Interfacial properties of green leaf cellulosic particles
Tamayo Tenorio, A. ; Gieteling, J. ; Nikiforidis, C.V. ; Boom, R.M. ; Goot, A.J. van der - \ 2017
Food Hydrocolloids 71 (2017). - ISSN 0268-005X - p. 8 - 16.
Cellulosic particles - Emulsions - Green leaves - Hemicellulose - Interfacial properties - Pickering stabilisers
Cellulosic pulp from sugar beet leaves was fractionated and assessed on its interfacial properties. After pressing leaves to express the juice, the press cake was washed at alkaline pH (pH 9) to remove residual protein, dried, milled and air classified. The obtained cellulosic particles mainly consisted of insoluble dietary fibre (77.8% w/w) with remaining proteins (6.3% w/w) and exhibited considerable interfacial activity. The protein impurities contribute to the surface charge of the particles and provide surface activity, leading to spontaneous diffusion of the particles during the interfacial tension analysis; whereas the particle adsorption kinetics were characteristic of soft particles or Pickering emulsifiers. The interfacial rheology measurements showed abnormal behaviour and unusual drop shape upon deformation, hindering interpretation of the analysis but still suggesting a rigid interface with strong physical particle-particle interactions. Stable oil-in-water emulsions were produced using cellulosic particles, and despite phase separation, the emulsions were stable against coalescence. The results suggested that mostly fine particles (0.04–1.0 μm) were responsible for the interfacial stabilisation, given the small oil droplets obtained (2–5 μm); whereas larger particles (>10 μm) created a network in the continuous phase, which was responsible for the emulsion phase separation. It was concluded that the cellulosic particles had a soft nature and suitable shape to produce stable Pickering emulsions, which can be used as food-grade particles for food and pharma applications.
Shear-induced structuring as a tool to make anisotropic materials using soy protein concentrate
Grabowska, Katarzyna J. ; Zhu, Sicong ; Dekkers, Birgit L. ; Ruijter, Norbert C.A. de; Gieteling, Jarno ; Goot, Atze J. van der - \ 2016
Journal of Food Engineering 188 (2016). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 77 - 86.
Fibrous structure - Shear - Shearing equipment - Soy protein concentrate
This research presents the formation of anisotropic, and partly fibrous, semi-solid structures with Soy Protein Concentrate (SPC) using the concept of shear-induced structuring. The morphological and mechanical properties of the structures obtained are analyzed using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), and large scale mechanical deformation analysis. We present process conditions leading to the formation of anisotropic structures in SPC and found that comparable conditions did not result in anisotropy when using soy protein isolate. Results indicate the importance of the dry matter content, the process temperature and the presence of carbohydrates in structure formation. CSLM pictures show that carbohydrates form a separate phase in the system, which is oriented upon processing. The need for high temperatures also required the development of next generation shearing equipment.
Recovery of protein from green leaves : Overview of crucial steps for utilisation
Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica ; Gieteling, Jarno ; Jong, Govardus A.H. De; Boom, Remko M. ; Goot, Atze J. Van Der - \ 2016
Food Chemistry 203 (2016). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 402 - 408.
Dry matter composition - Leaf biorefinery - Membrane proteins - Protein extraction
Plant leaves are a major potential source of novel food proteins. Till now, leaf protein extraction methods mainly focus on the extraction of soluble proteins, like rubisco protein, leaving more than half of all protein unextracted. Here, we report on the total protein extraction from sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) by a traditional thermal extraction method consisting of mechanical pressing, heating to 50 °C and centrifugation. The resulting streams (i.e. supernatant, green-protein pellet and fibrous pulp) were characterised in terms of composition, physical structure and processing options. The protein distributed almost equally over the supernatant, pellet and pulp. This shows that thermal precipitation is an unselective process with respect to fractionation between soluble (rubisco) and insoluble (other) proteins. About 6% of the total protein could be extracted as pure rubisco (90% purity) from the supernatant. Surfactants commonly used for protein solubilisation could hardly re-dissolve the precipitated proteins in the pellet phase, which suggested that irreversible association was induced between the co-precipitated proteins and cell debris. Thus, the extraction of this protein will require prevention of their co-precipitation, and should take place in the original juice solution.
