSA positive. MRSA-positive herds were observed at the start (breeding herds), middle (farrowing herds) and the end (finishing herds) of the pig production chain. All of the herds in 8 chains tested MRSA positive;, all of the herds in 5 chains tested MRSA negative and in the remaining 5 chains, MRSA-positive and MRSA-negative herds were detected. Seven spa types were found, which were all previously confirmed to belong to CC398. All of the isolates were susceptible to mupirocin, linezolid, rifampicin, fusidic acid and cotrimoxazole. Resistance against tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin was found in 100, 74 and 76% of the isolates, respectively. Seventy-nine percent of herds with a MRSA-positive supplier of pigs were MRSA positive, whereas 23% of herds with a MRSA-negative supplier were MRSA positive (OR = 10.8; 95% CI: 1.5–110.1; P = 0.011). The presence of entirely MRSA-positive and MRSA-negative chains and the strong association between the MRSA status of herds and their suppliers illustrates a large risk associated with purchasing pigs from MRSA-positive herds; a top-down strategy for future control programs is, therefore, a basic requirement. However, 23% of herds with a MRSA-negative supplier were MRSA positive and furthermore, 46% of the herds at the top of the pig production chain without a supplier tested MRSA positive. This underlined the need for the identification of additional risk factors for MRSA.
Transmission of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among pigs during transportation from farm to abattoir
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Giessen, A.W. van de; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2011
The Veterinary Journal 189 (2011)3. - ISSN 1090-0233 - p. 302 - 305.
salmonella-typhimurium - rapid infection - high prevalence - risk-factors - netherlands - mrsa - exposure - workers - swine
The prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in pigs at abattoirs is higher than in pigs sampled on farms. This study investigated whether MRSA negative pigs can become MRSA positive during transportation from the farm to the abattoir after exposure to other pigs and environmental sources of MRSA. Nasal swabs were collected from four batches of pigs during loading at the farm, on arrival at the abattoir and after stunning. Environmental wipes were taken from lorries after transporting pigs and from lairages after holding pigs. All pigs (n = 117) tested MRSA negative before transportation. On arrival at the abattoir, 12/117 (10.3%) pigs in two batches tested MRSA positive. In lorries that tested positive after transportation, the prevalence of MRSA positive pigs was 21.1%, whereas no MRSA was detected in pigs that had been transported in lorries that tested negative after transportation. At stunning, all batches and 70/117 (59.8%) pigs tested MRSA positive. Pigs can become MRSA positive in the short period of time during transportation from the farm to stunning at the abattoir
Comparison of sampling methods used for MRSA-classification of herds with breeding pigs
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Engel, B. ; Oosterom, R.A.A. van; Giessen, A.W. van de; Wolf, P.J. van der - \ 2011
Veterinary Microbiology 147 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 440 - 444.
Since the first report on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) CC398 in pigs, several countries have determined the prevalence of MRSA-positive pig herds using different sampling and laboratory techniques. The objective of the study was to compare three sampling methods for MRSA-classification of herds. Therefore, nasal swabs of pigs and environmental wipes were collected from 147 herds with breeding pigs. Per herd, laboratory examination was done on 10 pools of 6 nasal swabs (NASAL), 5 single environmental wipes (ENVSINGLE) and one pool of 5 environmental wipes (ENVPOOL). Large differences in apparent prevalence of MRSA-positive herds between methods were found: 19.1% for ENVPOOL, 53.1% for ENVSINGLE, and 70.8% for NASAL. Pairwise comparisons of methods resulted in relative sensitivities of 26.9% (ENVPOOL vs. NASAL), 34.6% (ENVPOOL vs. ENVSINGLE), and 72.1% (ENVSINGLE vs. NASAL) with relative specificities of respectively 100%, 98.6% and 93.0%. Cohen's kappa was respectively 0.18, 0.32 and 0.55, thus varying between very poor and moderate agreement. Examination of environmental wipes is an easy and non-invasive method to classify herds for MRSA. The number of environmental wipes needed depends on e.g. required detection limits and within-herd prevalence. In low prevalent herds (e.g. herds with
