The Role of Farm Management Characteristics in Understanding the Spatial Distribution of Landscape Elements: A Case Study in the Netherlands
Hauser, Leon Tobias ; Sluis, T. van der; Giessen, M. - \ 2016
Rural Landscapes: Society Environment, History 3 (2016)1. - ISSN 2002-0104 - 15 p.
In Western Europe the fate of biodiversity is intimately linked to agricultural land use. A driving force behind biodiversity decline is the gradual conversion of Europe’s traditional integrated rural landscapes of nature and agriculture into monofunctional units of production. With these developments, semi-natural landscape elements have increasingly disappeared from agricultural landscapes. A growing body of research, however, underlines the importance of semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes for biodiversity conservation, habitat connectivity, and ecosystem services. On the local scale, considerable variation between the relative area of landscape elements on individual farms can be observed. Farm management decisions are presumed to be important determinants for the composition of agricultural landscapes and the services provided to society.
By bringing together data from farmer interviews and aerial photographic imagery, this paper analyzes the predictive validity of farm management characteristics to understand the distribution of landscape elements on farmland parcels. The farm management parameters included in the study are relevant to current dominant trends in the Dutch agricultural sector; intensification, scale enlargement, diversification, and gradual termination of farming activities. Scale enlargement and migratory processes are found to be important predictors. The results of the Dutch case study provide insights in the threats and opportunities for the conservation of semi-natural habitat in agricultural landscapes. The findings present an empirical contribution to the debate on sustainable management of agriculture’s green infrastructure and, in broader perspective, the objective to reconcile agricultural production with the urging need of biodiversity conservation in Europe’s spatially contested countryside.
Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014
Pijnacker, Roan ; Goris, M.G. ; Wierik, M.J. te; Broens, E.M. ; Giessen, J.W. van der; Rosa, M. de; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Hartskeerl, R.A. ; Notermans, D.W. ; Maassen, K. ; Schimmer, B. - \ 2016
Eurosurveillance 21 (2016)17. - ISSN 1025-496X - 7 p.
In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with an increase of leptospirosis in dogs. In 2014, 13 dogs with leptospirosis were reported, compared with two to six dogs annually from 2010 to 2013. The majority of the autochthonous cases (n = 20) were linked to recreational exposure, e.g. swimming or fishing, followed by occupational exposure (n = 15). About sixty per cent (n = 37) of the autochthonous cases were most likely attributable to surface water contact, and 13 cases to direct contact with animals, mainly rats. A possible explanation for this increase is the preceding mild winter of 2013–2014 followed by the warmest year in three centuries, possibly enabling rodents and Leptospira spp. to survive better. A slight increase in imported leptospirosis was also observed in Dutch tourists (n = 33) most of whom acquired their infection in Thailand (n = 18). More awareness and early recognition of this mainly rodent-borne zoonosis by medical and veterinary specialists is warranted.
Identifying pig herds at risk for Toxoplasma gondii: prevalence and test characteristics
Boender, G.J. ; Swanenburg, M. ; Koeijer, A.A. de; Heres, L. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2015
In: Proceedings: Apicomplexa in farm animals. - Edinburgh : Moredun Research Institute - p. 55 - 55.
Toxoplasma gondii in European slaughtered calves and cattle - serology, mouse bioassay and magnetic capture qPCR
Opsteegh, M. ; Aubert, Dominique ; Balea, Anamaria ; Burrells, Alison ; Cherchi, S. ; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J. ; Dam, C. ; Györke, Adriana ; Kalmar, Zsuzsa ; Katzer, Frank ; Limon, Georgina ; Possenti, A. ; Pozio, Edoardo ; Spano, Furio ; Villena, Isabelle ; Wisselink, H.J. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2015
In: ApiCOWplaxa 2015 Proceedings: Apicomplexa in Farm Animals. - Edinburgh : Moredun Research Institute - p. 43 - 43.
|Public and animal health risk of import and transit of live exotic animals into the Netherlands in the period 2013 and 2014
Roon, A. van; Maas, M. ; Toale, D. ; Giessen, J. van der; Vos-de Jong, C.J. de; Swanenburg, M. ; Tafro, N. - \ 2015
Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR (Report / CVI 15/CVI0318) - 147 p.