Growth of anaerobic methane oxidizing archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria in a high pressure membrane-capsule bioreactor
Timmers, P.H.A. ; Gieteling, J. ; Widjaja-Greefkes, H.C.A. ; Plugge, C.M. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Meulepas, R.J.W. - \ 2015
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81 (2015)4. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 1286 - 1296.
cold-seep sediments - 16s ribosomal-rna - gradient gel-electrophoresis - guaymas basin - hydrothermal sediments - microbial diversity - marine-sediments - population-dynamics - community structure - gene database
Anaerobic methane oxidizing communities of archaea (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) grow slowly, which limits physiological studies. High methane partial pressure was previously successfully applied to stimulate growth, but it is not clear how different ANME subtypes and associated sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are affected by it. Here, we report growth of ANME/SRB in a membrane-capsule bioreactor inoculated with Eckernförde Bay sediment that combines high pressure incubation (10.1 MPa methane) and thorough mixing (100 rpm) with complete cell retention by a 0.2 µm membrane. Results were compared to previously obtained data from an ambient-pressure (0.101 MPa methane) bioreactor inoculated with the same sediment. Labelled-methane oxidation rates were not higher at 10.1 MPa, likely because measurements were done at ambient pressure. The subtype ANME-2a/b was abundant in both reactors, but subtype ANME-2c was only enriched at 10.1 MPa. SRB at 10.1 MPa mainly belonged to the SEEP-SRB2, Eel-1 group and Desulforomonadales and not to the typically found SEEP-SRB1. Increase of ANME-2a/b occurred in parallel with increase of SEEP-SRB2 which was previously only found associated with ANME-2c. Our results imply that the syntrophic association is flexible and that methane pressure and sulfide concentration influence growth of different ANME-SRB consortia. We also studied the effect of elevated methane pressure on methane production and oxidation by a mixture of methanogenic and sulfate-reducing sludge. Here, methane oxidation rates decreased and were not coupled to sulfide production, indicating trace methane oxidation during net methanogenesis and not anaerobic methane oxidation, even at high methane partial pressure.
Protein from sugar beet leaves: harvest, extraction and applications
Tamayo Tenorio, A. ; Gieteling, J. ; Jong, A. de; Boom, R.M. ; Goot, A.J. van der - \ 2014
Microbial diversity and community structure of a highly active anaerobic methane-oxidizing sulfate-reducing enrichment
Jagersma, C.G. ; Meulepas, R.J.W. ; Heikamp-de Jong, G.A.M. ; Gieteling, J. ; Klimiuk, A. ; Schouten, S. ; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. ; Lens, P.N.L. ; Stams, A.J.M. - \ 2009
Environmental Microbiology 11 (2009)12. - ISSN 1462-2912 - p. 3223 - 3232.
16s ribosomal-rna - marine-sediments - cold-seep - in-vitro - sequence data - mud volcano - black-sea - oxidation - bacteria - archaea
Summary Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important methane sink in the ocean but the microbes responsible for AOM are as yet resilient to cultivation. Here we describe the microbial analysis of an enrichment obtained in a novel submerged-membrane bioreactor system and capable of high-rate AOM (286 mumol g(dry weight) (-1) day(-1)) coupled to sulfate reduction. By constructing a clone library with subsequent sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization, we showed that the responsible methanotrophs belong to the ANME-2a subgroup of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea, and that sulfate reduction is most likely performed by sulfate-reducing bacteria commonly found in association with other ANME-related archaea in marine sediments. Another relevant portion of the bacterial sequences can be clustered within the order of Flavobacteriales but their role remains to be elucidated. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses showed that the ANME-2a cells occur as single cells without close contact to the bacterial syntrophic partner. Incubation with (13)C-labelled methane showed substantial incorporation of (13)C label in the bacterial C(16) fatty acids (bacterial; 20%, 44% and 49%) and in archaeal lipids, archaeol and hydroxyl-archaeol (21% and 20% respectively). The obtained data confirm that both archaea and bacteria are responsible for the anaerobic methane oxidation in a bioreactor enrichment inoculated with Eckernförde bay sediment
Enrichment of anaerobic methanotrophs in sulfate-reducing membrane bioreactors
Meulepas, R.J.W. ; Jagersma, C.G. ; Gieteling, J. ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2009
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 104 (2009)3. - ISSN 0006-3592 - p. 458 - 470.