Prioritizing Emerging Zoonoses in The Netherlands
Havelaar, A.H. ; Rosse, F. ; Bubura, C. ; Toetenel, M.A. ; Haagsma, J.A. ; Kurowicka, D. ; Heesterbeek, J.A.P. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der - \ 2010
PLoS ONE 5 (2010)11. - ISSN 1932-6203
risk - infections - pathogens - diseases
Background To support the development of early warning and surveillance systems of emerging zoonoses, we present a general method to prioritize pathogens using a quantitative, stochastic multi-criteria model, parameterized for the Netherlands. Methodology/Principal Findings A risk score was based on seven criteria, reflecting assessments of the epidemiology and impact of these pathogens on society. Criteria were weighed, based on the preferences of a panel of judges with a background in infectious disease control. Conclusions/Significance Pathogens with the highest risk for the Netherlands included pathogens in the livestock reservoir with a high actual human disease burden (e.g. Campylobacter spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Coxiella burnetii) or a low current but higher historic burden (e.g. Mycobacterium bovis), rare zoonotic pathogens in domestic animals with severe disease manifestations in humans (e.g. BSE prion, Capnocytophaga canimorsus) as well as arthropod-borne and wildlife associated pathogens which may pose a severe risk in future (e.g. Japanese encephalitis virus and West-Nile virus). These agents are key targets for development of early warning and surveillance.
|Q-fever in wild animals in Europe, a concern for hunters
Rotterdam, B. van; Langelaar, M. ; Giessen, J. van der; Roest, H.I.J. ; Grone, A. - \ 2010
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 135 (2010)10. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 420 - 422.
wilde dieren - q-koorts - coxiella burnetii - infectieziekten - ziektedistributie - tekenbeten - europa - literatuuroverzichten - wild animals - q fever - coxiella burnetii - infectious diseases - disease distribution - tick bites - europe - literature reviews - borne zoonotic bacteria - ixodes-ricinus ticks - coxiella-burnetii - serologic survey - northern spain - prevalence - pathogens - infection
Het is onbekend of, hoe en in welke mate Coxiella burnetii circuleert onder wild in Nederland. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de literatuur over de circulatie van Coxiella burnetii onder niet gedomesticeerde diersoorten in Europa.
Risk profile on antimicrobial resistance transmissible from food animals to humans
Geenen, P.L. ; Koene, M.G.J. ; Blaak, H. ; Havelaar, A.H. ; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2010
Bilthoven : RIVM (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu 330334001/2010) - 118
dierhouderij - antibioticaresistentie - risicogedrag - gezondheidsgevaren - risicobeheersing - campylobacter jejuni - staphylococcus aureus - bèta-lactamase - bacteriën - zoönosen - animal husbandry - antibiotic resistance - risk behaviour - health hazards - risk management - campylobacter jejuni - staphylococcus aureus - beta-lactamase - bacteria - zoonoses
In de dierhouderij worden antibiotica veelvuldig gebruikt, waardoor antibioticaresistentie toeneemt, zowel bij zoönotische als bij commensale bacteriën. Dit heeft geleid tot bezorgdheid over de risico’s van overdracht van resistente zoönotische bacteriën en resistentiegenen van voedselproducerende dieren naar de mens en de mogelijke gevolgen daarvan voor de volksgezondheid en de gezondheidszorg. Dit rapport bevat een risicoprofiel, hetgeen bedoeld is om risicomanagers te informeren over de beschikbare kennis met betrekking tot dit potentiële gezondheidsrisico, als een eerste stap in het proces van risicomanagement. 3 gevaren dienen als voorbeeld in dit risicoprofiel: 1. quinolone-resistente Campylobacter jejuni; 2. veegerelateerde MRSA (v-MRSA); 3. ESBL-producerende bacteriën.
Specific coronary drug-eluting stents interfere with distal microvascular function after single stent implantation in pigs.