Letter to the editor: Inoculation of mice with avian blaCTX-M-1- or blaCMY-2-carrying Escherichia coli strains does not lead to long-term colonization
Duijkeren, Engeline van; Overbeek, Wendy M. van; Huijbers, Patricia M.C. ; Giessen, Arjen W. van de; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van - \ 2015
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 70 (2015)11. - ISSN 0305-7453 - p. 3164 - 3165.
|Onderzoek naar Brucella bij wilde zwijnen op de Veluwe
Tulden, P.W. van; Dekkers, L.J.M. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2015
Jacht & Beheer (2015). - ISSN 1569-3414 - p. 14 - 14.
Tularemie in Nederland, terug van weggeweest?
Koene, M.G.J. ; Rijks, J. ; Maas, M. ; Rosa, M. de; Broens, E.M. ; Vellema, P. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Pijnacker, R. ; Fanoy, E. ; Notermans, D.W. ; Tas, P. van de; Giessen, J. van der; Gröne, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. - \ 2015
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 140 (2015)8. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 23 - 27.
dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - wilde dieren - animal welfare - animal health - wild animals
Tularemie is een zoönose veroorzaakt door de
bacterie Francisella tularensis. Veel diersoorten
kunnen besmet raken, al bestaan er grote verschillen
in gevoeligheid. Haasachtigen en knaagdieren
zijn erg bevattelijk voor de infectie. Tussen
1953 en 2011 zijn geen Nederlandse gevallen
gediagnosticeerd, maar nadien zijn bij zowel
hazen als mensen meerdere incidentele besmettingen
aangetoond. Begin 2015 is tularemie vastgesteld
bij meerdere dood aangetroffen hazen in
de omgeving van Akkrum in Friesland. Bovendien
werd in deze omgeving melding gemaakt
van een hogere sterfte onder hazen dan gebruikelijk.
Voor Nederland is dit een uitzonderlijke
situatie. Dit artikel gaat dieper in op de ziekte
en mogelijke risico’s voor dieren
Kwaliteit van modellen voor wettelijke onderzoekstaken
Houweling, H. ; Voorn, G.A.K. van; Giessen, A. van der; Wiertz, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu - Wageningen UR (WOt-paper 38) - 4
kwaliteitsnormen - modellen - recht - natuur - milieu - landbouwwetenschappen - landschap - evaluatie - quality standards - models - law - nature - environment - agricultural sciences - landscape - evaluation
De unit Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu van Wageningen UR (WOT N&M) zet modellen, (ruimtelijke) gegevensbestanden en graadmeters in bij het beleidsgericht onderzoek voor het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving en het Ministerie van Economische Zaken. Het gaat daarbij bijvoorbeeld om onderzoek voor de Natuurverkenningen, de Herijking van de Ecologische Hoofdstructuur of de Evaluatie van het Mest- en Gewasbeschermingsmiddelenbeleid. Om de kwaliteit van deze modellen en (ruimtelijke) gegevensbestanden te verbeteren en te borgen maakt de WOT N&M gebruik van een kwaliteitssysteem. In deze WOtpaper wordt dit kwaliteitssysteem toegelicht.
Quality of models for policy support
Houweling, H. ; Voorn, G.A.K. van; Giessen, A. van der; Wiertz, J. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu) (WOt-paper 38) - 4
quality management - policy - quality standards - models - kwaliteitszorg - beleid - kwaliteitsnormen - modellen
The Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT N&M) at Wageningen UR uses models, geodatabases and indicators in its policyoriented research for PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (see Bouwma et al., 2014) and the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. This research is undertaken for a variety of purposes, for example for the Nature Outlook reports, the review of the National Ecological Network and the evaluation of the policy on fertilisers and crop protection products. WOT N&M operates a quality system to improve and maintain the quality of these models and databases. This WOt-Paper describes this quality system.
Increasing representation of states by utilitarian as compared to environmental bureaucracies in international forest and forest-environmental policy negotiations
Giessen, L. ; Krott, M. ; Mollmann, T. - \ 2014
Forest Policy and Economics 38 (2014). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 97 - 104.
nature conservation policy - institutional change - governance - regime - politics - sectors - back
This article analyses the representation of selected countries (EU-27 and the five influential "forest states") to international forest-related negotiations by national utilitarian vis-a-vis conservation-oriented ministerial bureaucracies. It is hypothesised that due to the bureaucracies' informal goal of gaining and maintaining responsibility over political issues, mainly ministries of agriculture including forestry and ministries of environment are competing for the task of representing states in international forest and forest-environmental negotiations. A survey design based on a semi-structured questionnaire was used to study the bureaucratic representation of the selected states to the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) and to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) negotiations between 2000 and 2011. The results show that in the processes under study the representation of states by utilitarian types of bureaucracies is rather increasing, while the role of conservationist bureaucracies is declining. Likewise, the roles of ministries of foreign affairs and economic affairs are declining, while hybrid organisations on agriculture/environment were observed being on a strong increase. Under CBD negotiations the vast majority of responding countries was represented by environmental bureaucracies, while agricultural ones played a marginal role. In contrast, under UNFF negotiations countries were represented by agricultural, economic and hybrid agricultural/environmental bureaucracies in approx. equal shares. Agricultural bureaucracies especially gained influence under UNFF negotiations during the study period. The article concludes on these trends also highlighting options for future research. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.