16s ribosomal-rna - continuous-flow bioreactor - methane oxidation rates - marine-sediments - carbon-monoxide - waste-water - archaea - methanogenesis - consumption - reduction
Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments is coupled to sulfate reduction (SR). AOM is mediated by distinct groups of archaea, called anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME). ANME co-exist with sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are also involved in AOM coupled SR. The microorganisms involved in AOM coupled to SR are extremely difficult to grow in vitro. Here, a novel well-mixed submerged-membrane bioreactor system is used to grow and enrich the microorganisms mediating AOM coupled to SR. Four reactors were inoculated with sediment sampled in the Eckernförde Bay (Baltic Sea) and operated at a methane and sulfate loading rate of 4.8 L L(-1) day(-1) (196 mmol L(-1) day(-1)) and 3.0 mmol L(-1) day(-1). Two bioreactors were controlled at 15 degrees C and two at 30 degrees C, one reactor at 30 degrees C contained also anaerobic granular sludge. At 15 degrees C, the volumetric AOM and SR rates doubled approximately every 3.8 months. After 884 days, an enrichment culture was obtained with an AOM and SR rate of 1.0 mmol g(volatile suspended solids) (-1) day(-1) (286 micromol g(dry weight) (-1) day(-1)). No increase in AOM and SR was observed in the two bioreactors operated at 30 degrees C. The microbial community of one of the 15 degrees C reactors was analyzed. ANME-2a became the dominant archaea. This study showed that sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor is possible in well-mixed bioreactors and that the submerged-membrane bioreactor system is an excellent system to enrich slow-growing microorganisms, like methanotrophic archaea
Effect of sulfate and iron on physico-chemical characteristics of anaerobic granular sludge
Hullebusch, E.D. van; Gieteling, J. ; Daele, W. van; Defrancq, J. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2007
Biochemical Engineering Journal 33 (2007)2. - ISSN 1369-703X - p. 168 - 177.
extracellular polymeric substances - waste-water - viscosity evolution - reducing bacteria - blanket reactors - egsb reactors - uasb - precipitation - sulfide - localization
This research investigated the effect of the substrate composition (no substrate, glucose, glucose + sulfate or glucose + sulfate + iron) on the physico-chemical characteristics of two different anaerobic granular sludges as a function of time. The sludges were fed batch wise (pH 7, 30 °C) at an organic loading rate of 1.2 g COD l¿1 d¿1 (0.04 g COD g VSS¿1 day¿1) for 30 days. The presence of sulfate (COD/sulfate ratio = 1) in the feed of glucose fed anaerobic sludges did not change the physico-chemical characteristics throughout the incubation. In contrast, the presence of iron in the feed (in addition to glucose and sulfate, COD/iron ratio = 1) reduced the protein and carbohydrate content in the SMP and EPS with about 50% after 30 days incubation compared to the other feeding conditions. The sludge grown on glucose + sulfate + iron contained much more iron (+300¿500%) and sulfur (+200¿350%) than the other incubated sludges both after 14 and 30 days. The higher mineral content (lower VSS content) and the decrease of the EPS content contributed to the disintegration of iron fed granules, as shown by their lower size particles. However, the iron fed sludge displayed a higher granule strength than the other incubated sludges. Although an appreciable variation in the granule strength was noticed between the sludges investigated, it was not possible to relate these differences to their inorganic composition, the chemical composition of the extracted polymers or to the physical characteristics investigated
Induction of cobalt limitation in methanol fed UASB reactors
Zandvoort, M.H. ; Hullebusch, E.D. van; Golubnic, S. ; Gieteling, J. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2006
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 81 (2006)9. - ISSN 0268-2575 - p. 1486 - 1495.