Heuvel, M. van den; Sorop, O. ; Batenburg, W.W. ; Bakker, C.L. ; Vries, R. de; Koopmans, S.J. ; Beusekom, H.M.M. ; Duncker, D.J. ; Danser, A.H.J. ; Giessen, W.J. - \ 2010
JACC: cardiovascular interventions 3 (2010)7. - ISSN 1936-8798 - p. 723 - 730.
arteries in-vivo - endothelial dysfunction - hyperpolarizing factors - hydrogen-peroxide - s-nitrosothiols - sirolimus - paclitaxel - bradykinin - inhibition - dilation
Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single drug-eluting stents (DES) on porcine coronary function distal to the stent in vivo and in vitro. Background The mechanism of endothelial dysfunction occurring in human coronary conduit arteries up to 9 months after DES implantation is unknown. Methods A sirolimus-eluting stent (SES), paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES), and a bare-metal stent (BMS) were implanted in the 3 coronary arteries of 11 pigs. After 5 weeks, in vivo responses in distal coronary flow to different doses of bradykinin (BK) and nitrates were measured. In vitro, vasodilation to BK and nitrates, as well as vasoconstriction to endothelin (ET)-1 were assessed in both distal coronary conduit and small arteries. In addition, contributions of nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) responses to BK-stimulation were determined in vitro. Results Both DES did not alter in vivo distal vasomotion. In vitro distal conduit and small arterial responses to BK were also unaltered; DES did not alter the BK-induced increase in cGMP. However, after NO synthase blockade, PES showed a reduced BK-response in distal small arteries as compared with BMS and SES (p <0.05). The ET-1–induced vasoconstriction and vascular smooth muscle cell function were unaltered. Conclusions In this study of single stenting in healthy porcine coronaries for 5 weeks, SES did not affect distal coronary vascular function, whereas PES altered distal endothelial function of small arteries under conditions of reduced NO bioavailability. Therefore, specifically the EDH-component of microvascular function seems affected by PES.
Macro-detritivore identity drives leaf litter diversity effects
Vos, V.C.A. - \ 2010
Direct detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in meat samples using magnetic capture and PCR
Opsteegh, M. ; Langelaar, M. ; Sprong, H. ; Hartog, L. ; Craeye, S. de; Bokken, G. ; Ajzenberg, D. ; Kijlstra, A. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2010
International Journal of Food Microbiology 139 (2010)3. - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 193 - 201.
polymerase-chain-reaction - congenital toxoplasmosis - tissue cysts - sheep - dna - infection - pigs - histopathology - diagnosis - bioassay
Different transmission routes, including the ingestion of undercooked meat, can result in Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans. The development of effective prevention strategies is hampered by a lack of quantitative information on the contamination level of different types of meat. Therefore, we developed a method for detection and quantification of T. gondii. The method involved preparation of crude DNA extract from hundred gram samples of meat, magnetic capture of T. gondii DNA and, quantitative real-time PCR targeting the T. gondii 529-bp repeat element. The detection limit of this assay was approximately 230 tachyzoites per 100 g of meat sample. There was a linear relation between the number of parasites added to the samples and Cp-values. Results obtained with the PCR method were comparable to bioassay results for experimentally infected pigs, and to serological findings for sheep. In addition, the T. gondii in 50% of the positive sheep samples could be genotyped by sequencing of the GRA6 gene, after isolation of the gene by magnetic capture. Two subtypes of GRA6 type II were identified in the 16 samples from sheep. For seven samples, the identification of T. gondii as type II was confirmed by microsatellite typing. The PCR method can be used as an alternative to bioassay for detection and genotyping of T. gondii, and to quantify the organism in meat samples of various sources
|Individuals in a community context: Neighboring plants structure the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in individual ragwort plants
Voorde, T.F.J. van de; Putten, W.H. van der; Hol, W.H.G. ; Gamper, H.A. ; Bezemer, T.M. - \ 2010
In: The future of Biodiversity: Genes, Species, Ecosystems. - Giessen, Germany : Justus-Liebig-University - p. 241 - 241.
|Drivers of parasitoid foraging behaviour under field conditions
Waveren, C.S. van; Meyer, K. ; Wiegand, K. ; Bezemer, T.M. - \ 2010
In: The Future of Biodiversity: Genes, Species, Ecosystems. - Giessen,Germany : Justus-Liebig-University - p. 357 - 357.