Maio, E. ; Begeman, L. ; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M. ; Tulden, P.W. van; Wiersma, L. ; Hiemstra, S. ; Ruuls, R. ; Gröne, A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2014
Veterinary Microbiology 173 (2014)1-2. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 118 - 124.
marine mammal brucella - north-sea - adjacent waters - infection - pinnipedialis - ceti - cetaceans - lungworms - emphasis - exposure
The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265) Brucella positive tissue samples were Brucella positive by culture and these were all confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) based on the insertion element 711 (IS711). In addition, two more Brucella-positive tissue samples from two animals collected in 2011 were identified using real-time PCR resulting in an overall Brucella prevalence of 6.3% (7/112 animals). Brucella spp. were obtained from lungs (n=3), pulmonary lymph node (n=3) and lungworms (n=2). Multi Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) typing based on the MLVA-16 showed that the Brucella isolates were B. ceti. Additional in silico Multi Locus Sequence typing (MLST) after whole genome sequencing of the 6 Brucella isolates confirmed B. ceti ST 23. According to the Brucella 2010 MLVA database, the isolated Brucella strains encountered were of five genotypes, in two distinct subclusters divided in two different time periods of harbour porpoises collection. This study is the first population based analyses for Brucella spp. infections in cetaceans stranded along the Dutch coast.
Actor-centred power: The driving force in decentralised community based forest governance
Krott, M. ; Bader, A. ; Schusser, C. ; Devkota, R. ; Maryudi, A. ; Giessen, L. ; Aurenhammer, H. - \ 2014
Forest Policy and Economics 49 (2014). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 34 - 42.
policy - science
Community forestry has been described as a decentralised mode of forest governance that only partly lives up to its expectations. The power of important actors to misuse the community forestry approach for their self-interests has been reported as a major obstacle to comprehensive success. Hence, this article aims at developing an analytical, theory-based and empirically applicable framework for assessing an actor's power using community forestry as an illustrative case. The actor-centred power approach (ACP) analysis aims to provide a scientific answer to the question of who are the politically most powerful actors in community forestry practices. In making use of suitable components of power theories it builds strongly upon the social relations of actors, organisational aspects and power sources, as described by Weber, Dahl, Etzioni and their adherents. Actor-centred power approach (ACP) is defined as a social relationship in which actor A alters the behaviour of actor B without recognising B's will. In our framework we distinguish between three core elements: coercion, (dis-)incentives and dominant information. These make up the basis for observable facts that involve not only physical actions but also threats by power elements and the very sources of said power elements. Theoretical considerations show that, despite the focus being on actors, by looking to their power sources a considerable part of structural power can be more tangible at least in part, like rules, discourse or ideologies. Furthermore, the paper shows how the actor-centred power approach distinguishes power from other influences on forest management and contributes to the identification of the group of powerful actors on an empirical basis. Due to the focus on actors and well-defined and observable elements of power, the actor-centred power approach (ACP) could serve not only as a basis for research but also as a tool for quick assessment of power networks, delivering valuable preliminary information for designing forest policy in practice.
Learning from practices — implications of the “practice based approach” for forest and environmental policy research.
Giessen, L. ; Krott, M. - \ 2014
Forest Policy and Economics 49 (2014). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 12 - 16.
With the book publication “Forest and Nature Governance — A practice based approach” (Arts et al., 2013, Eds.) the Forest and Nature Conservation Policy Group of Wageningen University, The Netherlands demonstrates its high aspirations of developing a new research approach. This article aims at discussing the methodological and conceptual contributions of the book to the field of forest and environmental policy research and proposes perspectives for further developing this methodological approach. It finds the “practice based approach” being an innovative, theoretically sound concept, which is able to produce valuable and “thick” empirical results. The approach is also found offering a plethora of possibilities to link up to analytical policy research. Yet, the approach will require further elaboration, especially on questions regarding the role of definitions, its contribution towards explaining social phenomena, and concerning the use of normative orientations in some of the empirical cases. The future challenges of the approach lie in either moulding a niche for further developing it independent from other schools, or in influencing mainstream approaches through theoretical innovations or surprising empirical results.
Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans
Maas, M. ; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C. ; Roon, A.M. van; Takumi, K. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der - \ 2014
Veterinary Parasitology 206 (2014)3-4. - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 167 - 172.
human alveolar echinococcosis - red foxes - netherlands - transmission - switzerland - city - dogs
The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of Limburg, The Netherlands. This study was designed todetermine trends in the prevalence and worm burden of E. multilocularis in foxes in a popu-lar recreational area in the southern part of Limburg to assess the risk of infection for humansand to study the prevalence of E. multilocularis in dogs in the adjacent city of Maastricht.Thirty-seven hunted red foxes were tested by the intestinal scraping technique and nestedPCR on colon content. Additionally, 142 fecal samples of domestic dogs from Maastrichtwere analyzed by qPCR for the presence of E. multilocularis.In foxes, a significantly increased prevalence of 59% (95% confidence interval 43–74%)was found, compared to the prevalence of 11% (95% CI 7–18%) in 2005–2006. Average wormburden increased to 37 worms per fox, the highest since the first detection, but consistentwith the prediction about the parasite population for this region. Updated prediction onthe number of AE cases did not lead to an increase in previous estimates of human AE casesup to 2018. No dogs in the city of Maastricht tested positive, but results of questionnairesshowed that deworming schemes were inadequate, especially in dogs that were consideredat risk for infection.
An experimental Toxoplasma gondii dose response challenge model to study therapeutic or vaccine efficacy in cats
Cornelissen, J.B.W.J. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der; Takumi, K. ; Teunis, P.F.M. ; Wisselink, H.J. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)9. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
crude rhoptry proteins - united-states - tissue cysts - oocysts - bradyzoites - infectivity - tachyzoites - outbreak - animals - humans
High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment. Previous studies have indicated that bradyzoites are highly infectious for cats. To infect cats, tissue cysts were isolated from the brains of mice infected with oocysts of T. gondii M4 strain, and bradyzoites were released by pepsin digestion. Free bradyzoites were counted and graded doses (1000, 100, 50, 10), and 250 intact tissue cysts were inoculated orally into three cats each. Oocysts shed by these five groups of cats were collected from faeces by flotation techniques, counted microscopically and estimated by real time PCR. Additionally, the number of T. gondii in heart, tongue and brains were estimated, and serology for anti T. gondii antibodies was performed. A Beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the infectivity of single bradyzoites and linear regression was used to determine the relation between inoculated dose and numbers of oocyst shed. We found that real time PCR was more sensitive than microscopic detection of oocysts, and oocysts were detected by PCR in faeces of cats fed 10 bradyzoites but by microscopic examination. Real time PCR may only detect fragments of T. gondii DNA without the presence of oocysts in low doses. Prevalence of tissue cysts of T. gondii in tongue, heart and brains, and anti T. gondii antibody concentrations were all found to depend on the inoculated bradyzoite dose. The combination of the experimental challenge model and the dose response analysis provides a suitable reference for quantifying the potential reduction in human health risk due to a treatment of domestic cats by vaccination or by therapeutic drug application.