granular sludge bioreactor - metal fractionation - degradation - nickel - deprivation - consortium - conversion
The effect of long-term deprivation of all trace elements or solely cobalt on methanol conversion in upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors inoculated with a nickel-limited sludge was investigated. Two UASB (30 ¿C, pH 7) reactors were operated at organic loading rates of up to 17.6 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L¿1 day¿1, one reactor (R1) with no trace metal supplementation to the influent and another reactor (R2) to which all trace elements except cobalt were supplied. The cobalt content of the sludge in both R1 and R2 decreased at a rate of 0.1 ¿g g¿1 total suspended solids (TSS) day¿1, while the nickel content of the R1 sludge did not decrease despite nickel being absent in the feed. Cobalt limitation of the methanogenesis from methanol was induced in both reactors within approximately 55 days of operation. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the inoculum sludge with methanol as the substrate could be increased by about 50% by adding solely nickel (5 ¿mol L¿1) to the batch medium. After 55 days of operation the SMA of the R2 sludge increased by 49% upon the addition of solely cobalt (5 ¿mol L¿1) to the batch medium. This indicates that a cobalt limitation was induced in the R2 sludge by omitting cobalt from the feed and that the initial nickel limitation was overcome by supplementation of nickel to the feed
Granular sludge in full scale anaerobic bioreactors: trace element content and deficiencies
Zandvoort, M.H. ; Hullebusch, E.D. van; Gieteling, J. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2006
Enzyme and Microbial Technology 39 (2006)2. - ISSN 0141-0229 - p. 337 - 346.
methanol degradation - uasb reactors - cobalt - nickel - deprivation - conversion - archaea
To study whether trace element limitations are present in methanogenic granular sludge from full-scale anaerobic bioreactors, four different anaerobic granular sludges (Nedalco, Eerbeek, Hoogeveen and Heineken) were screened for their metal content and their response to the addition of a metal cocktail and more specifically to cobalt. Three different methanogenic substrates (methanol, acetate and H2/CO2) were used and the response to trace metal addition was monitored by on-line measurement of the changes in the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the sludge. A significant increase of the SMA due to trace metal addition was observed only with the substrate methanol, especially addition of only cobalt had a great effect: the SMA with methanol of the Nedalco and Hoogeveen sludge increased from, respectively, 306 and 155 mg CH4-COD g VSS¿1 d¿1 to 535 and 334 mg CH4-COD g VSS¿1 d¿1 upon the addition of solely 5 ¿M cobalt. In the Heineken sludge, a limitation for another element was present as well. The cobalt concentrations in the sludges were low compared to the other trace elements and could not be directly related to the response of the SMA. With acetate as the substrate and in the presence of cobalt (5 ¿M) a reduction of the lag-phase was observed for the Nedalco, and more pronounced for the Heineken sludge. This indicates that cobalt is also important for the onset of the activity/growth of the acetotrophic methanogenic population. Screening of the trace metal content of anaerobic granular sludge in combination with the response of the SMA to trace metal addition is therefore a valuable tool to prevent and foresee trace metal limitation in anaerobic bioreactors
Cobalt sorption onto anaerobic granular sludge: Isotherm and spatial localization analysis
Hullebusch, E.D. van; Gieteling, J. ; Zhang, M. ; Zandvoort, M.H. ; Daele, W. van; Defrancq, J. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2006
Journal of Biotechnology 121 (2006)2. - ISSN 0168-1656 - p. 227 - 240.