|Field preference and diet of foraging skylarks in winter
Geiger, F. ; Gleichman, J.M. ; Snoo, G.R. de; Berendse, F. ; Flinks, H. ; Hegemann, A. ; Tieleman, B.I. - \ 2010
High prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in slaughterhouse workers in contact with live pigs in The Netherlands
Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Broens, E.M. ; Voss, A. ; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Züchner, L. ; Benthem, B.H.B. van; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W. ; Mulders, M.N. ; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2010
Epidemiology and Infection 138 (2010)5. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 756 - 763.
resistant staphylococcus-aureus - methicillin-resistant - humans - involvement - infections - origin - cc398 - st398 - pork - meat
Livestock-associated MRSA has been found in various animals, livestock farmers and retail meat. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of nasal MRSA carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers. Three large pig slaughterhouses in The Netherlands were studied in 2008 using human and environmental samples. The overall prevalence of nasal MRSA carriage in employees of pig slaughterhouses was 5·6% (14/249) (95% CI 3·4–9·2) and working with live pigs was the single most important factor for being MRSA positive (OR 38·2, P
Prevalence of livestock-associated MRSA in broiler flocks and risk factors for slaughterhouse personnel in The Netherlands
Mulders, M.N. ; Haenen, A.P.J. ; Geenen, P.L. ; Vesseur, P.C. ; Poldervaart, E.S. ; Bosch, T. ; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Hengeveld, P.D. ; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Voss, A. ; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2010
Epidemiology and Infection 138 (2010)5. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 743 - 755.
resistant staphylococcus-aureus - methicillin-resistant - poultry meat - contamination - emergence - strains - humans - farms - swine - st398
To determine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in poultry and slaughterhouse personnel, 40 Dutch broiler flocks, in six slaughterhouses and 466 personnel were sampled. Of the employees, 26 were positive (5·6%), indicating a higher risk of exposure when compared to the general Dutch population (0·1%). This risk was significantly higher for personnel having contact with live animals (5·2%) – especially hanging broilers on the slaughterline (20·0%) – than for all other personnel (1·9%). Conventional electric stunning conferred a significantly higher risk of MRSA carriage for employees than CO2 stunning (9·7% vs. 2·0%). A total of 405 broilers were sampled upon their arrival at the slaughterhouse, of which 6·9% were positive. These broilers originated from 40 Dutch slaughter flocks of which 35·0% were positive. MRSA contamination in the different compartments of slaughterhouses increased during the production day, from 8% to 35%. Of the 119 MRSA isolates, predominantly livestock-associated MRSA ST398 was found, although 27·7% belonged to ST9 (spa type t1430). There is an increased risk of MRSA carriage in personnel working at broiler slaughterhouses, particularly those having contact with live animals
Usefulness of sero-surveillance for Trichinella infections in animal populations
Teunis, P.F.M. ; Fonville, M.T.M. ; Dopfer, D.D.V. ; Eijck, I.A.J.M. ; Molina, V. ; Guarnera, E. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der - \ 2009
Veterinary Parasitology 159 (2009)3-4. - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 345 - 349.
trichinosis - pigs - epidemiology - diagnosis
In this paper we evaluate serology as a tool to monitor Trichinella-free pig herds. Indoor, industrial-raised fattening pigs in the Netherlands are practically Trichinella-free, and were used as a negative reference cohort. A positive cohort was not available but we used sera from an endemic region in Argentina to model a plausible distribution of serological responses (as OD levels) in positive sera, employing the difference between the endemic sera and the negative Dutch sera. We describe a method for correcting for variation among ELISA plates using on-plate reference sera, and demonstrate how to apply these corrections to a collection of test sera from pig farms. The positive and negative reference distributions can be used to estimate fractions true and false positives, necessary for defining appropriate cutoffs to be used for classifying positive and negative animals. Based on this analysis, the serological test was shown to lack the predictive power required for its large scale deployment. The properties of the serological test were also compared to the conventional digestion assay, which is highly specific but considerably less sensitive.