Circulation of four Anaplasma phagocytophilum ecotypes in Europe
Jahfari, S. ; Coipan, E.C. ; Fonville, M. ; Leeuwen, A.D. van; Hengeveld, P. ; Heylen, D. ; Heyman, P. ; Maanen, C. van; Butler, C.M. ; Foldvari, G. ; Szekeres, S. ; Duijvendijk, L.A.G. van; Tack, W. ; Rijks, J.M. ; Giessen, J. van der; Takken, W. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Takumi, K. ; Sprong, H. - \ 2014
Parasites & Vectors 7 (2014)1. - ISSN 1756-3305
candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis - human granulocytic anaplasmosis - ixodes-ricinus ticks - borrelia-burgdorferi - borne diseases - phylogenetic analyses - sequence-analysis - ehrlichiosis - strains - gene
Background: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the etiological agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in humans and animals. Wild animals and ticks play key roles in the enzootic cycles of the pathogen. Potential ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum have been characterized genetically, but their host range, zoonotic potential and transmission dynamics has only incompletely been resolved. Methods. The presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA was determined in more than 6000 ixodid ticks collected from the vegetation and wildlife, in 289 tissue samples from wild and domestic animals, and 69 keds collected from deer, originating from various geographic locations in The Netherlands and Belgium. From the qPCR-positive lysates, a fragment of the groEL-gene was amplified and sequenced. Additional groEL sequences from ticks and animals from Europe were obtained from GenBank, and sequences from human cases were obtained through literature searches. Statistical analyses were performed to identify A. phagocytophilum ecotypes, to assess their host range and their zoonotic potential. The population dynamics of A. phagocytophilum ecotypes was investigated using population genetic analyses. Results: DNA of A. phagocytophilum was present in all stages of questing and feeding Ixodes ricinus, feeding I. hexagonus, I. frontalis, I. trianguliceps, and deer keds, but was absent in questing I. arboricola and Dermacentor reticulatus. DNA of A. phagocytophilum was present in feeding ticks and tissues from many vertebrates, including roe deer, mouflon, red foxes, wild boar, sheep and hedgehogs but was rarely found in rodents and birds and was absent in badgers and lizards. Four geographically dispersed A. phagocytophilum ecotypes were identified, that had significantly different host ranges. All sequences from human cases belonged to only one of these ecotypes. Based on population genetic parameters, the potentially zoonotic ecotype showed significant expansion. Conclusion: Four ecotypes of A. phagocytophilum with differential enzootic cycles were identified. So far, all human cases clustered in only one of these ecotypes. The zoonotic ecotype has the broadest range of wildlife hosts. The expansion of the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum ecotype indicates a recent increase of the acarological risk of exposure of humans and animals.
The Dutch Q fever situation - Lessons learned?
Roest, H.I.J. ; Maassen, C.B.M. ; Giessen, A. van de; Zijderveld, F.G. van - \ 2014
Planet@Risk 2 (2014)3. - ISSN 2296-8172 - p. 166 - 168.
About 60 to 75% of the emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic. A special group of zoonotic diseases are these that are endemic but in a dormant state. A good example of such a disease is Q fever in the Netherlands. Before 2005, Q fever was known to be present in the human and animal populations but did not cause significant disease. This changed in 2005, when the first abortions in dairy goats were registered and in 2007 when the first human Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands was recorded. Between 2005 and 2009 abortions on 28 dairy goat farms and 2 dairy sheep farms were detected and between 2007 and 2010 about 4000 human cases were notified. This is recognised as the largest laboratory confirmed Q fever outbreak ever reported. To identify the cause of the human disease, genotyping of the causative Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii confirmed the epidemiological link between humans and dairy goats and sheep. Furthermore, an intergraded human-veterinary approach was needed to combat the outbreak. The need for such a One Health approach was also the conclusion of the official evaluation of the Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands. This resulted in a currently implemented national zoonosis structure with a signalling forum that meets monthly. This structure has already been helpful in assessing the human risk of the Schmallenberg virus outbreak.
Discussing legal scholarship from political science perspectives : Review
Edwards, P. ; Giessen, L. - \ 2014
Forest Policy and Economics 38 (2014). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 30 - 31.
Scholarship in international law aims at addressing global forest governance comprehensively. This article reviews the recent contribution Global Forest Governance — Legal Concepts and Policy Trends by Rowena Maguire and puts it into the perspective of recent political and policy science research on global forests. While finding Maguire's volume being a very timely and valuable contribution to the interdisciplinary discussions on international forest governance, we identify some weaknesses which are mostly rooted in methodological critique and a lack of a systematic framework for analysis.
Reviewing the main characteristics of the international forest regime complex and partial explanations for its fragmentation
Giessen, L. - \ 2013
International Forestry Review 15 (2013)1. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 60 - 70.
global governance - climate-change - united-nations - policy - partnerships - lessons - back
The objectives of this review article are, firstly, to provide an overview of the literature on the main characteristics of what is referred to as the international forest regime and secondly, based on this, to review explanations for fragmentation as its core characteristic. A third aim of the article is to propose fields for future policy-oriented research on global forest governance, the international forest regime and its fragmentation. The article discusses different strands of literature and academic views on the existence and main characteristics of an international forest regime. It regards the recent notion of an international forest regime complex to be a fruitful topic for future research proposals and finds that fragmentation is its analytical core characteristic. In addition, the article reviews partial explanations for the great relevance of fragmentation in the case of the forest regime complex. It discriminates between domestic factors and causes as opposed to those resulting from the international system. Based on the review, the article suggests, lastly, fields for future research on global forest governance, the international forest regime complex and its fragmentation.