extracellular polymeric substances - sequential extraction procedure - soluble microbial products - heavy-metals - methanol degradation - activated-sludge - uasb reactors - nickel - sulfide - eps
This study investigated the effect of different feeding regimes on the cobalt sorption capacity of anaerobic granular sludge from a full-scale bioreactor treating paper mill wastewater. Adsorption experiments were done with non-fed granules in monometal (only Co) and competitive conditions (Co and Ni in equimolar concentrations). In order to modify the extracellular polymeric substances and sulfides content of the granules, the sludge was fed for 30 days with glucose (pH 7, 30 °C, organic loading rate = 1.2 g glucose l¿1 day¿1) in the presence (COD/SO42¿ = 1) or absence of sulfate. The partitioning of the sorbed cobalt between the exchangeable, carbonates, organic matter/sulfides and residual fractions was determined using a sequential extraction procedure (modified Tessier). Experimental equilibrium sorption data for cobalt were analysed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich¿Peterson isotherm equations. The total Langmuir maximal sorption capacity of the sludge fed with glucose and sulfate loaded with cobalt alone displayed a significantly higher maximal cobalt sorption (Qmax = 18.76 mg g¿1 TSS) than the sludge fed with glucose alone (Qmax = 13.21 mg g¿1 TSS), essentially due to an increased sorption capacity of the exchangeable (30¿107%) and organic/sulfides fractions (70¿30%). Environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis of granular cross-sections showed that mainly iron minerals (i.e. iron sulfides) were involved in the cobalt accumulation. Moreover, the sorbed cobalt was mainly located at the edge of the granules. The sorption characteristics of the exchangeable and carbonates fractions fitted well to the Redlich¿Peterson model (intermediate multi-layer sorption behaviour), whereas the sorption characteristics of the organic matter/sulfides and residual fractions fitted well to the Langmuir model (monolayer sorption behaviour). The organic matter/sulfides fraction displayed the highest affinity for cobalt for the three sludge types investigated
Effect of Sulfur Source on the Performance and Metal Retention of Methanol-Fed UASB Reactors
Zandvoort, M.H. ; Hullebusch, E.D. van; Gieteling, J. ; Lettinga, G. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2005
Biotechnology Progress 21 (2005)3. - ISSN 8756-7938 - p. 839 - 850.
anaerobic granular sludges - methanosarcina-mazei s-6 - sequential extraction - cobalt sorption - bed reactor - degradation - sulfate - nickel - growth - bacteria
The effect of a sulfur source on the performance and metal retention of methanol-fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors was investigated. For this purpose, two UASB reactors were operated with cobalt preloaded granular sludge (1 mM CoCl2; 30° C; 24 h) at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5 g COD·L reactor-1·d-1. One UASB reactor (R1) was operated without a sulfur source in the influent during the first 37 days. In this period the methanol conversion to methane remained very poor, apparently due to the absence of a sulfur source, because once cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, was added to the influent of R1 (day 37) a full conversion of methanol to methane occurred within 6 days. The second reactor (R2) was operated with sulfate (0.41 mM) in the influent during the first 86 days of operation, during which no limitation in the methanol conversion to methane manifested. Cobalt washed out from the sludge at similar rates in both reactors. The leaching of cobalt occurred at two distinct rates, first at a high rate of 22 ¿g·g TSS-1·d-1, which proceeded mainly from the exchangeable and carbonate fraction and later at a relatively slow rate of 9 ¿g·g TSS-1·d-1 from the organic/sulfide fraction. This study showed that the supply of the sulfur source L-cysteine has a pronounced positive effect on the methanogenic activity and the retention of metals such as iron, zinc and molybdenum.
Stimulation of Methanol Degradation in UASB Reactors: In Situ Versus Pre-Loading Cobalt on Anaerobic Granular Sludge
Zandvoort, M.H. ; Gieteling, J. ; Lettinga, G. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2004
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 87 (2004)7. - ISSN 0006-3592 - p. 897 - 904.