Public health risk analysis of European bat lyssavirus infection in The Netherlands
Takumi, K. ; Lina, P.H.C. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Kramps, J.A. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der - \ 2009
Epidemiology and Infection 137 (2009). - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 803 - 809.
rabies - type-1
We present the frequency and the nature of contact incidents of the Serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus, with humans and with companion animals (specifically cats and dogs), in The Netherlands between 2000 and 2005. Out of 17 bats in bite contact with humans, five tested positive for European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) type 1a. Cats had the most numerous contacts with bats (49 times) but a relatively low number of these bats were EBLV positive (six times). We estimated that the average incidence of human bat rabies infection might be between once per year and once per 700 years, depending mainly on the number of infectious viral particles in bat saliva. The risk of bat rabies is higher between April and October, and in the northern half of the country. This is the first study in Europe describing the risk of human bat rabies after bat contact incidents.
Project 13: MRSA-transmissie tijdens transport en in het slachthuis
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Jong, M.C.M. de; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Wolf, P. de - \ 2009
In: Veegerelateerde MRSA: epidemiologie in dierlijke productieketens, transmissie naar de mens en karakterisatie van de kloon / Wagenaar, J.A., van de Giessen, A.W., Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) (RIVM-rapport 330224001) - p. 124 - 129.
Project 12: MRSA ST398 in de varkensproductiepiramide
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Jong, M.C.M. de; Lommerse, J. ; Meijerink, M. ; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Wolf, P. de - \ 2009
In: Veegerelateerde MRSA: epidemiologie in dierlijke productieketens, transmissie naar de mens en karakterisatie van de kloon / Wagenaar, J.A., van de Giessen, A.W., Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) (RIVM-rapport 330224001) - p. 117 - 123.
Project 8: prevalentieschatting en risicofactorenanalyse MRSA bij varkens
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Jong, M.C.M. de; Meijerink, M. ; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Oosterom, R.A.A. van; Wolf, P. de - \ 2009
In: Veegerelateerde MRSA: epidemiologie in dierlijke productieketens, transmissie naar de mens en karakterisatie van de kloon / Wagenaar, J.A., van de Giessen, A.W., Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) (RIVM-rapport 330224001) - p. 49 - 68.
varkenshouderij - varkens - infectieziekten - staphylococcus aureus - volksgezondheid - ziekteprevalentie - ziektedistributie - zoönosen - pig farming - pigs - infectious diseases - staphylococcus aureus - public health - disease prevalence - disease distribution - zoonoses
Rapport over het voorkomen van MRSA op varkenshouderijen. Geconcludeerd wordt dat MRSA op veel zeugenbedrijven voorkomt en dat de prevalentie stijgt. Grote bedrijven hebben hebben een verhoogd risico. Het risico wordt daarnaast ook nog bepaald door een aantal factoren. Voor wat betreft de besmetting van MRSA door mensen wordt geconcludeerd dat mensen die intensief contact met MRSA-positieve varkens hebben een sterk verhoogd risico hebben om zelf MRSA-positief te zijn.
Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in rats living on pig farms
Giessen, A.W. van de; Santen-Verheuvel, M.G. van; Hengeveld, P.D. ; Bosch, T. van den; Broens, E.M. ; Reusken, C.B.E.M. - \ 2009
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 91 (2009)2-4. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 270 - 273.
salmonella - transmission - animals - humans - st398
In The Netherlands, MRSA ST398 has emerged in hospitals and human carriers have been associated with exposure to pigs and cattle. High prevalences of MRSA ST398 in pigs and pig farmers have been determined and the transmission routes of MRSA on pig farms need to be elucidated. In the south of the Netherlands, in recent years, the black rat (Rattus rattus) has emerged as a prominent rodent on livestock farms. From March till May 2008, a survey on MRSA in rats living on livestock farms in the south of The Netherlands and the north of Belgium was conducted. In total, 40 black rats (R. rattus) and 3 brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) were collected on 12 farms including five pig farms, five poultry farms, one mixed pig and veal farm and one goat farm. MRSA ST398 was detected in black rats captured at two of the five pig farms as well as in a black rat living on the mixed pig and veal farm. From one black rat captured at another pig farm MRSA ST 97 was isolated. Considering the behaviour of rats on livestock farms, it is concluded that rats might play a role in the spread and persistence of MRSA on pig farms
|Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in rats living on pig farms
Bosch, T. van den; Santen-Verheuvel, M.G. van; Hengeveld, P.D. ; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Broens, E.M. ; Reusken, C.B. ; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2009
In: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Animals: Veterinary and Public Health Implications, London, England, 22-25 September 2009. - - p. 50 - 50.
|Diagnostic validity of pooling environmental samples to determine the status of sow-herds for presence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2009
In: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Animals: Veterinary and Public Health Implications, London, England, 22-25 September 2009. - - p. 38 - 38.
|MRSA ST398 in the pig production chain
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Duijkeren, E. van; Nes, A. van; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Giessen, A.W. van de; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2009
In: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Animals: Veterinary and Public Health Implications, London, England, 22-25 September 2009. - - p. 37 - 37.
|High prevalence of MRSA in slaughterhouse workers in contact with live pigs
Cleef, B.A. van; Broens, E.M. ; Voss, A. ; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Zuechner, L. ; Benthem, B.H. van; Kluytmans, J.A. ; Mulders, M.N. ; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2009
In: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Animals: Veterinary and Public Health Implications, London, England, 22-25 September 2009. - - p. 18 - 18.
|Transmission of MRSA ST398 during transport of pigs from farm to slaughterhouse and during time spent in lairags at the slaughterhouse
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Giessen, A.W. van de; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2009
In: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in Animals: Veterinary and Public Health Implications, London, England, 22-25 September 2009. - - p. 16 - 16.
Veegerelateerde MRSA: epidemiologie in dierlijke productieketens, transmissie naar de mens en karakterisatie van de kloon
Wagenaar, J.A. ; Giessen, A.W. van de - \ 2009
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 330224001) - 170
intensieve veehouderij - veehouderij - staphylococcus aureus - infectieziekten - volksgezondheid - intensive livestock farming - livestock farming - staphylococcus aureus - infectious diseases - public health
Onderzoek waarin gepoogd werd om meer inzicht te krijgen in het voorkomen van MRSA in de Nederlandse veehouderij. De varkenshouderij, vleeskalverhouderij en pluimveehouderij werden onderzocht. Geconcludeerd wordt dat MRSA wijdverspreid voorkomt in de intensieve veehouderij en dat Nederland hierin niet uniek is. In het bijzonder het type ST398 vormt een probleem, omdat het zich goed kan verspreiden en aanpassen
Het toenemend belang van infectieziekten die worden overgebracht door vectoren
Scholte, E.J. ; Reusken, C.B.E.M. ; Takken, W. ; Jongejan, F. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der - \ 2009
Infectieziekten bulletin 19 (2009)9. - ISSN 0925-711X - p. 311 - 316.
ziekten overgebracht door vectoren - infectieziekten - geleedpotigen - ziekten overgebracht door teken - ingevoerde infecties - klimaatverandering - zoönosen - ziekten overgebracht door muskieten - volksgezondheid - vector-borne diseases - infectious diseases - arthropods - tickborne diseases - imported infections - climatic change - zoonoses - mosquito-borne diseases - public health
Dit artikel gaat over de voor Nederland belangrijkste arthropodenvectoren (geleedpotigen, in dit artikel voornamelijk muggen en teken) en de door hen overgebrachte infectieziekten. Daarnaast wordt de rol van landschappelijke aanpassingen, klimaatverandering, intensiever internationaal reizigers- en handelsverkeer en veranderend gedrag met betrekking tot recreatie beschreven. Tenslotte wordt de verdere kennisbehoefte aangegeven
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in people living and working in pig farms
Broek, I.V.F. van den; Cleef, B.A.G.L. van; Haenen, A. ; Broens, E.M. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Broek, M.J.M. van den; Huijsdens, X.W. ; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W. ; Giessen, A.W. van de; Tiemersma, E.W. - \ 2009
Epidemiology and Infection 137 (2009)5. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 700 - 708.