methanosarcina-barkeri - nickel - deprivation - bioreactor - digestion
The effect of pre-loading and in situ loading of cobalt onto a cobalt-limited granular sludge on the performance of methanol fed bioreactors was investigated. One upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was inoculated with cobalt pre-loaded sludge (24h; 30degreesC; 1 mM CoCl2) and a second UASB with unloaded sludge. The UASB reactors (30degreesC; pH 7) were operated for 77 days at 8 h hydraulic retention time and organic loading rates ranging from 5 to 20 g COD . L reactor(-1) . d(-1). Cobalt pre-loading clearly stimulated the methanogenic activity of the sludge with methanol as the substrate, e.g., after 30 days of reactor operation this activity was 5.8 times higher than that of the cobalt unloaded sludge. During the experiment, part of the cobalt leached from the pre-loaded sludge, i.e., 54% of the cobalt content was lost during the 77 days of reactor operation. Sequential metal extraction showed that losses mainly occurred from the exchangeable and carbonate fraction and in the sludge remaining cobalt was mainly present in the organic/sulfide fraction of the sludge. In situ loading of cobalt in the unloaded UASB reactor on day 57 by adding 31 muM cobalt to the influent for a 24-h period (16% of the cobalt present in the loaded sludge at day 11) resulted in a 4 time increase of the methanogenic activity of the sludge with methanol as the substrate at the end of the reactor experiment, while the accumulated amount of cobalt in the sludge only amounted to 6% of the cobalt accumulated in the loaded sludge (on day 11). This study showed that both pre-loading sludge and in situ loading are adequate for achieving an increased reactor performance of methanol fed UASB reactors operating under cobalt limitation. However, the in situ dosing procedure needs substantially lower amounts of cobalt, while it also gives significantly smaller losses of cobalt with the effluent. (C) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Monitoren in-situ saneringsprocessen Hollandsche IJssel
Muijs, B. ; Hendriks, W. ; Gun, J.H.J. ; Waarde, J.J. van der; Wagelmans, J.T.C. ; Grotenhuis, J.T.C. ; Doze, J.H. ; Gieteling, J. ; Kerkum, F.C.M. ; Oosterbaan, J. ; Kamps-Mulder, M.A.A.J. ; Smale, A.J. ; Dijkhuis, J.E. - \ 2003
Gouda : SKB-Duurzame Ontwikkeling Ondergrond (SV 213)
bodemverontreiniging - verontreinigingsbeheersing - schoonmaken - rivieren - waterbodems - zuid-holland - soil pollution - pollution control - cleaning - rivers - water bottoms - zuid-holland
The options for on-site decontamination have been inventoried on the basis of various studies carried out on a natural bank of the Hollandsche IJssel. In addition to standard studies of the beds of water courses, this research consisted of recording flora and fauna, an exhaustive risk analysis, availability research relating to PAC and heavy metals and determination of the potential for natural degradation. The research revealed that reconstruction of the site in combination with on-site decontamination is an option that will allow the preservation of the existing flora, fauna and landscape. On-site decontamination measures may consist of stimulating biological degradation, promoting sedimentation processes in such a way that the contaminated layers of sediment are covered (natural capping) or the partial removal of the existing sludge and its replacement with clean sediment
|Monitoring PAH bioavailability during in-situ remediation of contaminated sediment
Grotenhuis, J.T.C. ; Muijs, B. ; Wagelmans, M. ; Gun, J. van de; Doze, J. ; Gieteling, J. - \ 2002
In: SedNet workshop, Chemical analysis and risk assessment of emerging contaminants in sediments and dredged material, Barcelona, Spain, 2002 - p. 50 - 50.
Groei en mortaliteit der waardehoutsoorten in geexploiteerd en natuurlijk verjongd drooglandbos; Successie in ontbost terrein; Kiemoecologie der houtige gewassen in drooglandbos en Kapoeweri
Gieteling, C.J. - \ 1970
Paramaribo : [s.n.] (Celos rapporten no. 38) - 48
milieufactoren - bosbouw - bosbouwkundige handelingen - groei - periodiciteit - plantensuccessie - secundaire bossen - zaadkieming - groei van zaailingen - houtteelt - suriname - vegetatie - environmental factors - forestry - forestry practices - growth - periodicity - plant succession - secondary forests - seed germination - seedling growth - silviculture - suriname - vegetation