intensive-care-unit - netherlands - humans - colonization - prevalence - strains - st398 - mrsa
We compared the prevalence of human and animal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at pig farms in The Netherlands, and related this to individual and farm-level characteristics. More than half of the farms investigated (28/50) had MRSA in pigs or stable dust and about one third (15/50) of person(s) were identified as MRSA carriers. Human carriage was found only on farms with MRSA-positive pigs or dust. MRSA strains in human samples were the same spa-type as found in pigs and all were not typable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NT-MRSA). Multivariate analyses showed that risk factors for human MRSA carriage were: working in pig stables (OR 40, 95% CI 8¿209) and the presence of sows and finishing pigs (OR 9, 95% CI 3¿30). Veterinary sample collectors sampling the pigs showed transient MRSA carriage only during the day of the farm visit. Working in pig stables with MRSA-positive pigs poses a high risk for acquiring MRSA, increasingly so when contact with live pigs is more intensive or long lasting
|Herintroductie van echinococcose via runderimport in Nederland
Aalten, M. ; Zuchner, L. ; Bruinier, E. ; Holzhauer, M. ; Wouda, W. ; Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Spong, H. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2008
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 133 (2008)21. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 898 - 902.
rundvee - slachtdieren - dierenhandel - echinococcus - rundveeziekten - import - zoönosen - nederland - centraal-europa - cattle - meat animals - trade in animals - echinococcus - cattle diseases - imports - zoonoses - netherlands - central europe - echinococcus-granulosus - romania
Since East European countries joined the EU, the import of both dairy and beef cows from these countries increased considerably. Based on the identification and registration system it turned out that in the period from May until December 2007 about 200 cows per month were imported from Romania. These animals were either slaughtered immediately or in autumn. In autumn, cysts were noticed both in slaughtered cows during meat inspection and in deceased animals (originated from Romania) during postmortem investigation performed by the Animal Health Service. Because cysts were strongly reminiscent of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cysts, samples were sent to the authorized laboratory (National Reference Laboratory of Parasitology), where the reintroduction of this potentially zoonotic parasitic infection has been confirmed. The risks of reintroduction of E. granulosus in the Netherlands are described.
|Werkgroep Veterinaire Parasitologie Nederland. Uniforme Europese richtlijnen ontworming van hond en kat (ESCCAP)
Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Doorn, D. van; Eysker, M. ; Nijsse, R. ; Ploeger, H.W. ; Giessen, J. van der; Knapen, F. van; Overgaauw, P.A.M. - \ 2008
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 133 (2008)8. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 345 - 345.
huisdieren - dierziekten - veterinaire parasitologie - parasieten - parasitologie - toxocara - domestic animals - animal diseases - veterinary parasitology - parasites - parasitology - toxocara
Een onafhankelijke groep Europese parasitologen wil via de website www.esccap.org zonder winstoogmerk informatie verstrekken over parasitaire infecties bij hond en kat in Europa. Hierbij is het belangrijk dat de (ontwormings)adviezen uniform zijn, de informatie “up-to-date” wordt gehouden en dat deze in diverse talen beschikbaar is. De uitgebreide richtlijnen kunnen worden aangepast aan de regionale situatie. De organisatie, genaamd European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasites (ESCCAP), wordt inmiddels ondersteund door het European Veterinairy Parasitology College (EVPC) en de World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). De vertegenwoordiger vanuit Nederland is Frans van Knapen, hoogleraar in veterinaire volksgezondheid en levensmiddelenhygiëne te Utrecht
|MRSA in pigs: a new threat to human health !? How many and which pig farms are MRSA-positive?
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Tiemersma, E.W. ; Giessen, A.W. van de; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2008
|Can MRSA be transmitted through the pig production chain?
Broens, E.M. ; Graat, E.A.M. ; Wolf, P.J. van der; Duijkeren, E. van; Nes, A. van; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Giessen, A.W. van de; Jong, M.C.M. de - \ 2008